Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1015
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Kishi Reiko - - 2005
To elucidate the effect of maternal styrene exposure, which is due to various postnatal changes in the development and behavior of offspring, we investigated pregnancy-induced changes in the metabolism of styrene in rat liver in relation to the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes. We also examined age and sex-induced changes ...
Pujol Esperanza - - 2005
Pregnancy is characterized by changes in maternal adiposity. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed analysis of the different steps of the adrenergic pathway, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels and adipocyte size, in order to evaluate the response of white adipose tissue (WAT) to the metabolic changes ...
Goldberg Gail - - 2005
In the second of a two-part article, a senior research scientist discusses the mother's nutritional needs during lactation and the first year after the birth. The mother's needs for energy increase during breast-feeding, but conversely studies have shown that breast-feeding mothers do not necessarily lose weight. As in pregnancy, it ...
León D - - 2005
The aim of this work was to study whether caffeine or theophylline chronically consumed during pregnancy affect inhibitory adenylyl cyclase pathway mediated by adenosine, in rat brain of both mothers and full-term fetuses. Immunoblotting analysis revealed a significant decrease in alphaGi(1,2) subunit level (27-29% in mothers, 15-18% in fetuses), associated ...
Frontera Margalida - - 2005
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is inhibited during late-pregnancy and lactation in the rat. However, scarce information concerning BAT functionality during mid-pregnancy is available. The aim of this work was to investigate uncoupling proteins and leptin expression during placentation in rat BAT as well as other key parameters in the ...
McCarter-Spaulding Deborah E - - 2005
The issue of medication use during pregnancy is of concern because the physiology of pregnancy affects the pharmokinetics of medications used, and certain medications can reach the fetus and cause harm. Studying medication safety in pregnancy and lactation is challenging; thus, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) categories of ...
Heringhausen Julie - - 2005
Calcium is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and lactation. Calcium contributes to bone development in the fetus and neonate and is considered a critical nutrient. Physiological changes in calcium metabolism occur during pregnancy and lactation. Some women may lose some of their bone density during pregnancy and/or lactation, and then ...
Marino Susan - - 2004
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, the mammary glands from Id2 mutant animals are deficient in lobulo-alveolar development. This failure of development is believed to be due to a proliferation defect. METHODS: We have asked whether functional Id2 expression is necessary for Wnt induced mammary hyperplasia, side branching, and cancer, by generating mice ...
Sharma K - - 2004
Macromastia is the massive enlargement of the breast, unilateral or bilateral, disproportionate to the growth of the rest of the body. It is called gravid macromastia or gigantomastia of pregnancy when it occurs during pregnancy. It may or may not regress following parturition. Gestational macromastia is exceptionally rare. We report ...
Luoba Alfred I - - 2004
Geophagy was studied among 827 pregnant women in western Kenya, during and after pregnancy. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks and followed-up to 6 months post-partum. The median age (range) of the women was 23 years and median parity 2. At recruitment, 378 were eating ...
Boris Jane - - 2004
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from week ...
Backstrand J R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). SETTING: ...
Buhimschi Catalin S - - 2004
The endocrine control of lactation is one of the most complex physiologic mechanisms of human parturition. Mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis, and galactokinesis are all essential to assure proper lactation. Prolactin is the key hormone of lactation and seems to be the single most important galactopoietic hormone. Oxytocin, serotonin, opioids, histamine, substance ...
Morroni Manrico - - 2004
Mammalian breast adipose tissue is replaced by a milk-secreting gland during pregnancy; the reverse process takes place upon interruption of lactation. Morphological and bromodeoxyuridine studies provide indirect evidence that mouse mammary adipocytes transform into secretory epithelial cells during pregnancy and revert to adipocytes after lactation. By using the Cre-loxP recombination ...
Anguiano B - - 2004
Peripartum is a crucial period for mammary gland final differentiation and the onset of lactation. Although the 'trigger' for lactogenesis depends on several hormones, a key factor is the peripartum prolactin (PRL) pulse whose deletion results in a failure to initiate milk production. Other hormones having a critical role during ...
Akesson Agneta - - 2004
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the sequences of changes in bone metabolism and bone density during pregnancy, lactation and postweaning. METHODS: Women were recruited (n = 254) in early pregnancy and followed for 2 years. Markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (NTx) were measured at five occasions. Bone mineral density (BMD) ...
Gulson Brian L - - 2004
Pregnancy and lactation are times of physiologic stress during which bone turnover is accelerated. Previous studies have demonstrated that there is increased mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton at this time and that calcium supplementation may have a protective effect. Ten immigrants to Australia were provided with either calcium ...
Vidonho Armando F AF - - 2004
Several studies support the hypothesis that chronic diseases in adulthood might be triggered by events that occur during fetal development. This study examined the consequences of perinatal salt intake on blood pressure (BP) and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in adult offspring of dams on high-salt [HSD; 8% (HSD2) or 4% ...
Heringstad B - - 2004
A Bayesian multivariate threshold model was fitted to clinical mastitis (CM) records from 372,227 daughters of 2411 Norwegian Dairy Cattle (NRF) sires. All cases of veterinary-treated CM occurring from 30 d before first calving to culling or 300 d after third calving were included. Lactations were divided into 4 intervals: ...
Ozbek Murat - - 2004
Pregnancy and lactation affect the rate of maternal dentine apposition and mineralization in the rat. In this study we have measured the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the degree of mineralization of dentine and enamel by using the microhardness method in rat incisors. At incisal sections, pregnant and lactation ...
Vargas Zapata Carmiña L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Physiologic adjustments in calcium homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation in women with marginal calcium intakes have not been described. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine longitudinal changes in various aspects of calcium homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation in 9 healthy Brazilian women who habitually consumed approximately 500 mg Ca/d. ...
Ali Niloufer Sultan - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Maternal diet is an important determinant of outcomes of pregnancy. Malnutrition during pregnancy and its consequences maximally affect the health and long-term outcomes of the population. Low birth weight accounts for almost 30% of all births; with maternal malnutrition as a dominant risk factor. This study aims to investigate ...
Zinser Glendon M - - 2004
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in mammary gland, and VDR ablation is associated with accelerated glandular development during puberty. VDR is a nuclear receptor whose ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2)D] is generated after metabolic activation of vitamin D by specific vitamin D hydroxylases. In these studies, we demonstrate that ...
Yi Yijun - - 2004
This study demonstrated, for the first time, the following events related to p19(ARF) involvement in mammary gland development: 1) Progesterone appears to regulate p19(ARF) in normal mammary gland during pregnancy. 2) p19(ARF) expression levels increased sixfold during pregnancy, and the protein level plateaus during lactation. 3) During involution, p19(ARF) protein ...
Wagner W - - 2004
Histamine system is suggested to have a role in mammary gland growth regulation, differentiation and functioning during pregnancy and lactation. Histidine decarboxylase activity undergoes significant changes during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnancy associated elevation of HDC activity and mRNA transcript in mouse mammary gland was successfully affected by enzyme antisense oligonucleotides ...
Kelly B A - - 2004
The maternal aorta undergoes substantial functional and structural adaptation in pregnancy. Both aortic diameter and compliance are increased and studies of animal and human gestation indicate that these changes are initiated in early pregnancy and maintained until delivery. The mechanisms underlying aortic adaptation in normal pregnancy remain largely unknown but ...
Ujházy E - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the natural antioxidant melatonin (MEL) and the synthetic antioxidant stobadine (STO) could reduce the incidence of maternal and embryofoetal toxicity in rats due to intrauterine hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia was induced pharmacologically by the administration of the anticonvulsant phenytoin ...
Pearson D - - 2004
It is uncertain whether bone is routinely mobilised during pregnancy to provide calcium for the fetus and whether this is of a magnitude to cause osteoporosis. We have made sequential measurements of lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in 60 normal women before conception and then during the ...
Huffman L J - - 2004
Evidence suggests that pregnant animals are more sensitive than nonpregnant animals to the systemic administration of endotoxin. Studies were undertaken to assess whether an enhanced sensitivity of the pulmonary system to aerosolized endotoxin might exist during pregnancy. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats (17 d of gestation) or age-matched virgin female rats ...
Vorderstrasse Beth A - - 2004
Many ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are considered endocrine disruptors and carcinogens, and assessment of adverse health effects in humans exposed to such chemicals has often focused on malignancies, including breast cancer. Mammary tissue contains the AhR, and inappropriate activation of the AhR during fetal development causes defects ...
Fleck J - - 2004
Malonic acidaemia is an inborn error of metabolism that accumulates malonate, a competitive succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; EC 1.3.99.1) inhibitor. The present study investigated the behavioural effects of unilateral intrastriatal administration of malonate (0.6, 1.8 or 6 micromol) in adult male Wistar rats (n=10-13). Low doses of malonate (1.8 micromol) decreased ...
Master Stephen R - - 2004
The developmental preparation of the mammary gland for milk production that occurs during pregnancy is followed by an equally dramatic process of involution as the gland returns to its prepregnancy state. Two detailed, microarray-based surveys reported in this issue extend our understanding of the nature and timing of molecular and ...
Arnould J P Y - - 2003
The period of maternal dependence is a time during which mammalian infants must optimise both their growth and the development of behavioural skills in order to successfully meet the demands of independent living. The rate and duration of maternal provisioning, post-weaning food availability and climatic conditions are all factors likely ...
Okazaki Yoshimasa - - 2003
The potential for neurotoxicity after a single oral dose of four halogenated aniline derivatives--4-bromoaniline (4-BA), 4-chloroaniline (4-CA), 4- fluoroaniline (4-FA) and 4-iodoaniline (4-IA)--was given to rats was investigated at or near the lethal dosage level. Hindlimb paralysis was found in the 4-BA, 4-CA and 4-FA groups on clinical observation, with ...
Monte Maria J - - 2003
MOCP (maternal obstructive cholestasis during pregnancy) induces a reversible impairment in bile formation in young rats born to these mothers. The aim of the present study was to gain information on the effects of MOCP on the maturation of pathways involved in protein secretion into bile in young (4-week-old) rats. ...
Schulze K J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and causes of iodine deficiency among women during pregnancy and lactation in the southeastern plains of Nepal. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Urinary iodine (UI) was assessed as an indicator of iodine status in spot urine samples of women participating in a field trial in three ...
Kritikou Ekaterini A - - 2003
STAT3 is the key mediator of apoptosis in mammary gland. We demonstrate here that LIF is the physiological activator of STAT3, because in involuting mammary glands of Lif(-/-) mice, pSTAT3 is absent and the STAT3 target, C/EBPdelta, is not upregulated. Similar to Stat3 knockouts, Lif(-/-) mammary glands exhibit delayed involution, ...
Augustine R A - - 2003
Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) expression in the brain is increased in lactating rats compared with non-pregnant animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the time-course of changes in PRL-R mRNA levels during pregnancy and/or lactation, and to determine relative levels of the two forms (short and/or long form) ...
Gentry P Robinan - - 2003
In recent years efforts have increased to develop a framework for assessing differences, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, between children and adults for purposes of assessing risk of adverse effects following chemical exposure. The specific goal of this study was to demonstrate an approach for using PBPK modeling to compare maternal ...
Rocha Milagros - - 2003
Pregnancy is characterized by an increase in food intake that, in turn, produce a positive energy balance in order to face the considerable metabolic demands associated with the challenge of reproduction. Since hypothalamus is a key brain region involved in many peripheral signals and neuronal pathways that control energy homeostasis ...
Wood G M - - 2003
The objective of this study was to use field data collected by dairy herd improvement programs to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Edited data were 36,074 test-day records of MUN and yields of milk, fat, and protein obtained from 6102 cows in Holstein herds in ...
Picciano Mary Frances - - 2003
Nutritional needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation for support of fetal and infant growth and development along with alterations in maternal tissues and metabolism. Total nutrient needs are not necessarily the sum of those accumulated in maternal tissues, products of pregnancy and lactation and those attributable to the maintenance ...
Kulcu R - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine serum Cu, Zn, Mn, K, and Mg levels before and during pregnancy and during the lactation period of sheep and cattle and to determine the relationships between periods. For this purpose, blood samples of 14 healthy, pregnant Brown Swiss cows fed under ...
Manton W I - - 2003
Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second ...
Reed W - - 2003
The incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, i.e. during pregnancy and lactation, and of pregnancy subsequent to a breast-cancer diagnosis will increase as more women choose childbearing at a later age. Few larger series are published on pregnancy-associated breast cancer. In a population-based study, we evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors ...
Prentice Ann - - 2003
The fluxes of the primary bone-forming minerals, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc, across the placenta and through breast milk place considerable demands on maternal mineral economy. Increases in food consumption, elevated gastrointestinal absorption, decreased mineral excretion and mobilization of tissue stores are several possible biological strategies for meeting these extra ...
Lonstein J S - - 2003
In many mammals, hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy and parturition produce neurochemical events that are necessary for the transition from a non-maternal state to a maternal state that occurs when infants are born. However, the nature of these events is mostly unknown. We investigated whether changes in dopamine (DA) and serotonin ...
Heikkinen Tuija - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, during pregnancy, delivery, and lactation in mothers and their infants. METHODS: Eleven mothers taking fluoxetine and their infants were enrolled in the study. A control group of 10 women who ...
Seagroves Tiffany N - - 2003
During pregnancy the mammary epithelium and its supporting vasculature rapidly expand to prepare for lactation, resulting in dramatic changes in the micro-environment. In order to investigate the role of oxygenation and metabolism in these processes, the oxygen-responsive component of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 complex, HIF1alpha, was deleted in the ...
Conneely Orla M - - 2003
The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), is a central coordinator of all aspects of female reproductive activity and plays a key role in pregnancy-associated mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of P on the mammary gland are mediated by two structurally and functionally distinct nuclear receptors PR-A and PR-B ...
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