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Results 201 - 250 of 990
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Iyeghe-Erakpotobor G T - - 2007
Effect of stages of reproductive cycle on body weight, feed intake and apparent nutrient digestibility of rabbits was investigated. Pregnant/lactating (PL) does increased their feed intake above pregnant lactating does. Dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher in pregnant does than in lactating, PL or open does. Digestibility of crude fibre, ...
Derbyshire Emma J - - 2007
Pregnancy is a time when women are susceptible to bowel habit perturbations. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline data for a range of bowel habit parameters. Prospective 7-day bowel habit diaries were completed during each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and after birth. Sensations of ...
S.E.M. Barakat
Detailed study of mild and advanced cases of pregnancy toxaemia was carried out on 39 affected goats. Total fifteen of these goats were diagnosed as mild cases of the disease, whereas 24 of them were considered as advanced cases. The estimation of blood glucose, plasma protein, lactate, pyruvate, Creatine Kinase ...
Grace T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor
Nulliparous crossbred does aged 10 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding varying levels of concentrate and lablab on performance of rabbit does. The does were allocated to four concentrate and lablab hay combinations on a gram:gram basis (weight supplied daily): 20:130 (CL1), 40:110 (CL2), 80:70 (CL3) and ...
Annen E L - - 2007
Objectives were to determine effects of continuous milking (CM) and bovine somatotropin (bST) administration on 1) mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, apoptosis, and ultrastructure during late gestation and early lactation, 2) expression of genes associated with proliferation, and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, and 3) milk yield and composition. Second-gestation, ...
Cahill Leah E - - 2007
Dietary soya protein substitution for casein initiated at weaning slows disease progression in animal models of chronic renal disease. As there is increasing evidence that fetal programming can have a significant impact on kidney physiology and function in offspring, the objective of the current study was to determine whether exposure ...
Ringseis Robert - - 2007
Feeding oxidized fats causes activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the liver of rats. However, whether feeding oxidized fat during pregnancy also results in activation of PPARalpha in fetal liver is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to explore whether feeding oxidized fat during pregnancy causes a PPARalpha response ...
Huang Hui - - 2006
In this study we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C and CYP2J isoforms in renal proximal tubules and microvessels isolated from rats at different stages of pregnancy. We also selectively inhibited epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) production by the administration of N-methanesulfonyl-6-(2-proparyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MSPPOH 20 mg/kg/day iv) to rats during Days ...
Gonsalves Lilian - - 2006
Failure to treat depression during pregnancy can lead to problems for the mother and the baby. However, given the lack of convincing evidence of the safety of antidepressant drugs to the fetus during pregnancy and lactation, any antidepressive treatment plan must be embarked on with caution. The authors offer practical ...
Ohlsson A - - 2007
A 31-year old patient who is compound heterozygous for the two galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations p.Q188R and p.R333W delivered two healthy boys after uneventful spontaneous pregnancies. The patient chose to breast-feed her first baby and her galactose metabolites in blood and urine were monitored closely. A temporary increase in her galactose-1-phosphate ...
Locke Darren - - 2007
Oligonucleotide microarray analysis uniquely shows that several members of the connexin family of gap junction proteins are expressed by the epithelium during mouse mammary gland development. Connexin 26 (Cx26) is present throughout pregnancy and lactation, is then undetectable shortly after weaning, but reappears during involution. Additionally, Cx30 is abundant in ...
Sherwood Kelly L - - 2006
Many women are advised to consume a folic acid-containing prenatal supplement for the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Whether this remains necessary after folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America has yet to be determined. Our objective was to assess the dietary folate intake of a sample ...
Church Michael W MW Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. - - 2007
Consumption of the nutrients omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is considered beneficial to fetal and infant development. It may also reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging gestational length. However several recent human and animal studies have reported that over-supplementation with omega-3 FA, ...
Léonhardt Marion - - 2007
Maternal adversity is associated with long-lasting consequences on cognitive development, behavior and physiological responses in rat offspring. Few studies have examined whether repeated maternal stress produces repeated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mothers and whether it modifies maternal behavior. Here, we tested a novel model of perinatal stress ...
Brisken Cathrin - - 2006
The mouse mammary gland is a complex tissue that proliferates and differentiates under the control of systemic hormones during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Once a highly branched milk duct system has been established, during mid/late pregnancy, alveoli, little saccular outpouchings, sprout all over the ductal system and differentiate to become ...
Waldhauser Katri Maria - - 2006
The aim of this work was to compare hepatocellular toxicity and pharmacological activity of amiodarone (2-n-butyl-3-[3,5 diiodo-4-diethylaminoethoxybenzoyl]-benzofuran; B2-O-Et-N-diethyl) and of eight amiodarone derivatives. Three amiodarone metabolites were studied, namely, mono-N-desethylamiodarone (B2-O-Et-NH-ethyl), di-N-desethylamiodarone (B2-O-Et-NH(2)), and (2-butyl-benzofuran-3-yl)-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)-methanone (B2) carrying an ethanol side chain [(2-butylbenzofuran-3-yl)-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]-methanone; B2-O-Et-OH]. In addition, five amiodarone analogs were investigated, ...
Sternlicht Mark D MD Department of Anatomy and Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0452, USA. - - 2006
Unlike other branched organs, the mammary gland undergoes most of its branching during adolescent rather than embryonic development. Its morphogenesis begins in utero, pauses between birth and puberty, and resumes in response to ovarian estrogens to form an open ductal tree that eventually fills the entire mammary fat pad of ...
Jochum Frank - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine may be a conditionally indispensable amino acid in neonates and should be given in adequate amounts. Reliable information concerning the glutamine content of human milk is lacking. AIM: To assess total glutamine content in human milk using a novel analytical procedure, and to evaluate the potential influence of ...
Kabaroff L - - 2006
Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during ...
Sliwa E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The effect of dexamethasone (Dex) on postnatal bone formation processes is known to decrease the synthesis of collagen and bone matrix, but the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is to induce positive effects on growth and skeletal development during postnatal life. However, the effects of Dex and AKG treatment on ...
Settle Paul - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare lactate uptake in the microvillous plasma membrane (maternal facing [MVM]) in term and preterm placentas in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA) controls, and in the basal plasma membrane (fetal facing [BM]) at term. In addition, we examine the expression of monocarboxylate ...
Žvorc, Zdravko
The aim of this research was to describe changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients, and haematological parameters during pregnancy and lactation of sows. Data presented here were obtained by using blood samples from healthy, conventionally managed sows from a breeding herd. The samples were taken at three different points ...
Sharma Sushma - - 2006
Pregnancy is known to cause refractive changes as a result of various hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy. These changes may persist for a few weeks post-partum and during lactation. In this article we discuss various refractive issues in pregnancy that have an effect on contact lens use, myopia and the ...
Macdonald, Alastair A
The nutritional requirements of animals during pregnancy and lactation differ from the requirements of the growing animal, or the non-pregnant adult, as revealed by studies of the domestic species. However, relatively little information has been published to indicate the comparable requirements for pregnancy and lactation of most animals in the ...
Kobayashi-Hattori Kazuo - - 2006
We investigated the change in renal mdr1b mRNA expression in offspring exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) via the placenta and lactation or via lactation, using the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Pregnant ICR mice were given water containing TBTC (0, 15, and 50 microg/ml) ad libitum from the start of ...
Xing Yan - - 2006
Nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 are important podocyte proteins that help maintain the integrity of the slit diaphragm and prevent proteinuria. Studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, glucocorticoids, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have antiproteinuric effects. However, it is still unclear whether these drugs, with different pharmacological mechanisms, lead ...
Sendemir E - - 2006
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is expressed in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. High co-localization rates of SHBG with oxytocin have been observed in the hypothalamus, indicating that SHBG plays a role in pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Further studies have shown that hypothalamic SHBG expression is malleable to changing steroid conditions. In this ...
Thomas Michael - - 2006
Calcium consumption is essential for bone development and maintenance throughout life, yet more than one half of the female population in the United States does not consume the recommended amount of calcium. Calcium intake is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation because of the potential adverse effect on maternal bone ...
Schedin Pepper - - 2006
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, is often overlooked by clinicians and researchers alike. With the trend towards delayed child-bearing, an increase in the occurrence of breast cancer complicated by pregnancy is anticipated. The mechanisms that have been proposed to account for this poor prognosis, including increased hormone ...
de Assis Sonia - - 2006
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in women. To determine whether this may be caused by increased pregnancy leptin levels, leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) mutant (fa/fa) and wild-type (FA/FA) female Zucker rats and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during pregnancy an obesity-inducing high-fat diet (OID) that increased pregnancy weight ...
Alsina-Manrique L - - 2006
There is a concern that lactation failure and neonatal morbidity might be more common than previously thought. Maybe the early discharge, the lack of timely follow-up, or poor information during pregnancy or after delivery play important roles. A case of severe hypernatremic dehydration secondary to lactation failure is reported and ...
Vargo-Gogola Tracy - - 2006
p190-B Rho GTPase activating protein is essential for mammary gland development because p190-B deficiency prevents ductal morphogenesis. To investigate the role of p190-B during distinct stages of mammary gland development, tetracycline-regulatable p190-B-overexpressing mice were generated. Short-term induction of p190-B in the developing mammary gland results in abnormal terminal end buds ...
O'Brien Kimberly O - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on longitudinal changes in bone calcium turnover rates across pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize calcium kinetic variables and predictors of these changes across pregnancy and early lactation in women with low calcium intakes. DESIGN: Stable calcium isotopes were administered to 10 Brazilian ...
Ladyman, Sharon Rachel
Leptin is primarily an adipose-derived hormone that acts in the hypothalamus to regulate body fat levels by suppressing appetite and increasing metabolic rate. Pregnancy is characterised by increased food intake and fat mass to meet the metabolic demands of this physiological state. Leptin concentrations also increase during pregnancy, but this ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Perri Daniel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy ...
Borruto F - - 2006
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: Studies on umbilical cord blood for determination of lactate indicate that high levels seem to be correlated to foetal metabolism for anaerobic glycolysis taking place in oxygen-deprived tissues of the foetus. These findings may be of particular-deprived clinical importance when foetal distress or foetal hypoxemia is caused ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Suda R - - 2006
The purpose of the study was to determine whether adding calcium lactate to chewing gum containing xylitol enhances remineralization of enamel surfaces using an early caries lesion model. Enamel slabs were cut from human extracted sound teeth and artificial subsurface lesions created within each. Half the enamel slabs were used ...
Cruz-Korchin Norma - - 2006
A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and breast-feeding on the breasts of women who had undergone vertical reduction mammaplasty. The study group consisted of 57 women who had pregnancies after their vertical reduction mammaplasty. Of this group, 24 breast-fed. The control group consisted of 103 ...
Dugoua Jean-Jacques - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and ...
Kramer M S - - 2006
Some breastfed infants with atopic eczema benefit from elimination of cow milk, egg, or other antigens from their mother's diet. Maternal dietary antigens are also known to cross the placenta. To assess the effects of prescribing an antigen avoidance diet during pregnancy or lactation, or both, on maternal and infant ...
Wessel Jens - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether particular hormonal patterns could explain the persistence of cyclic menstruation-like bleeding during denied pregnancies. METHODS: Hormone measurements were performed immediately after delivery in a total of 28 subjects with denied pregnancies. The results were studied in three patient subgroups: subjects with any cyclic bleeding during pregnancy ...
Pujol Esperanza - - 2006
Changes in rat mammary fat pad during pregnancy were assessed by studying differences in the morphology and composition of the pad and in the levels of proteins involved in the accumulation and mobilization of fat stores. During pregnancy, the mammary fat pad weight had increased 1.8-fold by day 20, as ...
Katoue Maram G - - 2005
Pregnancy is associated with attenuated vascular reactivity to a variety of contractile agonists. Heme oxygenases are expressed in the placenta, and it has been suggested that the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway plays a significant role in regulating blood flow through the feto-placental unit. In this study we investigated the ...
van der Heijden Olivier W H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of adrenomedullin (ADM)--a vasodilator peptide with long-lasting effects--increase in the course of pregnancy. Neither the site nor the concomitant rate of ADM synthesis in pregnancy is known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rise in plasma levels of ADM during pregnancy ...
Temprano Katherine K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the toxicity issues of commonly used antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: A review of the medical literature using Medline database via Ovid was performed to identify the toxicities of antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: Many rheumatologic diseases in women often first present during ...
Butte Nancy F - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. DESIGN: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured by respiratory calorimetry or from increments in total energy expenditure ...
Crofton Kevin M - - 2005
An increasing incorporation of mode of action (MOA) information into risk assessments has led to examination of animal MOAs to determine relevance to humans. We examined a specific MOA for developmental neurotoxicity using the MOA/Human Relevance Framework (Meek et al., 2003). The postulated MOA of ototoxicity in rats involves early ...
Vance G H S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternally derived allergens may be transferred to the developing infant during pregnancy and lactation. However, it is not known how manipulation of environmental allergen levels might impact on this early-life exposure. OBJECTIVE: To measure dietary egg allergen (ovalbumin (OVA)) in gestation-associated environments, in relation to maternal dietary egg intake. ...
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