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Results 401 - 450 of 1015
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Itoh H - - 2002
To evaluate the significance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in milk in the perinatal period, we examined immunoreactive HGF levels and bioactivity in human milk. Human milk samples were obtained from women at various postpartum ages, and the levels of HGF were measured by ELISA. In the cross sectional study, ...
Coşkun Abdurrahman - - 2002
The present study reports liver carnitine biosynthesis and concentrations in non-pregnant (dry), pregnant and lactating rabbits (n = 17). To determine carnitine biosynthesis in liver tissues; we purified gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in carnitine biosynthesis, and measured its activity. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to ...
Espiridião S - - 2002
The worldwide use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as an analgesic-antipyretic drug, including during pregnancy, prompted us to investigate its potentially deleterious effects in that condition. Pregnant rats were treated with ASA (1, 10 or 100 mg/kg once a day) from the first day up to term pregnancy. No histological changes ...
Brelińska R - - 2002
Alterations in the thymic epithelial cell activity were analysed during pregnancy and lactation in Wistar rats by examining the presence and in situ distribution of lymphoepithelial complexes formed by thymic nurse cells (TNC). TNC were identified in paraffin sections by their expression of MHC class II antigens, CD54 molecule and ...
Iqbal Mohammad Masud - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy and lactation, little information is available about their effect on the developing fetus and on nursing infants. The authors review what is currently known about the effects of benzodiazepine therapy on the fetus and on nursing infants. METHODS: A MEDLINE search ...
Munarini Nadia - - 2002
We have previously documented the cell-type-specific and hormone-dependent expression of the EphB4 receptor in the mouse mammary gland. To investigate its role in the biology of the mammary gland, we have established transgenic mice bearing the EphB4 receptor under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter, which represents the first transgenic ...
Rocha J B T - - 2002
Undernutrition of dams and pups disrupts the retrieval efficiency of mothers. However, if the mothers are assessed in their home cages, they spend more time with their litters. In the present study the effect of test conditions on pup retrieval behavior of mothers receiving a 25% (well-nourished group) and 8% ...
Gadd M - - 2001
A coordinated growth arrest during mammary involution completes the dramatic changes in mammary cell proliferation seen during pregnancy and lactation. Signals regulating this arrest are poorly understood, despite their potential relevance to oncogenesis. Here we report that the arrest involves a unique pulse of p16(INK4A) expression in vivo, which accompanies ...
Knox R V - - 2001
Characterization of factors influencing estrus and ovulation in sows may facilitate development of procedures for improving reproductive performance. The experiment was conducted in confinement during 1997 to 1999 using 174 Large White x Landrace sows. After weaning, sows were checked for estrus twice daily. In the 1st yr, transrectal ultrasound ...
Gobello C - - 2001
The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches ...
Campino C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fully breastfeeding women experience an amenorrhoea of variable duration. Our aim was to identify in pregnancy, endocrine markers that could predict the duration of subsequent lactational amenorrhoea. METHODS: We studied 17 healthy women at 34 and 38 weeks gestation, and 1 and 3 months post-partum. The women fully breastfed ...
Dunbar M E - - 2001
We have previously demonstrated that overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary glands of transgenic mice results in defects in ductal elongation and branching during puberty and in lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy. In addition, we have shown that PTHrP is necessary for the formation of the initial ductal ...
Bonnette S G - - 2001
IGF-I mediates mammary ductal development through stimulation of terminal end bud (TEB) development; however, no published data exist on the mechanism through which this occurs. The mechanism of IGF-I action on the TEB was studied by determining the requirement for the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in IGF-I-dependent ductal development. We hypothesized ...
Kirkman M - - 2001
In Australia in 1988, Linda Kirkman gestated a baby for her sister, Maggie Kirkman (conceived using Maggie's ovum and IVF). During the pregnancy, a variety of means were used to stimulate lactation. After the birth, several women donated breastmilk as supplements to Maggie's supply. The paper discusses not only the ...
Hennighausen L - - 2001
Unlike most other organs, development of the mammary gland occurs predominantly after birth, under the control of steroid and peptide hormones. Once the gland is established, cycles of proliferation, functional differentiation, and death of alveolar epithelium occur repeatedly with each pregnancy. Although it is unique in this respect, the signaling ...
Ramirez R J - - 2001
Supraphysiological increases in serum triglycerides and cholesterol often occur during pregnancy, but their effects on vascular function are poorly understood. Intraperitoneal injection of the nontoxic surfactant poloxamer 407 (P-407) results in sustained elevation of triglycerides and cholesterol. We asked if P-407-induced hyperlipidemia during late pregnancy adversely affects mesenteric resistance artery ...
Knight C H - - 2001
Two critical windows in mammary development have been proposed. The first arises from observations in rodents that nutrition during fetal and neonatal periods can affect mammary ductular outgrowth, subsequent proliferative activity and, eventually, tumorigenesis, that is, potentially it could have a long-term effect on pathological outcome (breast cancer) in women. ...
Grattan D R - - 2001
Numerous studies have documented prolactin regulation of a variety of brain functions, including maternal behavior, regulation of oxytocin neurons, regulation of feeding and appetite, suppression of ACTH secretion in response to stress, and suppression of fertility. We have observed marked changes in expression of prolactin receptors in specific hypothalamic nuclei ...
Croce M V - - 2001
Serum levels of MUC1 and antibodies (Abs) against MUC1 (IgG and IgM-MUC1) were evaluated in healthy women related to pregnancy and lactation status. A total of 149 serum samples were obtained from: nulliparous, primiparous pregnant, multiparous pregnant that have lactated, multiparous pregnant without lactation, multiparous non-pregnant actual lactating, multiparous non-pregnant ...
Menegola E - - 2001
The double staining of fetal skeleton for bone and cartilage is a very useful method to evidence skeletal abnormalities in laboratory animals. However, this method has been rarely used in routine developmental toxicity tests. One reason could be the difficulty of comparing the single skeletal pieces and of having reference ...
Hampl J S - - 2001
The beneficial effects of pregnancy on rheumatoid arthritis have been known for decades. Only recently, however, have lactation and prolactin been targeted as predictors of onset, flare, or relapse of arthritis. Among genetically susceptible women, breastfeeding is associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, particularly after the first pregnancy. ...
Takahata Y - - 2001
We analyzed IL-18 levels of human milk. Colostrum contained significantly higher levels of IL-18 compared with early milk and mature milk. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, preterm delivery and pregnancy complications of mothers significantly correlated with high levels of IL-18 in human milk (p = 0.0007 and 0.0018, respectively). ...
Srivastava S - - 2001
A new alkaloid designated as ervatine, in addition to seven known alkaloids, viz. tabersonine, coronaridine, heyneanine, voacristine, voacristine hydroxyindolenine, hydroxyibogamine, and coronaridine hydroxyindolenine, were isolated from the fruit of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Characterisation and structure elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of their spectral analyses. The ethanolic ...
Ehrhardt R A - - 2001
Maternal plasma leptin is elevated during pregnancy in several species, but it is unclear to what extent this elevation reflects changes in adiposity or energy balance. Therefore, Karakul ewes (n = 8) were fed to minimize changes in maternal energy status over the pregnancy-lactation cycle. They were studied 20-40 d ...
Chan T W - - 2001
Epidemiological studies have shown that early first pregnancy is associated with a life-long reduction in breast cancer risk. The terminal differentiation associated with pregnancy and lactation has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the protective effect of pregnancy. We report that treatment of rats with ICI 182,780 (ICI) caused a ...
Hashimoto H - - 2001
The relationship among ultrasonic vocalization (USV), prolactin and maternal behavior was investigated in lactating rat mothers and their pups. The lactating mother had a cannula inserted into the external jugular vein, and was exposed to USVs emitted from a pup immediately. Changes of prolactin and maternal behavior were determined. Prolactin ...
Omi N - - 2001
This study investigated changes in Ca balance and BMD during pregnancy in female rats. During pregnancy, the intestinal Ca absorption increased significantly, and Ca accumulation was also markedly elevated. However, BMD values for the lumbar spine decreased significantly during pregnancy. Twenty female SD rats, 10 weeks of age (Japan SLC ...
Bowman B M - - 2001
Remarkable changes occur in the mammalian skeleton prior to, during and after the reproductive cycle. Skeletal changes occur with ovarian maturation and initiation of menses and estrus in adolescence, which may result in a greater accumulation of skeletal mineral in the female vs the male skeleton. There is also some ...
King J C - - 2001
Nutrient needs increase during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis, respectively. Physiological adjustments that are made to meet those needs alter the fraction of ingested nutrient retained, or the bioavailability. Using stable isotopes as tracers, we measured calcium, zinc and selenium homeostasis in women during reproduction. ...
Alexopoulos C - - 2001
The efficacy of Paciflor, a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 spores, was assessed in sows during late pregnancy and lactation, as well as in their piglets up to the growing phase. Two groups each of 30 pregnant gilts and sows received normal feed (T1 group), or feed with ...
Eder K - - 2001
The effect of L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on performance parameters of sows was studied. The trial comprised a total of 127 sows (40 gilts, 87 mature sows) which were divided into a control and a treatment group. All animals were fed individually and received basic feed mixtures for ...
Giussani D A - - 2001
This study investigated the effects on femoral vascular resistance, blood glucose and lactate levels, and plasma catecholamine concentrations of fetal treatment with an adenosine receptor antagonist during acute hypoxemia in fetal sheep during late gestation. Under anesthesia, seven fetal sheep were instrumented between 117 and 118 days gestation (term is ...
Nordström L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinally fetal and maternal blood lactate concentrations during the second stage of labour. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of randomly selected labours. SETTING: Labour ward, Sultanah Aminah General Hospital, Johore Bahru, Malaysia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fetal scalp and maternal venous blood lactate, umbilical arterial and vein lactate and ...
Zhang Y - - 2001
The role of estrogen in the maternal systemic cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy is still controversial. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted at day 14 of pregnancy with either a 50-mg tamoxifen pellet (estrogen receptor blocker, n = 10) or placebo pellet (n = 10). Virgin female rats were a nonpregnant control ...
Biervliet F P - - 2001
A case of a successful induction of lactation in a commissioning mother of a surrogate pregnancy is reported. Induction of lactation was achieved with oral metoclopramide which was well tolerated. Alternative methods to induce lactation are reviewed. The advantages of breast-feeding and the relative ease with which lactation can be ...
Clarke S N - - 2001
Pregnancy and lactation are characterized by increases in NaCl intake, as determined by long-term consumption tests, which cannot examine the relative contribution of taste and postingestive factors to this phenomenon. Consequently, in this study, changes in NaCl preference during pregnancy and lactation were studied in nulliparous Long-Evans rats using a ...
Bianco C - - 2001
Cripto-1 (CR-1) is an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. CR-1 is expressed in the growing terminal end buds in the virgin mouse mammary gland and its expression increases during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, CR-I is involved in the early stages ...
Weber K S - - 2001
Phytoestrogens are extensively investigated for their potential to prevent many hormone-dependent cancers and age-related diseases, however little is known about their effects in brain. Brain aromatase and plasma phytoestrogen levels were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a phytoestrogen-rich diet during pregnancy/lactation. Ingested phytoestrogens cross the placenta and become concentrated in ...
Neville M C - - 2001
The most important factors in initiation of the cascade of changes in the mammary epithelium that constitute lactogenesis stage II seem to be a prepared mammary epithelium, progesterone withdrawal, maintained plasma prolactin (in most species), and removal of milk from the breast within an undefined interval after birth. Although the ...
Watanabe N - - 2001
This study was conducted to determine the impact of diesel exhaust inhalation on the fetus. Seventy-two pregnant rats and 18 nonpregnant rats were divided into three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m(3) particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a ...
Djonov V - - 2001
The mammary gland life cycle is exemplified by massive, physiologically dictated changes in cell number and composition, architecture, and functionality. These drastic upheavals, by necessity, also involve the mammary endothelium, which undergoes angiogenic expansion during pregnancy and lactation followed by ordered regression during involution. In this review, we summarise data ...
Russell J A - - 2001
Pregnancy, parturition and lactation comprise a continuum of adaptive changes necessary for the development and maintenance of the offspring. The endocrine changes that are driven by the conceptus and are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and are involved in the preparations for motherhood are outlined. These changes include large ...
More C - - 2001
We performed a prospective study of bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 women during their first full-term pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. BMD measurements at lumbar spine [L2-L4 (LS)] and forearm [distal 33% (RD) and ultradistal (RUD) region of the radius] were made within 3 months before conception, after delivery, ...
Karlsson C - - 2001
The influence of pregnancy on bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 women (mean age 29 years, range 20-44 years) postpartum. Fifty-five age-matched women served as controls. The influence of lactation was evaluated in 65 of the delivered women who were followed with repeated ...
Sivridis E - - 2001
PURPOSE: To investigate the biomagnetic activity produced physiologically by the various normally occurring states of the female breast: puberty, reproductive age, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. METHOD: The mammary glands of 90 healthy women were examined using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). RESULTS: Biomagnetic activity was low at puberty (105.46+/-3.77 ...
Ahmed MM - - 2000
A total of 65 Nubian dairy goats were selected to represent a combination of age and physiological status. Changes in some plasma concentrations underlying different physiological states were monitored. There were young and adult animals, pregnant animals, all with more than 50 days after kidding, divided into subgroups according to ...
Vahter M - - 2000
We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization/reduction and cold vapor ...
Zeisel S H - - 2000
Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. It, or its metabolites, assures the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is the major source of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); ...
Rixen D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between negative base excess (base deficit) and lactate as correlates of oxygen debt and the probability of the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) response and with regard to the mediator and metabolic response characteristic of this disease. METHODS: ...
Yin P - - 2000
The proestrous surge of prolactin (PRL) secretion and subsequent proliferation of lactotropes at estrus have been suggested to be induced by a common hypothalamic hormone. We investigated changes in lactotrope proliferation at other reproductive stages of female rats when PRL secretion was stimulated. To assess proliferative activity of lactotropes, incorporation ...
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