Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1177
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Alemán Gabriela - - 2009
During lactation, the mammary gland increases the needs for nutrients to fulfill the milk production requirements. Among these nutrients, amino acids play an important role for the synthesis of milk proteins. Amino acids are supplied to the mammary gland through amino acid transporters, although some are synthesized in situ. The ...
Ladyman S R - - 2009
Hypothalamic leptin resistance during pregnancy is an important adaptation that facilitates the state of positive energy balance required for fat deposition in preparation for lactation. Within the arcuate nucleus, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related gene protein (AgRP) neurones are first-order leptin responsive neurones involved in the regulation of ...
Anan Yasumi - - 2009
This study compares the transfer from mother to fetuses and pups of selenium (Se) in the form of selenite, selenate, and selenomethionine (SeMet) labeled with different homo-elemental isotopes. To completely substitute endogenous Se with natural abundance with Se enriched with a single stable isotope (82Se), female Wistar rats delivered by ...
Carlström Mattias - - 2009
Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication, accompanied by increased maternal and fetal morbidity. Different models have been used to study preeclampsia, but none of these display all the key features of the disease. We investigated the effects on maternal blood pressure and fetal outcome exerted by the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin ...
Howland Robert H - - 2009
When physicians and nurses see patients, they must be able to understand and discuss how drugs are labeled with regard to pregnancy and lactation. This article describes the current and proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification system for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Using data from animal and human ...
Sabers Anne - - 2009
This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. Studies have confirmed that the elimination of lamotrigine and the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine is enhanced ...
Cohen Ronald S - - 2009
This report describes an infant who was born to a mother with chronic pain treated with fentanyl 100 microg/h transdermal patch throughout her pregnancy and during lactation. On day of life 27, when the baby was feeding and gaining weight on maternal milk, samples of the baby's blood and maternal ...
Fotopoulou Christina - - 2009
To prospectively analyse the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine (LTG) during pregnancy and lactation in a consecutive series of epileptic pregnant women. Nine women on LTG-monotherapy were studied during pregnancy, delivery and lactation, until a mean of 3 weeks postpartum. Maternal blood samples were available from all trimesters as well as umbilical ...
Pali-Schöll Isabella - - 2009
The factors responsible for the induction of allergic disease at an early age have not been completely identified. Therefore a major research focus is their identification to elaborate recommendations for prevention of sensitization in high-risk or atopic children. This review analyzes known or suspected reasons for sensitization in pregnant women ...
Sanna Enrico - - 2009
Pregnancy is associated with changes in mood and anxiety level as well as with marked hormonal fluctuations. Increases in the brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids during pregnancy in rats are accompanied by changes in expression of subunits of the GABA type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) in the brain. Granule cells of ...
Gendron Marie-Pierre - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Medication use during pregnancy and lactation is prevalent. However, current knowledge of the risks and benefits of medication use during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete as the best available evidence has been obtained from cohort studies of inadvertent exposures and registries. This situation may partly explain health care providers' ...
Desai Geetha
Women in childbearing age frequently suffer from mental illness. Maternal psychiatric disorders may have a devastating impact on the fetus and the newborn. Thus treating or preventing relapse of these disorders during pregnancy and puerperium is a clinical and ethical duty with the necessity to avoid or minimize fetal or ...
Avendaño-Badillo Diana - - 2009
Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily ...
Vahter Marie - - 2009
Arsenic, which is commonly found in drinking water, is a potent toxicant, but little is known about its effects on maternal health. Arsenic's modes of action include enzyme inhibition and oxidative stress as well as immune, endocrine, and epigenetic effects. A couple of studies reported increased blood pressure and anemia ...
Vinet Evelyne - - 2009
Women suffering from inflammatory arthritis may experience a change in disease activity during and after pregnancy. Although the majority will improve, some women may need to continue therapy throughout pregnancy and/or in the lactation period. Since certain disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have proven to be human teratogens, treatment is limited in ...
Kim Young Chul - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Brisken et al (2000) showed that Wnt4 null mammary glands were deficient in early lobuloalveolar mammary outgrowth during pregnancy, and implicated Wnt4 as an effector for the progesterone-induced mammary growth program. Though ectopic Wnt1 signaling is known to be mitogenic and oncogenic, no endogenously expressed Wnt ligands have ever ...
Dengler-Crish Christine M - - 2009
The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in ...
Frasch Martin G - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Increasing frequency of severe variable decelerations is associated with acidemia. However, there is little understanding of its development or normalization rate. STUDY DESIGN: To quantify the time course of acidemia, 10 near-term fetal sheep underwent a series of mild (1 minute every 5 minutes), moderate (1 minute every 3 ...
Kim S W - - 2009
Improving efficiency of protein utilization is important for pregnant sows under restricted feed allowance and for lactating sows with limited feed intake. Sows have limited ability to support the growth of fetuses and mammary glands during late gestation and to support mammary growth and milk production, especially during first lactation ...
Tremblay G - - 2009
Stanniocalcin-1 is a hormone that possesses both paracrine and endocrine functions and has recently been identified in mammals. While paracrine functions have been determined for several organs, the role of circulating stanniocalcin-1 in cattle is still unclear but, observations in mice and cows suggest that stanniocalcin-1 plays a role in ...
Picciano Mary Frances - - 2009
Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, ...
Potu Bhagath Kumar - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect Cissus quadrangularis plant petroleum ether extract on the development of long bones during the intra-uterine developmental stage in rats. Pregnant rats (n=12) were randomly assigned into either a control group (n=6) or a Cissus quadrangularis treatment (n=6) group. Pregnant ...
Schroeder Mariana M Life Sciences Faculty, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, - - 2009
The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model of obesity (a spontaneous CCK1 receptor knockout) has been extensively studied as model of hyperphagia-induced obesity. In previous studies, young OLETF rats presented abnormal eating patterns [compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls] in a variety of independent ingestion and nursing tests ...
Maroulakou Ioanna G IG Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2008
The three Akt isoforms differ in their ability to transduce oncogenic signals initiated by the Neu and PyMT oncogenes in mammary epithelia. As a result, ablation of Akt1 inhibits and ablation of Akt2 accelerates mammary tumor development by both oncogenes, while ablation of Akt3 is phenotypically almost neutral. Since the ...
Gunes T - - 2008
There have been a few studies that examined the oxidative stress effects of nicotine during pregnancy and lactation. We aimed to determine the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation on oxidant-antioxidant system, and to determine a protective effect of ascorbic acid (Asc). Gravid rats were assigned ...
Tanriover Mine Durusu - - 2009
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis is an uncommon condition that may be a consequence of preexisting low bone density, loss of bone mineral content during pregnancy, and increased bone turnover. PURPOSE: To present a case of severe osteoporosis associated with pregnancy and lactation and its treatment protocol. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: ...
Gerritsen R - - 2009
Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this was due to: (1) stage of lactation when IS ...
He Kan - - 2008
Dasatinib [N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxamide; BMS-354825] is a potent and broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dasatinib exhibited extensive lacteal secretion in Sprague-Dawley rats following a single p.o. dose of [14C]dasatinib (10 mg/kg, 300 microCi/kg). Radioactivity was detected through 72 ...
Kovacs Christophers S - - 2008
During pregnancy and lactation, mothers require significant amounts of calcium to pass on to the developing fetus and suckling neonate, respectively. Given the dependence of adult calcium concentrations and bone metabolism on vitamin D, one might anticipate that vitamin D sufficiency would be even more critical during pregnancy and lactation. ...
Keenan Sam - - 2008
From a Jungian perspective, there is a psychological pattern in the pregnancy, lactation, weaning and post-weaning process, which amounts to a 'physiological initiation' into motherhood, which is relatively unknown in current Western culture. This paper shows how this pattern in dream themes can be elucidated, forming an Inner Map of ...
Dahl Stephanie K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To report on a patient with virilization during pregnancy who experienced delayed lactation secondary to elevated maternal androgens. DESIGN: Case report and review of the literature. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 32-year-old pregnant woman presented with virilization at 32 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTION(S): Laboratory evaluation, ultrasound examination, magnetic resonance imaging, ...
Payan-Carreira Rita - - 2008
The aim of this study is to characterise the feline mammary echotexture using B-mode ultrasonography, which is not routinely used to examine the feline mammary gland. Using a 5-9 MHz linear transducer the ultrasonographic appearance of non-stimulated and stimulated mammary glands was determined in 35 mature intact non-pregnant, pregnant and ...
Brunton P J - - 2008
Over the past 40 years, it has been recognised that the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis undergoes adaptations through pregnancy and lactation that might contribute to avoidance of adverse effects of stress on the mother and offspring. The extent of the global adaptations in the HPA axis has been revealed and ...
Farid W O - - 2008
Most women using heroin are of reproductive age with major risks for their infants. We review clinical and experimental data on fetal, neonatal and postnatal complications associated with methadone, the current "gold standard", and compare these with more recent, but limited, data on developmental effects of buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Methadone ...
Wiberg-Itzel E - - 2008
To examine the effectiveness of pH analysis of fetal scalp blood compared with lactate analysis in identifying hypoxia in labour to prevent acidaemia at birth. Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Labour wards. Women with a singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, gestational age >or=34 weeks, and clinical indication for fetal scalp blood sampling. ...
Gümüş Nazim - - 2008
Since mastectomy may have a devastative effect on the patient's appearance, body image and psychology, especially in young women, immediate breast reconstruction is widely preferred to avoid the unpleasant results caused by the defect of mastectomy. Presented here is the case of a 33-year-old patient. Considering her fibrocystic mastopathy, atypical ...
Koren Gideon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that between 7% and 55% of expectant mothers use herbal medicines or other types of natural health products (NHPs). Unfortunately, the safety and efficacy of NHPs during pregnancy and lactation is largely unknown. The Motherisk Program, at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, ...
Cetin Irene - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake ...
Yao Mei - - 2008
AIM OF STUDY: Hawthorn (Crataegus) has a long history as a medicine. The current clinical use of hawthorn as a heart medicine dates back to the late 19th century. It is well tolerated clinically yet contraindicated in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the safety of hawthorn to the developing ...
Paris Jason J JJ The University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222, - - 2008
Ovarian hormone elevations are associated with enhanced learning/memory. During behavioral estrus or pregnancy, progestins, such as progesterone (P(4)) and its metabolite 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THP), are elevated due, in part, to corpora luteal and placental secretion. During 'pseudopregnancy', the induction of corpora luteal functioning results in a hormonal ...
Bautista Claudia J - - 2008
Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. We evaluated effects of maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on milk quantity and leptin concentration at postnatal day 7, 14, and 21. Control mothers ate 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four ...
Marcus Dawn A - - 2008
Headache patterns for both primary and secondary headaches are often modified in women during pregnancy. Although approximately two thirds of women with migraines experience headache improvement during pregnancy; women who continue to suffer from migraine or other headaches during pregnancy need effective clinical care to include appropriate diagnostic studies, counseling ...
Humphries P - - 2008
Platelets and fibrin play an important role in the coagulation process where they are involved in the maintenance of haemostasis. Fibrin dysfunction is associated with the development of vascular complications, while proneness to the formation of tight and rigid fibrin networks is independently associated with thrombotic disease. Rabbits have long ...
Zhang Xue-Ying - - 2008
Reproduction, especially lactation, is associated with major metabolic adaptive changes. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes and the roles of leptin during different periods of reproduction in primiparous Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Energy intake, thermogenic capacity and serum leptin levels were examined in non-reproductive, mid pregnant, late pregnant, ...
Spencer Sarah J - - 2008
Stroke during pregnancy is an emerging concern. Although females undergo many physiological, endocrine, and neurological alterations during pregnancy, the consequences of such changes on outcome after stroke are unclear. It is predicted that increases in steroid hormones observed during pregnancy may confer protective effects against the neurological and pathological sequelae ...
Oakes Samantha R - - 2008
Mammary morphogenesis is orchestrated with other reproductive events by pituitary-driven changes to the systemic hormone environment, initiating the formation of a mammary ductal network during puberty and the addition of secretory alveoli during pregnancy. Prolactin is the major driver of development during pregnancy via regulation of ovarian progesterone production (in ...
Church M W - - 2008
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) consumption during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant growth and may reduce the severity of preterm births. Thus, scientists and clinicians are recommending increasingly higher omega-3 FA doses for pregnant women and nursing babies for advancing the health of preterm, low birth ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and ...
Seely Dugald - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and the safety of herbs used by women during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used ...
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