Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1001
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Hennighausen L - - 2001
Unlike most other organs, development of the mammary gland occurs predominantly after birth, under the control of steroid and peptide hormones. Once the gland is established, cycles of proliferation, functional differentiation, and death of alveolar epithelium occur repeatedly with each pregnancy. Although it is unique in this respect, the signaling ...
Ramirez R J - - 2001
Supraphysiological increases in serum triglycerides and cholesterol often occur during pregnancy, but their effects on vascular function are poorly understood. Intraperitoneal injection of the nontoxic surfactant poloxamer 407 (P-407) results in sustained elevation of triglycerides and cholesterol. We asked if P-407-induced hyperlipidemia during late pregnancy adversely affects mesenteric resistance artery ...
Knight C H - - 2001
Two critical windows in mammary development have been proposed. The first arises from observations in rodents that nutrition during fetal and neonatal periods can affect mammary ductular outgrowth, subsequent proliferative activity and, eventually, tumorigenesis, that is, potentially it could have a long-term effect on pathological outcome (breast cancer) in women. ...
Grattan D R - - 2001
Numerous studies have documented prolactin regulation of a variety of brain functions, including maternal behavior, regulation of oxytocin neurons, regulation of feeding and appetite, suppression of ACTH secretion in response to stress, and suppression of fertility. We have observed marked changes in expression of prolactin receptors in specific hypothalamic nuclei ...
Croce M V - - 2001
Serum levels of MUC1 and antibodies (Abs) against MUC1 (IgG and IgM-MUC1) were evaluated in healthy women related to pregnancy and lactation status. A total of 149 serum samples were obtained from: nulliparous, primiparous pregnant, multiparous pregnant that have lactated, multiparous pregnant without lactation, multiparous non-pregnant actual lactating, multiparous non-pregnant ...
Menegola E - - 2001
The double staining of fetal skeleton for bone and cartilage is a very useful method to evidence skeletal abnormalities in laboratory animals. However, this method has been rarely used in routine developmental toxicity tests. One reason could be the difficulty of comparing the single skeletal pieces and of having reference ...
Hampl J S - - 2001
The beneficial effects of pregnancy on rheumatoid arthritis have been known for decades. Only recently, however, have lactation and prolactin been targeted as predictors of onset, flare, or relapse of arthritis. Among genetically susceptible women, breastfeeding is associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, particularly after the first pregnancy. ...
Takahata Y - - 2001
We analyzed IL-18 levels of human milk. Colostrum contained significantly higher levels of IL-18 compared with early milk and mature milk. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, preterm delivery and pregnancy complications of mothers significantly correlated with high levels of IL-18 in human milk (p = 0.0007 and 0.0018, respectively). ...
Srivastava S - - 2001
A new alkaloid designated as ervatine, in addition to seven known alkaloids, viz. tabersonine, coronaridine, heyneanine, voacristine, voacristine hydroxyindolenine, hydroxyibogamine, and coronaridine hydroxyindolenine, were isolated from the fruit of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Characterisation and structure elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of their spectral analyses. The ethanolic ...
Ehrhardt R A - - 2001
Maternal plasma leptin is elevated during pregnancy in several species, but it is unclear to what extent this elevation reflects changes in adiposity or energy balance. Therefore, Karakul ewes (n = 8) were fed to minimize changes in maternal energy status over the pregnancy-lactation cycle. They were studied 20-40 d ...
Chan T W - - 2001
Epidemiological studies have shown that early first pregnancy is associated with a life-long reduction in breast cancer risk. The terminal differentiation associated with pregnancy and lactation has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the protective effect of pregnancy. We report that treatment of rats with ICI 182,780 (ICI) caused a ...
Hashimoto H - - 2001
The relationship among ultrasonic vocalization (USV), prolactin and maternal behavior was investigated in lactating rat mothers and their pups. The lactating mother had a cannula inserted into the external jugular vein, and was exposed to USVs emitted from a pup immediately. Changes of prolactin and maternal behavior were determined. Prolactin ...
Omi N - - 2001
This study investigated changes in Ca balance and BMD during pregnancy in female rats. During pregnancy, the intestinal Ca absorption increased significantly, and Ca accumulation was also markedly elevated. However, BMD values for the lumbar spine decreased significantly during pregnancy. Twenty female SD rats, 10 weeks of age (Japan SLC ...
Bowman B M - - 2001
Remarkable changes occur in the mammalian skeleton prior to, during and after the reproductive cycle. Skeletal changes occur with ovarian maturation and initiation of menses and estrus in adolescence, which may result in a greater accumulation of skeletal mineral in the female vs the male skeleton. There is also some ...
King J C - - 2001
Nutrient needs increase during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis, respectively. Physiological adjustments that are made to meet those needs alter the fraction of ingested nutrient retained, or the bioavailability. Using stable isotopes as tracers, we measured calcium, zinc and selenium homeostasis in women during reproduction. ...
Alexopoulos C - - 2001
The efficacy of Paciflor, a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 spores, was assessed in sows during late pregnancy and lactation, as well as in their piglets up to the growing phase. Two groups each of 30 pregnant gilts and sows received normal feed (T1 group), or feed with ...
Eder K - - 2001
The effect of L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on performance parameters of sows was studied. The trial comprised a total of 127 sows (40 gilts, 87 mature sows) which were divided into a control and a treatment group. All animals were fed individually and received basic feed mixtures for ...
Giussani D A - - 2001
This study investigated the effects on femoral vascular resistance, blood glucose and lactate levels, and plasma catecholamine concentrations of fetal treatment with an adenosine receptor antagonist during acute hypoxemia in fetal sheep during late gestation. Under anesthesia, seven fetal sheep were instrumented between 117 and 118 days gestation (term is ...
Nordström L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinally fetal and maternal blood lactate concentrations during the second stage of labour. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of randomly selected labours. SETTING: Labour ward, Sultanah Aminah General Hospital, Johore Bahru, Malaysia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fetal scalp and maternal venous blood lactate, umbilical arterial and vein lactate and ...
Zhang Y - - 2001
The role of estrogen in the maternal systemic cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy is still controversial. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted at day 14 of pregnancy with either a 50-mg tamoxifen pellet (estrogen receptor blocker, n = 10) or placebo pellet (n = 10). Virgin female rats were a nonpregnant control ...
Biervliet F P - - 2001
A case of a successful induction of lactation in a commissioning mother of a surrogate pregnancy is reported. Induction of lactation was achieved with oral metoclopramide which was well tolerated. Alternative methods to induce lactation are reviewed. The advantages of breast-feeding and the relative ease with which lactation can be ...
Clarke S N - - 2001
Pregnancy and lactation are characterized by increases in NaCl intake, as determined by long-term consumption tests, which cannot examine the relative contribution of taste and postingestive factors to this phenomenon. Consequently, in this study, changes in NaCl preference during pregnancy and lactation were studied in nulliparous Long-Evans rats using a ...
Bianco C - - 2001
Cripto-1 (CR-1) is an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. CR-1 is expressed in the growing terminal end buds in the virgin mouse mammary gland and its expression increases during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, CR-I is involved in the early stages ...
Weber K S - - 2001
Phytoestrogens are extensively investigated for their potential to prevent many hormone-dependent cancers and age-related diseases, however little is known about their effects in brain. Brain aromatase and plasma phytoestrogen levels were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a phytoestrogen-rich diet during pregnancy/lactation. Ingested phytoestrogens cross the placenta and become concentrated in ...
Neville M C - - 2001
The most important factors in initiation of the cascade of changes in the mammary epithelium that constitute lactogenesis stage II seem to be a prepared mammary epithelium, progesterone withdrawal, maintained plasma prolactin (in most species), and removal of milk from the breast within an undefined interval after birth. Although the ...
Watanabe N - - 2001
This study was conducted to determine the impact of diesel exhaust inhalation on the fetus. Seventy-two pregnant rats and 18 nonpregnant rats were divided into three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m(3) particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a ...
Djonov V - - 2001
The mammary gland life cycle is exemplified by massive, physiologically dictated changes in cell number and composition, architecture, and functionality. These drastic upheavals, by necessity, also involve the mammary endothelium, which undergoes angiogenic expansion during pregnancy and lactation followed by ordered regression during involution. In this review, we summarise data ...
Russell J A - - 2001
Pregnancy, parturition and lactation comprise a continuum of adaptive changes necessary for the development and maintenance of the offspring. The endocrine changes that are driven by the conceptus and are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and are involved in the preparations for motherhood are outlined. These changes include large ...
More C - - 2001
We performed a prospective study of bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 women during their first full-term pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. BMD measurements at lumbar spine [L2-L4 (LS)] and forearm [distal 33% (RD) and ultradistal (RUD) region of the radius] were made within 3 months before conception, after delivery, ...
Karlsson C - - 2001
The influence of pregnancy on bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 women (mean age 29 years, range 20-44 years) postpartum. Fifty-five age-matched women served as controls. The influence of lactation was evaluated in 65 of the delivered women who were followed with repeated ...
Sivridis E - - 2001
PURPOSE: To investigate the biomagnetic activity produced physiologically by the various normally occurring states of the female breast: puberty, reproductive age, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. METHOD: The mammary glands of 90 healthy women were examined using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). RESULTS: Biomagnetic activity was low at puberty (105.46+/-3.77 ...
Ahmed MM - - 2000
A total of 65 Nubian dairy goats were selected to represent a combination of age and physiological status. Changes in some plasma concentrations underlying different physiological states were monitored. There were young and adult animals, pregnant animals, all with more than 50 days after kidding, divided into subgroups according to ...
Vahter M - - 2000
We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization/reduction and cold vapor ...
Zeisel S H - - 2000
Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. It, or its metabolites, assures the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is the major source of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); ...
Rixen D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between negative base excess (base deficit) and lactate as correlates of oxygen debt and the probability of the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) response and with regard to the mediator and metabolic response characteristic of this disease. METHODS: ...
Yin P - - 2000
The proestrous surge of prolactin (PRL) secretion and subsequent proliferation of lactotropes at estrus have been suggested to be induced by a common hypothalamic hormone. We investigated changes in lactotrope proliferation at other reproductive stages of female rats when PRL secretion was stimulated. To assess proliferative activity of lactotropes, incorporation ...
Goldstein D J - - 2000
Psychosis frequently occurs in women of childbearing potential who may have unplanned pregnancies. Understanding the risk of prenatal antipsychotic exposure can be of benefit in selecting therapies. The authors evaluated the in utero and lactation exposure effects of olanzapine, a novel antipsychotic that is used in treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ...
Shousha S - - 2000
CONTEXT: Much has been written about the clinical management and prognosis of breast carcinomas presenting during pregnancy and lactation, yet little is known about the detailed histopathology of these tumors. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether these carcinomas have any specific diagnostic features. DESIGN: A detailed histologic and immunohistochemical study of 14 ...
Kronfeld-Schor N - - 2000
Circulating leptin levels are elevated during the later stages of pregnancy in mammals, suggesting that maternal leptin may play a role in maintenance of pregnancy and/or preparation for parturition and lactation. The regulation and source of circulating leptin during pregnancy remains undetermined, but leptin mRNA levels increase in adipose tissue ...
Prentice A - - 2000
Human pregnancy is associated with major changes in calcium and bone metabolism and in bone mineral status before and after gestation. The changes are compatible with the uptake and mobilization of calcium by the maternal skeleton to meet the high requirement for fetal growth and for breast-milk production. Breast-feeding is ...
Richert M M - - 2000
The mouse mammary gland is a complex tissue, which is continually undergoing changes in structure and function. Embryonically, the gland begins with invasion of the underlying fat pad by a rudimentary ductal structure. Postnatal growth occurs in two phases: ductal growth and early alveolar development during estrous cycles, and cycles ...
Nakai A - - 2000
The objective of the present study was to explore whether a free radical spin trap agent, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), influences bioenergetic failure induced in the 20-day-old fetal brain by 30 min of intrauterine ischemia in Wistar rats. Fetal brains were frozen in situ at the end of ischemia and after ...
Yoon B K - - 2000
To elucidate the changes in bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium, we measured serially the levels of serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpy) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, in 22 healthy women with normal pregnancy. Nineteen non-pregnant women served as control. The Dpy levels increased significantly ...
Sjögren B - - 2000
In order to study personality changes in first pregnancy and lactation, two groups of women (n = 161, mean age 26.8 years) completed the self-report inventory Karolinska Scales of Personality and a scale for emotional dependency during pregnancy and 3 or 6 months after delivery. The results were within normal ...
Makrides M - - 2000
Much interest has been expressed about the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) requirements of both preterm and term infants, whereas relatively little attention has been given to the LCPUFA needs of mothers, who may provide the primary source of LCPUFAs for their fetuses and breast-fed infants. Although maternal requirements for ...
Tedeschi D - - 2000
An impairment of mitochondrial function may contribute to the pathophysiology of myotonic dystrophy (MyD). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency has been previously observed, even if in a restricted sample of patients. The aim of this investigation was to obtain more information about coenzyme Q10 and its relationships to the aerobic metabolism ...
Ward W E - - 2000
Previous investigation demonstrated that feeding a 10% flaxseed (10F) diet during pregnancy and lactation enhanced the differentiation of highly proliferative terminal end bud (TEB) structures of rat mammary gland into less proliferative alveolar buds and lobules. From this study, it was hypothesized that the lignan component in flaxseed mediated the ...
Prentice A - - 2000
Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium requirement. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of calcium and bone metabolism during human pregnancy and lactation and discusses the findings in relation to the calcium nutrition of the mother. The evidence indicates that pregnancy and lactation are characterized by ...
Naylor K E - - 2000
During pregnancy, the mother adapts to meet the calcium demands of the fetus. The effect of this adaptation on the maternal skeleton is not fully understood. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover during pregnancy. We studied 16 women longitudinally, with baseline measurements ...
Szewczyk G - - 2000
Specimens of mouse mammary glands obtained from animals being in different phases of reproductive cycle were collected. After staining MCN, the total mast cell area (TMC), mean mast cell area (MMC), and lactiferous structure density index (LDI) were examined in sections, using a computer image analysis system. Statistically significant (P ...
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