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Results 401 - 450 of 1062
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Paton Lynda M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of pregnancy and lactation on measures of bone mineral in women remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether pregnancy or lactation has deleterious long-term effects on bone mineral in healthy women. DESIGN: We measured bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) in women aged > or = 18 y. ...
Gulson Brian L - - 2003
The skeleton is potential endogenous source of lead during pregnancy and lactation. We have undertaken a longitudinal investigation into the mobilization of lead from the human maternal skeleton to determine whether lead is mobilized from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation, and if so, when and how much is ...
More Csaba - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Biochemical markers of bone turnover are reliable indices for measuring changes in bone formation and bone resorption. Due to limitations in the use of bone densitometry during pregnancy biochemical markers of bone turnover provide an excellent alternative to examine the state of the skeleton during this physiologic state. STUDY ...
Brako Emmanuel E - - 2003
Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of (109)CdCl(2) (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 micro Ci (109)Cd/ml). (109)Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues ...
Brawley L - - 2003
Human and animal studies have shown that unbalanced maternal nutrition is associated with the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. In the Southampton maternal low protein model (SMLP), protein deprivation (50%) throughout pregnancy in rats leads to elevated blood pressure in adult offspring. Impaired peripheral arterial function may ...
Naylor Mathew J - - 2003
Prolactin (PRL) is essential for a number of developmental events in the mammary gland. Work with PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice has shown that PRL indirectly regulates ductal side branching during puberty and directly controls lobuloalveolar development and lactogenesis during pregnancy. Anterior pituitary or placental PRL is thought to ...
Sørmo E G - - 2003
Phocid seals have lipid rich milk, which is known to serve as a transfer medium through which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) move from mother to offspring during lactation. However, knowledge on this generational transfer of different POPs and the partitioning of these compounds in maternal and offspring tissues over the ...
Ronca April E - - 2003
Sustaining life beyond Earth on either space stations or other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction and development. Pregnancy, parturition (birth) and the early development of offspring are complex processes essential for successful reproduction and the proliferation of mammalian ...
Górniak Silvana Lima - - 2003
A perinatal study was performed to verify the toxic effects of Solanum malacoxylon, which contains a glycoside conjugated to Vitamin D(3). In the gestational study, female rats received S. malacoxylon leaves in the diet at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1% from days 6 to 21 of pregnancy. At 21 ...
Friedman Susan Hatters - - 2003
This article is a report on a complicated case of delusional disorder in pregnancy and lactation, and effective multidisciplinary treatment. Few reports in the literature concern delusional disorder in pregnancy, or regard olanzapine's safety in pregnancy and lactation. A gravid woman in her third trimester merited twin diagnoses of delusional ...
Paoletti Anna Maria - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bone resorption markers change during pregnancy and lactation, and how they are correlated with human placental lactogen (hPL) and PRL. SUBJECTS: Young women before pregnancy, during pregnancy and during a 12-month post-delivery period (study group; n = 22); and age- and weight-matched normal cycling women (control ...
Bobadilla Rosa A - - 2003
Peripheral vascular resistance and sensitivity to circulating pressor and vasoconstrictor agents are blunted during pregnancy. This has been mainly attributed to an increased production of endothelium-derived mediators. The objective of this work was to evaluate if pregnancy changes the relative participation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) in respect ...
Helland Ingrid B - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n-6) are important for development of the central nervous system in mammals. There is a growth spurt in the human brain during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first postnatal months, with a large increase in the cerebral ...
Patton Sheila W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review studies investigating the following: whether exposing developing infants to antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased risks of teratogenic, neonatal, and long-term neurobehavioural sequelae; whether schizophrenia itself affects pregnancy outcome; and whether the course of schizophrenia symptoms is altered by pregnancy and lactation. METHOD: ...
Kelly Paul A - - 2002
Development and differentiation of the mammary gland occur primarily during pregnancy. Females homozygous (-/-) for the null mutation of the PRL receptor (PRLR) gene are sterile due to a complete failure of blastocysts to implant. In progesterone-treated mice pregnancy is rescued but the mammary gland is severely underdeveloped. Interestingly, females ...
Petrie Linda - - 2002
Maternal malnutrition can lead to fetal abnormalities and increase susceptibility to disease in later life. Rat models have been developed to study the physiology and metabolism underlying this phenomenon. One particular model of 50 % protein restriction during pregnancy, the low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with methionine, has been developed to ...
Corpas Isabel - - 2002
The effect of lead (Pb) intoxication during pregnancy and lactation on the male reproductive system was studied to evaluate the alterations caused by Pb in the development of pups. The investigations covered the effect of lead on the course of spermatogenesis and the development of the epididymis and reproductive glands. ...
Laine Merja Anneli - - 2002
Clinical studies have shown that oral tissues can be affected by pregnancy. Pregnancy-related changes are most frequent and most marked in gingival tissue. Pregnancy does not cause gingivitis, but may aggravate pre-existing disease. The most marked changes are seen in gingival vasculature. Characteristic of pregnancy gingivitis is that the gingiva ...
Tran H A - - 2002
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is an uncommon condition. It predominantly affects thinly built, primigravid, lactating women. These patients can sustain vertebral fractures with minimal or no trauma, resulting in significant morbidity. The association with hypercalcaemia is rare and typically occurs during the first few months postpartum, while lactating. This condition is, however, ...
Dufour D L - - 2002
The purpose of this article is to compare the energetics of reproduction for human and other primates in order to evaluate the extent to which human reproductive energetics are distinct from other primates and other large-bodied placental mammals. The article also evaluates the energetics of human and primate gestation and ...
Mouihate A - - 2002
The fever response is blunted at near term. As the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in fever development, we measured its expression in rat hypothalamus during pregnancy and lactation. Western blot analysis revealed a 72-kDa COX-2-immunoreactive band in non-immune-challenged, pregnant rats at day 15 of pregnancy. In contrast, ...
Friis H H Research Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark. - - 2002
Excessive accumulation of fat in women of childbearing age is a concern, since obesity is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Deposition of fat during pregnancy, which is not metabolized during lactation, may contribute. However, the individual effects of age and gravidity on fat accumulation have not been disentangled. ...
Ngan Elly S W - - 2002
Fibroblast growth factor-3 (FGF-3) is a crucial developmental regulator. Aberrant activation of this gene by mouse mammary tumor virus insertion results in pregnancy-responsive mammary tumorigenesis. To characterize better FGF-3 function in postnatal mammary gland development and cancer initiation/progression, we used a mifepristone (RU486)-inducible regulatory system to express conditionally FGF-3 in ...
Graham Laura H - - 2002
The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is a popular zoo animal and an integral part of wetland ecosystems in its native continent of Africa. However, information about the reproductive physiology of the hippopotamus is limited compared to the other megaherbivores of Africa such as the elephant and the rhinoceros. This study is ...
Adebiyi Adebowale - - 2002
Using controlled in vivo and in vitro pharmacological methods, we evaluated the safety of papaya (Carica papaya) consumption in pregnancy with reference to its common avoidance during pregnancy in some parts of Asia. Ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. (Caricaecae) blend (500 ml/l water) was freely given to four groups of ...
Takewa Yoshiaki - - 2002
We have reported that infusion of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor (PGSI) reduced the severity of hypotension during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In the present study, we investigated the effects of PGSI on humoral conditions and whole body oxygen metabolism during normothermic CPB conducted for 60 min in 8 adult goats. The ...
Wysolmerski John J - - 2002
Calcium is required for skeletal growth in all vertebrate offspring. In eutherian mammals, calcium is provided by the mother via the placenta during fetal growth and via milk until weaning. Transferring calcium to offspring during pregnancy and lactation significantly stresses maternal calcium homeostasis. During human pregnancy, the extra calcium requirements ...
Carranza-Lira Sebastián - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time influence bone mineral density. METHODS: 50 healthy women aged 35 to 40 years were studied. Weight, height, number of term pregnancies, time since last pregnancy and breast-feeding time were analyzed. They were divided in three groups as follows: ...
Peaker Malcolm - - 2002
Current thinking is highlighting the mammary glands and the process of lactation in the evolutionary success of mammals over and above the selective advantages provided by the nutritional and antimicrobial properties of milk. The extended period of contact between mothers and their young, necessitated by the regular and frequent transfer ...
Bechtel Bethany S - - 2002
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra were collected on milk and colostrum obtained from the author during the pregnancy and post-partum periods for two births. Peak features in the downfield region, containing antibody and aromatic resonances (6.0 to 9.0 ppm), varied over time. This time variation pattern, while nearly identical for ...
Jones Hazel C - - 2002
H-Tx rats have fetal-onset inherited hydrocephalus. Linkage analysis has determined the genetics is complex, with at least three loci associated with hydrocephalus. In addition, maternal and/or intrauterine factors influence the frequency of expression. The aim of this study was to characterize nongenetic (epigenetic) factors that affect hydrocephalus in this strain. ...
Pires Jandyra B - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation during lactation on changes in blood lead indices from late pregnancy to early lactation in women with low calcium intakes and low lead-exposure. Forty-seven women, non-occupationally exposed to lead and with habitually low calcium intake ( approximately ...
Matsushita H - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of multiple pregnancies on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: The BMD of the lumbar spines (L2-L4) of 1,113 healthy women was measured within 7 days of childbirth. In addition 113 women had spine BMD measurements after their next delivery. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional ...
Madern Dominique - - 2002
The NAD(P)-dependent malate (L-MalDH) and NAD-dependent lactate (L-LDH) form a large super-family that has been characterized in organisms belonging to the three domains of life. In the first part of this study, the group of [LDH-like] L-MalDH, which are malate dehydrogenases resembling lactate dehydrogenase, were analyzed and clearly defined with ...
Tam Siu Lin - - 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis increases during pregnancy and has been shown to suppress baroreceptor activity. The renal response to a simulated increase in circulating blood volume (atrial distension) is also attenuated at this time. We hypothesized that blocking NO biosynthesis during pregnancy would restore the renal response. Female rats were ...
Yücel Ferruh - - 2002
To our knowledge there are no histomorphological studies examining the lingual papillae in pregnancy. Therefore, this present study was planned. The purpose of this study was to clarify different physiological results and to investigate whether there are any changes on the dorsal surface of the rat tongue during pregnancy. On ...
Capuco Anthony V - - 2002
The effect of pregnancy on postweaning mammary gland involution was investigated in mice. On the third day after forced weaning at Lactation Day 10, the apoptotic index was 56% lower in mammary tissue of mice that were pregnant at the time of weaning than in nonpregnant mice. Conversely, the bromodeoxyuridine-labeling ...
Hatton Glenn I - - 2002
In the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the incidence of conducting gap junctions (gjs), as indicated by dye coupling, is low in cycling females, but dramatically elevated in nursing mothers. Functionally, this is consistent with the well-established presence of synchronous milk ejection bursts among oxytocin neurons only in the lactating rat. In ...
Miller M E - - 2002
Recent evidence suggests oxytocin (OT) may regulate vascular tone. OT and its receptor (OTR) have been identified in the rat heart and great vessels. Expression of OT and OTR is increased in some tissues during pregnancy. We hypothesized that the OT/OTR system may be a physiological regulator of vascular tone ...
Grattan David R - - 2002
The role of prolactin in the regulation of mammary gland development and function during pregnancy and lactation is well established. However, in addition, prolactin appears to have a much wider role in the physiology of lactation. There is widespread expression of prolactin receptors in the hypothalamus during lactation, indicative of ...
Ohtera K - - 2002
As there is evidence that ligamentous laxity is affected by the female hormones, we hypothesized that hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy could have a therapeutic role in preventing the development of a joint contracture. Knee joint contractures were created in pregnant and nonpregnant rats. After 2 wk of immobilization, the ...
Koketsu Yuzo - - 2002
To set productivity standards and targets, and investigate inter-relationships between key measurements in swine breeding herds, farm productivity measurements were analyzed on 87 Japanese commercial farms in 14 prefectures. The 87 herds were ranked on the basis of number of pigs weaned per mated female per year (PWMFY), and 23 ...
Serafim A P - - 2002
The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study ...
Leshem M - - 2002
These experiments sought to distinguish whether increased calcium intake during pregnancy and lactation in the rat is due to arousal of a specific calcium appetite, with altered taste hedonics, as occurs with sodium depletion, to reduced taste sensitivity, or to the hyperdipsia of reproduction. We find that, during pregnancy and ...
Ensom Mary H H - - 2002
Despite numerous studies and case reports of changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy, the postpartum, and lactation, controversy exists regarding the time course of BMD changes and recovery to baseline levels. The degree to which pregnancy affects BMD long-term remains unclear. Several influencing factors, including breast-feeding, length of ...
Kalkwarf Heidi J - - 2002
Significant calcium transfer from the mother to the fetus and infant occurs during pregnancy and lactation, theoretically placing the mother at an increased risk for osteoporosis later in life. During pregnancy, intestinal calcium absorption increases to meet much of the fetal calcium needs. Maternal bone loss also may occur in ...
Kanazawa Takuya - - 2002
We generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against mouse alpha(s1)- and beta-casein and used them to survey casein immunochemically in mammary glands of mice at peri-coitous and pregnant stages. Two MAb-producing hybridoma cells, designated MCalpha1 cell and MCbeta1 cell, were established. Each antibody, when used in Western blotting, recognized specifically mouse alpha(s1)- ...
Itoh H - - 2002
To evaluate the significance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in milk in the perinatal period, we examined immunoreactive HGF levels and bioactivity in human milk. Human milk samples were obtained from women at various postpartum ages, and the levels of HGF were measured by ELISA. In the cross sectional study, ...
Co┼čkun Abdurrahman - - 2002
The present study reports liver carnitine biosynthesis and concentrations in non-pregnant (dry), pregnant and lactating rabbits (n = 17). To determine carnitine biosynthesis in liver tissues; we purified gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in carnitine biosynthesis, and measured its activity. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to ...
Espiridião S - - 2002
The worldwide use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as an analgesic-antipyretic drug, including during pregnancy, prompted us to investigate its potentially deleterious effects in that condition. Pregnant rats were treated with ASA (1, 10 or 100 mg/kg once a day) from the first day up to term pregnancy. No histological changes ...
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