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Results 351 - 400 of 1123
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Jochum Frank - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine may be a conditionally indispensable amino acid in neonates and should be given in adequate amounts. Reliable information concerning the glutamine content of human milk is lacking. AIM: To assess total glutamine content in human milk using a novel analytical procedure, and to evaluate the potential influence of ...
Kabaroff L - - 2006
Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during ...
Sliwa E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The effect of dexamethasone (Dex) on postnatal bone formation processes is known to decrease the synthesis of collagen and bone matrix, but the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is to induce positive effects on growth and skeletal development during postnatal life. However, the effects of Dex and AKG treatment on ...
Settle Paul - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare lactate uptake in the microvillous plasma membrane (maternal facing [MVM]) in term and preterm placentas in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA) controls, and in the basal plasma membrane (fetal facing [BM]) at term. In addition, we examine the expression of monocarboxylate ...
Žvorc, Zdravko
The aim of this research was to describe changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients, and haematological parameters during pregnancy and lactation of sows. Data presented here were obtained by using blood samples from healthy, conventionally managed sows from a breeding herd. The samples were taken at three different points ...
Sharma Sushma - - 2006
Pregnancy is known to cause refractive changes as a result of various hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy. These changes may persist for a few weeks post-partum and during lactation. In this article we discuss various refractive issues in pregnancy that have an effect on contact lens use, myopia and the ...
Macdonald, Alastair A
The nutritional requirements of animals during pregnancy and lactation differ from the requirements of the growing animal, or the non-pregnant adult, as revealed by studies of the domestic species. However, relatively little information has been published to indicate the comparable requirements for pregnancy and lactation of most animals in the ...
Kobayashi-Hattori Kazuo - - 2006
We investigated the change in renal mdr1b mRNA expression in offspring exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) via the placenta and lactation or via lactation, using the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Pregnant ICR mice were given water containing TBTC (0, 15, and 50 microg/ml) ad libitum from the start of ...
Xing Yan - - 2006
Nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 are important podocyte proteins that help maintain the integrity of the slit diaphragm and prevent proteinuria. Studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, glucocorticoids, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have antiproteinuric effects. However, it is still unclear whether these drugs, with different pharmacological mechanisms, lead ...
Sendemir E - - 2006
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is expressed in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. High co-localization rates of SHBG with oxytocin have been observed in the hypothalamus, indicating that SHBG plays a role in pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Further studies have shown that hypothalamic SHBG expression is malleable to changing steroid conditions. In this ...
Thomas Michael - - 2006
Calcium consumption is essential for bone development and maintenance throughout life, yet more than one half of the female population in the United States does not consume the recommended amount of calcium. Calcium intake is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation because of the potential adverse effect on maternal bone ...
Schedin Pepper - - 2006
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, is often overlooked by clinicians and researchers alike. With the trend towards delayed child-bearing, an increase in the occurrence of breast cancer complicated by pregnancy is anticipated. The mechanisms that have been proposed to account for this poor prognosis, including increased hormone ...
de Assis Sonia - - 2006
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in women. To determine whether this may be caused by increased pregnancy leptin levels, leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) mutant (fa/fa) and wild-type (FA/FA) female Zucker rats and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during pregnancy an obesity-inducing high-fat diet (OID) that increased pregnancy weight ...
Alsina-Manrique L - - 2006
There is a concern that lactation failure and neonatal morbidity might be more common than previously thought. Maybe the early discharge, the lack of timely follow-up, or poor information during pregnancy or after delivery play important roles. A case of severe hypernatremic dehydration secondary to lactation failure is reported and ...
Vargo-Gogola Tracy - - 2006
p190-B Rho GTPase activating protein is essential for mammary gland development because p190-B deficiency prevents ductal morphogenesis. To investigate the role of p190-B during distinct stages of mammary gland development, tetracycline-regulatable p190-B-overexpressing mice were generated. Short-term induction of p190-B in the developing mammary gland results in abnormal terminal end buds ...
O'Brien Kimberly O - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on longitudinal changes in bone calcium turnover rates across pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize calcium kinetic variables and predictors of these changes across pregnancy and early lactation in women with low calcium intakes. DESIGN: Stable calcium isotopes were administered to 10 Brazilian ...
Ladyman, Sharon Rachel
Leptin is primarily an adipose-derived hormone that acts in the hypothalamus to regulate body fat levels by suppressing appetite and increasing metabolic rate. Pregnancy is characterised by increased food intake and fat mass to meet the metabolic demands of this physiological state. Leptin concentrations also increase during pregnancy, but this ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Perri Daniel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Borruto F - - 2006
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: Studies on umbilical cord blood for determination of lactate indicate that high levels seem to be correlated to foetal metabolism for anaerobic glycolysis taking place in oxygen-deprived tissues of the foetus. These findings may be of particular-deprived clinical importance when foetal distress or foetal hypoxemia is caused ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Suda R - - 2006
The purpose of the study was to determine whether adding calcium lactate to chewing gum containing xylitol enhances remineralization of enamel surfaces using an early caries lesion model. Enamel slabs were cut from human extracted sound teeth and artificial subsurface lesions created within each. Half the enamel slabs were used ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Kramer M S - - 2006
Some breastfed infants with atopic eczema benefit from elimination of cow milk, egg, or other antigens from their mother's diet. Maternal dietary antigens are also known to cross the placenta. To assess the effects of prescribing an antigen avoidance diet during pregnancy or lactation, or both, on maternal and infant ...
Cruz-Korchin Norma N Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936-5067, Puerto Rico. - - 2006
A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and breast-feeding on the breasts of women who had undergone vertical reduction mammaplasty. The study group consisted of 57 women who had pregnancies after their vertical reduction mammaplasty. Of this group, 24 breast-fed. The control group consisted of 103 ...
Wessel Jens - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether particular hormonal patterns could explain the persistence of cyclic menstruation-like bleeding during denied pregnancies. METHODS: Hormone measurements were performed immediately after delivery in a total of 28 subjects with denied pregnancies. The results were studied in three patient subgroups: subjects with any cyclic bleeding during pregnancy ...
Pujol Esperanza - - 2006
Changes in rat mammary fat pad during pregnancy were assessed by studying differences in the morphology and composition of the pad and in the levels of proteins involved in the accumulation and mobilization of fat stores. During pregnancy, the mammary fat pad weight had increased 1.8-fold by day 20, as ...
Katoue Maram G - - 2005
Pregnancy is associated with attenuated vascular reactivity to a variety of contractile agonists. Heme oxygenases are expressed in the placenta, and it has been suggested that the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway plays a significant role in regulating blood flow through the feto-placental unit. In this study we investigated the ...
van der Heijden Olivier W H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of adrenomedullin (ADM)--a vasodilator peptide with long-lasting effects--increase in the course of pregnancy. Neither the site nor the concomitant rate of ADM synthesis in pregnancy is known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rise in plasma levels of ADM during pregnancy ...
Temprano Katherine K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the toxicity issues of commonly used antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: A review of the medical literature using Medline database via Ovid was performed to identify the toxicities of antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: Many rheumatologic diseases in women often first present during ...
Butte Nancy F - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. DESIGN: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured by respiratory calorimetry or from increments in total energy expenditure ...
Crofton Kevin M - - 2005
An increasing incorporation of mode of action (MOA) information into risk assessments has led to examination of animal MOAs to determine relevance to humans. We examined a specific MOA for developmental neurotoxicity using the MOA/Human Relevance Framework (Meek et al., 2003). The postulated MOA of ototoxicity in rats involves early ...
Vance G H S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternally derived allergens may be transferred to the developing infant during pregnancy and lactation. However, it is not known how manipulation of environmental allergen levels might impact on this early-life exposure. OBJECTIVE: To measure dietary egg allergen (ovalbumin (OVA)) in gestation-associated environments, in relation to maternal dietary egg intake. ...
Trivedi, Shweta
ABSTRACT TRIVEDI, SHWETA. Host cytokines and immune responses in pregnancy associated transmission of arrested hookworm larvae (Under the direction of Dr. Prema Arasu) Over one billion people worldwide are infected with blood-feeding intestinal hookworms. The life cycle of A. duodenale (humans) and A. caninum (dogs) includes the propensity for L3 ...
Hennighausen Lothar - - 2005
Unique developmental features during puberty, pregnancy, lactation and post-lactation make the mammary gland a prime object to explore genetic circuits that control the specification, proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of cells. Steroids and simple peptide hormones initiate and carry out complex developmental programmes, and reverse genetics has been used to ...
Sunde Roger A - - 2005
The hierarchy of selenium (Se) requirements for growing rats ranges from <0.01 to 0.1 microg Se/g diet, depending on the choice of Se status parameter. To further evaluate the efficacy of molecular biology markers to determine Se requirements in later periods of the life cycle, which are less amenable to ...
Huang Ji-Biao - - 2005
Previous studies have shown that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDase) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase form a supramolecular complex in human neutrophils that undergoes retrograde trafficking in cells from pregnant women, but anterograde trafficking in cells from nonpregnant individuals. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, we now demonstrate that transaldolase (TALase), a key regulatory ...
Ward Kate A - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: At birth, the fetus will contain 30 g of calcium; during the third trimester the calcium accrual can be up to 340 mg/day. Therefore, extremely high demands for calcium provision are placed upon the mother. This review aims to describe the adaptive mechanisms of the female skeleton ...
Andrews Z B - - 2005
Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone critical for maintaining pregnancy and lactation. Under normal conditions, prolactin secretion is tightly regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neuronal systems within the mediobasal hypothalamus in a process known as short-loop negative feedback. This review focuses on neuroendocrine adaptations to prolactin negative feedback during late pregnancy. ...
Rolland Rosalind M - - 2005
Long-term studies of the endangered North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, have revealed declining reproductive parameters over the past two decades, threatening recovery of this small population if current trends continue. Little is known about right whale reproductive physiology, and investigating this reproductive decline has been limited by a lack ...
Caja S - - 2005
Adiponectin is believed to be a key factor in determining insulin sensitivity. In turn, insulin sensitivity is known to change from an enhanced state in early pregnancy to a reduced one in late pregnancy. A role for adiponectin in these changes has been proposed for mice but questioned for humans. ...
Ladyman S R - - 2005
Pregnancy in the rat is a state of leptin resistance associated with impaired leptin signal transduction in the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to determine whether this leptin-resistant state is mediated by a change in the level of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Real-time RT-PCR was used to ...
Jousan F D - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations of lactation, somatic cell count score (SCCS) at breeding, milk yield, lactation number, interval from calving to breeding (days open), number of times inseminated, and season of breeding on fetal loss for lactating Holstein females (both first-parity and multiparous cows) and ...
Wiggans G R - - 2005
The system for estimating days open for cows with no subsequent lactation was examined to determine if estimates should vary depending on pregnancy diagnosis. Pregnancy diagnosis information was unavailable when the original prediction system was developed, but collection was begun in 2002. New prediction equations were estimated from nearly 1.1 ...
Langley-Evans Simon C - - 2005
Exposure to undernutrition in fetal life increases the susceptibility of humans and animals to major disease states in adult life. Studies of rodents exposed to protein restriction during fetal life indicate that lifespan is reduced, a finding that is the opposite of the well-documented improvement in longevity noted with post-weaning ...
Reali A - - 2005
When considering whether to administer drugs to women during pregnancy and lactation, we have to take into account that these substances may expose the fetus or neonate to multiple effects. This occurs because there is a unique situation where the maternal compartment is connected with the fetal or neonatal compartment ...
Kovacs Christopher S - - 2005
Pregnancy and lactation both place significant demands on the mother to provide sufficient calcium (among other minerals and nutrients) to the fetus and neonate. Despite facing similar demands for calcium during pregnancy and lactation, the maternal adaptations differ significantly between these two reproductive periods. Women lose 300 to 400 mg ...
Liefers S C - - 2005
Leptin concentrations in body fluids and tissues undergo dynamic changes during the periparturient period. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene have been shown to be associated with differences in leptin concentration during late pregnancy but not during lactation. As the promoter of leptin regulates the expression of leptin, polymorphisms in this ...
De Marco Marion - - 2005
Acoustic analysis of infants crying, a sensitive and selective index for measuring the effect of pre and perinatal lead exposure, may provide an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by the toxic. The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to low lead levels during perinatal and early ...
Lecklin Anne - - 2005
The efficacy of central leptin therapy on weight homeostasis through various phases of reproduction, pregnancy outcome and postnatal, prepubertal and pubertal growth of offspring was assessed. Enhanced leptin transgene expression after a single intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding the leptin gene (rAAV-lep) decreased calorie intake and weight ...
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