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Results 251 - 300 of 1086
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Marcus Dawn A - - 2008
Headache patterns for both primary and secondary headaches are often modified in women during pregnancy. Although approximately two thirds of women with migraines experience headache improvement during pregnancy; women who continue to suffer from migraine or other headaches during pregnancy need effective clinical care to include appropriate diagnostic studies, counseling ...
Humphries P - - 2008
Platelets and fibrin play an important role in the coagulation process where they are involved in the maintenance of haemostasis. Fibrin dysfunction is associated with the development of vascular complications, while proneness to the formation of tight and rigid fibrin networks is independently associated with thrombotic disease. Rabbits have long ...
Zhang Xue-Ying - - 2008
Reproduction, especially lactation, is associated with major metabolic adaptive changes. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes and the roles of leptin during different periods of reproduction in primiparous Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Energy intake, thermogenic capacity and serum leptin levels were examined in non-reproductive, mid pregnant, late pregnant, ...
Spencer Sarah J - - 2008
Stroke during pregnancy is an emerging concern. Although females undergo many physiological, endocrine, and neurological alterations during pregnancy, the consequences of such changes on outcome after stroke are unclear. It is predicted that increases in steroid hormones observed during pregnancy may confer protective effects against the neurological and pathological sequelae ...
Oakes Samantha R - - 2008
Mammary morphogenesis is orchestrated with other reproductive events by pituitary-driven changes to the systemic hormone environment, initiating the formation of a mammary ductal network during puberty and the addition of secretory alveoli during pregnancy. Prolactin is the major driver of development during pregnancy via regulation of ovarian progesterone production (in ...
Church M W - - 2008
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) consumption during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant growth and may reduce the severity of preterm births. Thus, scientists and clinicians are recommending increasingly higher omega-3 FA doses for pregnant women and nursing babies for advancing the health of preterm, low birth ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and ...
Seely Dugald - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and the safety of herbs used by women during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used ...
Fuglsang Jens - - 2008
Ghrelin and its receptors are found in the reproductive organs and in the placenta, clearly indicating a role for ghrelin in reproduction. Circulating ghrelin levels peak at mid-gestation, then with advancing gestational age declining ghrelin levels are observed. At the same time the maternal organism increases its fat mass, becomes ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Brunton Paula J - - 2008
A successful pregnancy requires multiple adaptations of the mother's physiology to optimize fetal growth and development, to protect the fetus from adverse programming, to provide impetus for timely parturition and to ensure that adequate maternal care is provided after parturition. Many of these adaptations are organized by the mother's brain, ...
Bustamante Juan J - - 2008
Maternal physiology changes dramatically during the course of gestation and lactation to meet the needs of the developing fetus and newborn. In the present study, we examined the influence of pregnancy and lactation on growth and erythroid gene expression patterns of the maternal spleen. Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice ...
Sharp Julie A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The mammary gland undergoes a sophisticated programme of developmental changes during pregnancy/lactation. However, little is known about processes involving initiation of apoptosis at involution following weaning. We used fur seals as models to study the molecular process of involution as these animals display a unique mammary gland phenotype. Fur ...
Tanaka Yuki - - 2008
We studied the associations of the weaning litter weight (WLWt) and number of pigs weaned (PW) with measurements of postweaning reproductive performance and examined the repeatability of WLWt, PW and average pig weight at weaning (PIGWt) on commercial swine farms. This study spanned 6 years and was conducted using 57,611 ...
O'Dowd Rachael - - 2008
Adequate mammary development and coordinated actions of lactogenic hormones are essential for the initiation of lactation. Pregnancies compromised by uteroplacental insufficiency impair mammary development and lactation, further slowing postnatal growth. It is not known whether the initiation of lactation or galactopoesis is compromised. Uteroplacental insufficiency induced in rats by bilateral ...
Bergmann Renate L - - 2008
The supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3), important for fetal/infant neurodevelopment, depends on the maternal fatty acid (FA) status, which may be marginal in central Europe. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a daily vitamin/mineral supplement with and without 200 mg DHA from mid-pregnancy through lactation on the DHA concentrations ...
Borruto Franco - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Intrapartum foetal monitoring goal is to prevent foetal asphyxia and its most severe consequence: cerebral palsy (CP). In this paper we describe the detection methods and the criteria needed to assess asphyxia during labour for preventing CP. Foetal cerebral damage assessment is considered from the medical-legal point of view. ...
Sugiyama, Takashi
平成6年度科学研究費補助金(一般研究(B))研究成果報告書
Kung Annie W C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe the iodine nutrition of pregnant and lactating women in Hong Kong, where intake is of borderline sufficiency. DESIGN: Review of cross-sectional and prospective studies. SETTING: China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR). SUBJECTS: Pregnant and lactating women. RESULTS: Studies of pregnant women in Hong Kong SAR have ...
Hollis Bruce W - - 2007
The current recommended dietary requirement for vitamin D intake (200 IU/d) during pregnancy and lactation is based on little, if any, scientific evidence, and as a result is clinically irrelevant with respect to maintaining nutritional vitamin D status during these demanding human conditions. Current research has shown that the actual ...
Beyer Manfred - - 2007
In order to determine the effects of a varied level of dietary energy intake during pregnancy and lactation on milk yield and composition, first, second and fourth parity sows (Large White x German Landrace) were provided with energy at a level of either: (i) 100% of ME requirement (MEreq) during ...
Augustine Rachael A - - 2008
Pregnancy is associated with hyperphagia, increased fat mass, hyperleptinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia. The neuroendocrine control of bodyweight involves appetite-regulating centres in the hypothalamus, containing both orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons that express leptin receptors (LepR). In the rat, central leptin resistance develops during mid pregnancy, well after hyperphagia becomes apparent, to negate ...
Wang Chunmei - - 2007
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nucleotide-long noncoding RNAs. In this study, to investigate miRNA expression profiles and their functions in mammary gland development, we have used microarray as well as qRT-PCR, to analyze the miRNA expression changes along the murine mammary cycle during pregnancy, particularly on transition from pregnancy ...
Loder Elizabeth - - 2007
Migraine is the headache disorder that most commonly complicates pregnancy. Migraine often, but not always, improves during pregnancy. Postdelivery migraine flares are common, and it can be difficult to distinguish these from dangerous causes of postpartum headache. Many pregnant or lactating migraineurs require intermittent use of medication for treatment of ...
Kurbel Sven - - 2008
A model of the origin of modern humans through several population bottlenecks caused by glacial cycles and cold-arid periods was used as a frame for describing occurrence of unique physiological characteristics. Occurrence of regular evening food sharing among the hominid group members improved their chances of finding food the next ...
Shelley Piran - - 2007
We have recently reported that maternal dietary imbalance during pregnancy and lactation can reduce the lifespan of offspring. Rats that were growth restricted in utero by maternal protein restriction and underwent rapid weight gain when suckled by control fed dams died earlier than animals whose mothers were fed a control ...
Sabate Josep M - - 2007
During pregnancy and lactation, the breast can be affected by a variety of specific and unique disorders, including benign disorders closely related to physiologic changes, inflammatory and infectious diseases, juvenile papillomatosis, and benign and malignant tumors. Patients with pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma tend to have more advanced neoplasms at diagnosis and ...
Hooper Kim - - 2007
Little is known about the rates of loss (depuration) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mothers during lactation. Depuration rates affect infant exposure to chemicals during breast-feeding, and fetal and lactational transfers during subsequent pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to estimate depuration rates of ...
Lanham S A SA Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2008
Osteoporosis is believed to be partly programmed in utero. Rat dams were given a low protein diet during pregnancy, and offspring were studied at different ages. Old aged rats showed site-specific strength differences. In utero nutrition has consequences in later life. Epidemiological studies suggest skeletal growth is programmed during intrauterine ...
Koletzko Berthold B Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany. - - 2007
Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference ...
Livingston Elizabeth G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of protease inhibitors on lipid and lactate levels and gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. METHODS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5084 was an observational cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Women recruited between 20 and 34 weeks of gestation were ...
Josephs Tracy - - 2007
Adipokines, which are expressed and secreted from white adipose tissue (WAT), are potential factors that could contribute to the changes in energy homeostasis that occurs in pregnancy and lactation to meet the nutrient demands of fetal growth and milk production. The aim was to identify adipokines that could be involved ...
Bruin Jennifer E - - 2007
Fetal and lactational exposure to nicotine at concentrations comparable with those in women who smoke causes impaired glucose tolerance in male offspring in postnatal life. It remains unknown whether there are critical windows of susceptibility to nicotine exposure. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given saline vehicle or nicotine bitartrate (1 ...
Grote Konstanze - - 2007
The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in ...
Orihuela Daniel - - 2007
The aim of present work was to study the effect of oral aluminium (Al) overload on intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption in the critical stages of pregnancy and lactation of rats and to find out possible relationships with prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) circulating levels. Adult female Wistar rats were orally ...
Golding Amit - - 2007
Additional research is needed to establish the safety of biologic agents in pregnancy and lactation. The practitioner should convey information regarding the natural history of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy and safety issues related to pharmacotherapies to every woman of childbearing age with RA, well before conception and pregnancy, to ensure ...
Douglas Alison J - - 2007
During pregnancy body weight, and particularly adiposity, increase, due to hyperphagia rather than decreased energy metabolism. These physiological adaptations provide the growing fetus(es) with nutrition and prepare the mother for the metabolically-demanding lactation period following birth. Mechanisms underlying the hyperphagia are still poorly understood. Although the peripheral signals that drive ...
Grattan David R - - 2007
Despite elevated plasma leptin, food intake is increased during pregnancy leading to fat deposition. We have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) leptin is unable to suppress food intake in pregnant rats, as it does in non-pregnant animals. Hence, central leptin resistance develops during pregnancy. These changes are physiologically appropriate, providing increased ...
González-Mariscal G - - 2007
Maternal behavior in rabbits has been well described in the wild, the laboratory, and the farm. Salient characteristics include: (a) the construction of a nest (inside an underground burrow or a box), composed of straw/grass and body hair and (b) the display of a single, brief (ca. 3 min) nursing ...
Kim Hong - - 2007
Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert the beneficial effects on the brain functions of offspring. In the present study, we attempted to determine the effects of maternal treadmill running during pregnancy on short-term memory ability, hippocampal cell survival, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA ...
Piersma AH
This report adresses various aspects of the specific nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their offspring, and discusses the importance of specific scientific research in support of nutrition policy. Pregnant and lactating women are characterized by a relatively high requirement for nutrients. At the same time, the unborn ...
Burdge Graham C - - 2007
Epidemiological studies and experimental models show that maternal nutritional constraint during pregnancy alters the metabolic phenotype of the offspring and that this can be passed to subsequent generations. In the rat, induction of an altered metabolic phenotype in the liver of the F1 generation by feeding a protein-restricted diet (PRD) ...
Robinson Gertraud W - - 2007
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and 3 (Stat5 and Stat3) control pregnancy-mediated mammary development and involution-dependent remodeling, respectively. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) has been implicated in the modulation of both Stat3 and Stat5 activity. To explore the biology of Socs3 in mammary tissue, the gene was ...
Ettinger Adrienne S AS Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2007
Pregnancy and lactation are states known to be accompanied by physiologically up regulated bone resorption in response to the calcium demands of the developing fetus and nursing infant. The role of calcium supplements in altering maternal responses to fetal demand for calcium is not fully understood. Exposure to the toxicant ...
Soares Michael J - - 2007
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone involved in many biological functions. In some species, there is a family of PRL-related genes; such is the case in the mouse and rat. The actions of members of the PRL family can be distinguished based on the involvement of the PRL receptor signaling pathway ...
Iyeghe-Erakpotobor G T - - 2007
Effect of stages of reproductive cycle on body weight, feed intake and apparent nutrient digestibility of rabbits was investigated. Pregnant/lactating (PL) does increased their feed intake above pregnant lactating does. Dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher in pregnant does than in lactating, PL or open does. Digestibility of crude fibre, ...
Derbyshire Emma J - - 2007
Pregnancy is a time when women are susceptible to bowel habit perturbations. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline data for a range of bowel habit parameters. Prospective 7-day bowel habit diaries were completed during each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and after birth. Sensations of ...
S.E.M. Barakat
Detailed study of mild and advanced cases of pregnancy toxaemia was carried out on 39 affected goats. Total fifteen of these goats were diagnosed as mild cases of the disease, whereas 24 of them were considered as advanced cases. The estimation of blood glucose, plasma protein, lactate, pyruvate, Creatine Kinase ...
Grace T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor
Nulliparous crossbred does aged 10 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding varying levels of concentrate and lablab on performance of rabbit does. The does were allocated to four concentrate and lablab hay combinations on a gram:gram basis (weight supplied daily): 20:130 (CL1), 40:110 (CL2), 80:70 (CL3) and ...
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