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Schedin Pepper - - 2006
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, is often overlooked by clinicians and researchers alike. With the trend towards delayed child-bearing, an increase in the occurrence of breast cancer complicated by pregnancy is anticipated. The mechanisms that have been proposed to account for this poor prognosis, including increased hormone ...
de Assis Sonia - - 2006
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in women. To determine whether this may be caused by increased pregnancy leptin levels, leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) mutant (fa/fa) and wild-type (FA/FA) female Zucker rats and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during pregnancy an obesity-inducing high-fat diet (OID) that increased pregnancy weight ...
Alsina-Manrique L - - 2006
There is a concern that lactation failure and neonatal morbidity might be more common than previously thought. Maybe the early discharge, the lack of timely follow-up, or poor information during pregnancy or after delivery play important roles. A case of severe hypernatremic dehydration secondary to lactation failure is reported and ...
Vargo-Gogola Tracy - - 2006
p190-B Rho GTPase activating protein is essential for mammary gland development because p190-B deficiency prevents ductal morphogenesis. To investigate the role of p190-B during distinct stages of mammary gland development, tetracycline-regulatable p190-B-overexpressing mice were generated. Short-term induction of p190-B in the developing mammary gland results in abnormal terminal end buds ...
O'Brien Kimberly O - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on longitudinal changes in bone calcium turnover rates across pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize calcium kinetic variables and predictors of these changes across pregnancy and early lactation in women with low calcium intakes. DESIGN: Stable calcium isotopes were administered to 10 Brazilian ...
Ladyman, Sharon Rachel
Leptin is primarily an adipose-derived hormone that acts in the hypothalamus to regulate body fat levels by suppressing appetite and increasing metabolic rate. Pregnancy is characterised by increased food intake and fat mass to meet the metabolic demands of this physiological state. Leptin concentrations also increase during pregnancy, but this ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Perri Daniel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Borruto F - - 2006
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: Studies on umbilical cord blood for determination of lactate indicate that high levels seem to be correlated to foetal metabolism for anaerobic glycolysis taking place in oxygen-deprived tissues of the foetus. These findings may be of particular-deprived clinical importance when foetal distress or foetal hypoxemia is caused ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Suda R - - 2006
The purpose of the study was to determine whether adding calcium lactate to chewing gum containing xylitol enhances remineralization of enamel surfaces using an early caries lesion model. Enamel slabs were cut from human extracted sound teeth and artificial subsurface lesions created within each. Half the enamel slabs were used ...
Cruz-Korchin Norma - - 2006
A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and breast-feeding on the breasts of women who had undergone vertical reduction mammaplasty. The study group consisted of 57 women who had pregnancies after their vertical reduction mammaplasty. Of this group, 24 breast-fed. The control group consisted of 103 ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Kramer M S - - 2006
Some breastfed infants with atopic eczema benefit from elimination of cow milk, egg, or other antigens from their mother's diet. Maternal dietary antigens are also known to cross the placenta. To assess the effects of prescribing an antigen avoidance diet during pregnancy or lactation, or both, on maternal and infant ...
Wessel Jens - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether particular hormonal patterns could explain the persistence of cyclic menstruation-like bleeding during denied pregnancies. METHODS: Hormone measurements were performed immediately after delivery in a total of 28 subjects with denied pregnancies. The results were studied in three patient subgroups: subjects with any cyclic bleeding during pregnancy ...
Pujol Esperanza - - 2006
Changes in rat mammary fat pad during pregnancy were assessed by studying differences in the morphology and composition of the pad and in the levels of proteins involved in the accumulation and mobilization of fat stores. During pregnancy, the mammary fat pad weight had increased 1.8-fold by day 20, as ...
Katoue Maram G - - 2005
Pregnancy is associated with attenuated vascular reactivity to a variety of contractile agonists. Heme oxygenases are expressed in the placenta, and it has been suggested that the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway plays a significant role in regulating blood flow through the feto-placental unit. In this study we investigated the ...
van der Heijden Olivier W H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of adrenomedullin (ADM)--a vasodilator peptide with long-lasting effects--increase in the course of pregnancy. Neither the site nor the concomitant rate of ADM synthesis in pregnancy is known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rise in plasma levels of ADM during pregnancy ...
Temprano Katherine K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the toxicity issues of commonly used antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: A review of the medical literature using Medline database via Ovid was performed to identify the toxicities of antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: Many rheumatologic diseases in women often first present during ...
Butte Nancy F - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. DESIGN: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured by respiratory calorimetry or from increments in total energy expenditure ...
Crofton Kevin M - - 2005
An increasing incorporation of mode of action (MOA) information into risk assessments has led to examination of animal MOAs to determine relevance to humans. We examined a specific MOA for developmental neurotoxicity using the MOA/Human Relevance Framework (Meek et al., 2003). The postulated MOA of ototoxicity in rats involves early ...
Vance G H S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternally derived allergens may be transferred to the developing infant during pregnancy and lactation. However, it is not known how manipulation of environmental allergen levels might impact on this early-life exposure. OBJECTIVE: To measure dietary egg allergen (ovalbumin (OVA)) in gestation-associated environments, in relation to maternal dietary egg intake. ...
Trivedi, Shweta
ABSTRACT TRIVEDI, SHWETA. Host cytokines and immune responses in pregnancy associated transmission of arrested hookworm larvae (Under the direction of Dr. Prema Arasu) Over one billion people worldwide are infected with blood-feeding intestinal hookworms. The life cycle of A. duodenale (humans) and A. caninum (dogs) includes the propensity for L3 ...
Hennighausen Lothar - - 2005
Unique developmental features during puberty, pregnancy, lactation and post-lactation make the mammary gland a prime object to explore genetic circuits that control the specification, proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of cells. Steroids and simple peptide hormones initiate and carry out complex developmental programmes, and reverse genetics has been used to ...
Sunde Roger A - - 2005
The hierarchy of selenium (Se) requirements for growing rats ranges from <0.01 to 0.1 microg Se/g diet, depending on the choice of Se status parameter. To further evaluate the efficacy of molecular biology markers to determine Se requirements in later periods of the life cycle, which are less amenable to ...
Huang Ji-Biao - - 2005
Previous studies have shown that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDase) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase form a supramolecular complex in human neutrophils that undergoes retrograde trafficking in cells from pregnant women, but anterograde trafficking in cells from nonpregnant individuals. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, we now demonstrate that transaldolase (TALase), a key regulatory ...
Ward Kate A - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: At birth, the fetus will contain 30 g of calcium; during the third trimester the calcium accrual can be up to 340 mg/day. Therefore, extremely high demands for calcium provision are placed upon the mother. This review aims to describe the adaptive mechanisms of the female skeleton ...
Andrews Z B - - 2005
Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone critical for maintaining pregnancy and lactation. Under normal conditions, prolactin secretion is tightly regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neuronal systems within the mediobasal hypothalamus in a process known as short-loop negative feedback. This review focuses on neuroendocrine adaptations to prolactin negative feedback during late pregnancy. ...
Rolland Rosalind M - - 2005
Long-term studies of the endangered North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, have revealed declining reproductive parameters over the past two decades, threatening recovery of this small population if current trends continue. Little is known about right whale reproductive physiology, and investigating this reproductive decline has been limited by a lack ...
Caja S - - 2005
Adiponectin is believed to be a key factor in determining insulin sensitivity. In turn, insulin sensitivity is known to change from an enhanced state in early pregnancy to a reduced one in late pregnancy. A role for adiponectin in these changes has been proposed for mice but questioned for humans. ...
Ladyman S R - - 2005
Pregnancy in the rat is a state of leptin resistance associated with impaired leptin signal transduction in the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to determine whether this leptin-resistant state is mediated by a change in the level of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Real-time RT-PCR was used to ...
Jousan F D - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations of lactation, somatic cell count score (SCCS) at breeding, milk yield, lactation number, interval from calving to breeding (days open), number of times inseminated, and season of breeding on fetal loss for lactating Holstein females (both first-parity and multiparous cows) and ...
Wiggans G R - - 2005
The system for estimating days open for cows with no subsequent lactation was examined to determine if estimates should vary depending on pregnancy diagnosis. Pregnancy diagnosis information was unavailable when the original prediction system was developed, but collection was begun in 2002. New prediction equations were estimated from nearly 1.1 ...
Langley-Evans Simon C - - 2005
Exposure to undernutrition in fetal life increases the susceptibility of humans and animals to major disease states in adult life. Studies of rodents exposed to protein restriction during fetal life indicate that lifespan is reduced, a finding that is the opposite of the well-documented improvement in longevity noted with post-weaning ...
Reali A - - 2005
When considering whether to administer drugs to women during pregnancy and lactation, we have to take into account that these substances may expose the fetus or neonate to multiple effects. This occurs because there is a unique situation where the maternal compartment is connected with the fetal or neonatal compartment ...
Kovacs Christopher S - - 2005
Pregnancy and lactation both place significant demands on the mother to provide sufficient calcium (among other minerals and nutrients) to the fetus and neonate. Despite facing similar demands for calcium during pregnancy and lactation, the maternal adaptations differ significantly between these two reproductive periods. Women lose 300 to 400 mg ...
Liefers S C - - 2005
Leptin concentrations in body fluids and tissues undergo dynamic changes during the periparturient period. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene have been shown to be associated with differences in leptin concentration during late pregnancy but not during lactation. As the promoter of leptin regulates the expression of leptin, polymorphisms in this ...
De Marco Marion - - 2005
Acoustic analysis of infants crying, a sensitive and selective index for measuring the effect of pre and perinatal lead exposure, may provide an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by the toxic. The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to low lead levels during perinatal and early ...
Lecklin Anne - - 2005
The efficacy of central leptin therapy on weight homeostasis through various phases of reproduction, pregnancy outcome and postnatal, prepubertal and pubertal growth of offspring was assessed. Enhanced leptin transgene expression after a single intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding the leptin gene (rAAV-lep) decreased calorie intake and weight ...
Hapon María Belén - - 2005
Untreated maternal hypothyroidism (hypoT) has serious consequences in offspring development that may result from the effect on lactation of maternal metabolism dysfunction. We studied the effects of prolonged propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypoT (0.1% PTU in drinking water starting 8 days before mating until day 21 of pregnancy or for 30 days ...
Bonnet M - - 2005
Most dairy ruminants are still lactating during early pregnancy, which could induce hormonal adaptations different from those observed during pregnancy alone. The incidence of concomitant lactation and pregnancy on plasma leptin has not been studied, and physiological factors involved in its regulation have not been addressed in goats. We assayed ...
Karlsson Magnus K - - 2005
During pregnancy and lactation, changes occur in a variety of factors which have great potential to influence bone mineral density (BMD). Smoking habits, the level of alcohol consumption, the level of physical activity, body weight, soft tissue composition and hormone levels are all factors that change during the course of ...
Boulanger Corinne A - - 2005
A parity-induced mammary population, marked by beta-galactosidase expression conditionally activated through cre-lox recombinase originates in WAP-Cre/Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ (WAP-Cre/Rosa-LacZ) female mice during pregnancy, lactation and involution. During subsequent pregnancies, these parity-induced mammary epithelial cells (PI-MEC) proliferated to produce new secretory acini composed of secretory luminal cells and myoepithelium. In serial transplantation assays, ...
Méniel Valérie - - 2005
Mutations of Apc and p53 have both been implicated in human and murine mammary neoplasia. To investigate potential interactions between Apc and p53, we conditionally inactivated Apc in both the presence and the absence of functional p53. Apc deficiency on its own leads to the development of metaplasia but not ...
Zhou Jiong - - 2005
Elf5 is an epithelial-specific ETS factor. Embryos with a null mutation in the Elf5 gene died before embryonic day 7.5, indicating that Elf5 is essential during mouse embryogenesis. Elf5 is also required for proliferation and differentiation of mouse mammary alveolar epithelial cells during pregnancy and lactation. The loss of one ...
de Souza Lisboa Sabrina Francesca - - 2005
The involvement of neurotoxicants in the etiology of emotional pathologies is becoming an issue in neurotoxicology. Lead (Pb) exposure during childhood has been associated with increased impulsivity, aggressivity, and delinquency. Considering the paucity of experimental studies investigating the involvement of developmental Pb exposure in emotional disorders, our objective was to ...
Kelly Hanna L - - 2006
Breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation typically have an aggressive phenotype and an advanced stage at presentation. The timing of treatment modalities in pregnant women is complex and requires multidisciplinary input. Alternatives which are relatively safe for both mother and fetus are available, though unforeseen risks may exist. Chemotherapy ...
Kishi Reiko - - 2005
To elucidate the effect of maternal styrene exposure, which is due to various postnatal changes in the development and behavior of offspring, we investigated pregnancy-induced changes in the metabolism of styrene in rat liver in relation to the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes. We also examined age and sex-induced changes ...
Pujol Esperanza - - 2005
Pregnancy is characterized by changes in maternal adiposity. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed analysis of the different steps of the adrenergic pathway, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels and adipocyte size, in order to evaluate the response of white adipose tissue (WAT) to the metabolic changes ...
Goldberg Gail - - 2005
In the second of a two-part article, a senior research scientist discusses the mother's nutritional needs during lactation and the first year after the birth. The mother's needs for energy increase during breast-feeding, but conversely studies have shown that breast-feeding mothers do not necessarily lose weight. As in pregnancy, it ...
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