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Results 201 - 250 of 1012
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Loder Elizabeth - - 2007
Migraine is the headache disorder that most commonly complicates pregnancy. Migraine often, but not always, improves during pregnancy. Postdelivery migraine flares are common, and it can be difficult to distinguish these from dangerous causes of postpartum headache. Many pregnant or lactating migraineurs require intermittent use of medication for treatment of ...
Kurbel Sven - - 2008
A model of the origin of modern humans through several population bottlenecks caused by glacial cycles and cold-arid periods was used as a frame for describing occurrence of unique physiological characteristics. Occurrence of regular evening food sharing among the hominid group members improved their chances of finding food the next ...
Shelley Piran - - 2007
We have recently reported that maternal dietary imbalance during pregnancy and lactation can reduce the lifespan of offspring. Rats that were growth restricted in utero by maternal protein restriction and underwent rapid weight gain when suckled by control fed dams died earlier than animals whose mothers were fed a control ...
Sabate Josep M - - 2007
During pregnancy and lactation, the breast can be affected by a variety of specific and unique disorders, including benign disorders closely related to physiologic changes, inflammatory and infectious diseases, juvenile papillomatosis, and benign and malignant tumors. Patients with pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma tend to have more advanced neoplasms at diagnosis and ...
Hooper Kim - - 2007
Little is known about the rates of loss (depuration) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mothers during lactation. Depuration rates affect infant exposure to chemicals during breast-feeding, and fetal and lactational transfers during subsequent pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to estimate depuration rates of ...
Lanham S A SA Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2008
Osteoporosis is believed to be partly programmed in utero. Rat dams were given a low protein diet during pregnancy, and offspring were studied at different ages. Old aged rats showed site-specific strength differences. In utero nutrition has consequences in later life. Epidemiological studies suggest skeletal growth is programmed during intrauterine ...
Koletzko Berthold B Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany. - - 2007
Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference ...
Livingston Elizabeth G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of protease inhibitors on lipid and lactate levels and gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. METHODS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5084 was an observational cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Women recruited between 20 and 34 weeks of gestation were ...
Josephs Tracy - - 2007
Adipokines, which are expressed and secreted from white adipose tissue (WAT), are potential factors that could contribute to the changes in energy homeostasis that occurs in pregnancy and lactation to meet the nutrient demands of fetal growth and milk production. The aim was to identify adipokines that could be involved ...
Bruin Jennifer E - - 2007
Fetal and lactational exposure to nicotine at concentrations comparable with those in women who smoke causes impaired glucose tolerance in male offspring in postnatal life. It remains unknown whether there are critical windows of susceptibility to nicotine exposure. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given saline vehicle or nicotine bitartrate (1 ...
Grote Konstanze - - 2007
The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in ...
Orihuela Daniel - - 2007
The aim of present work was to study the effect of oral aluminium (Al) overload on intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption in the critical stages of pregnancy and lactation of rats and to find out possible relationships with prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) circulating levels. Adult female Wistar rats were orally ...
Golding Amit - - 2007
Additional research is needed to establish the safety of biologic agents in pregnancy and lactation. The practitioner should convey information regarding the natural history of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy and safety issues related to pharmacotherapies to every woman of childbearing age with RA, well before conception and pregnancy, to ensure ...
Douglas Alison J - - 2007
During pregnancy body weight, and particularly adiposity, increase, due to hyperphagia rather than decreased energy metabolism. These physiological adaptations provide the growing fetus(es) with nutrition and prepare the mother for the metabolically-demanding lactation period following birth. Mechanisms underlying the hyperphagia are still poorly understood. Although the peripheral signals that drive ...
Grattan David R - - 2007
Despite elevated plasma leptin, food intake is increased during pregnancy leading to fat deposition. We have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) leptin is unable to suppress food intake in pregnant rats, as it does in non-pregnant animals. Hence, central leptin resistance develops during pregnancy. These changes are physiologically appropriate, providing increased ...
González-Mariscal G - - 2007
Maternal behavior in rabbits has been well described in the wild, the laboratory, and the farm. Salient characteristics include: (a) the construction of a nest (inside an underground burrow or a box), composed of straw/grass and body hair and (b) the display of a single, brief (ca. 3 min) nursing ...
Kim Hong - - 2007
Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert the beneficial effects on the brain functions of offspring. In the present study, we attempted to determine the effects of maternal treadmill running during pregnancy on short-term memory ability, hippocampal cell survival, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA ...
Piersma AH
This report adresses various aspects of the specific nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their offspring, and discusses the importance of specific scientific research in support of nutrition policy. Pregnant and lactating women are characterized by a relatively high requirement for nutrients. At the same time, the unborn ...
Burdge Graham C - - 2007
Epidemiological studies and experimental models show that maternal nutritional constraint during pregnancy alters the metabolic phenotype of the offspring and that this can be passed to subsequent generations. In the rat, induction of an altered metabolic phenotype in the liver of the F1 generation by feeding a protein-restricted diet (PRD) ...
Robinson Gertraud W - - 2007
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and 3 (Stat5 and Stat3) control pregnancy-mediated mammary development and involution-dependent remodeling, respectively. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) has been implicated in the modulation of both Stat3 and Stat5 activity. To explore the biology of Socs3 in mammary tissue, the gene was ...
Ettinger Adrienne S - - 2007
Pregnancy and lactation are states known to be accompanied by physiologically up regulated bone resorption in response to the calcium demands of the developing fetus and nursing infant. The role of calcium supplements in altering maternal responses to fetal demand for calcium is not fully understood. Exposure to the toxicant ...
Soares Michael J - - 2007
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone involved in many biological functions. In some species, there is a family of PRL-related genes; such is the case in the mouse and rat. The actions of members of the PRL family can be distinguished based on the involvement of the PRL receptor signaling pathway ...
Iyeghe-Erakpotobor G T - - 2007
Effect of stages of reproductive cycle on body weight, feed intake and apparent nutrient digestibility of rabbits was investigated. Pregnant/lactating (PL) does increased their feed intake above pregnant lactating does. Dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher in pregnant does than in lactating, PL or open does. Digestibility of crude fibre, ...
Derbyshire Emma J - - 2007
Pregnancy is a time when women are susceptible to bowel habit perturbations. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline data for a range of bowel habit parameters. Prospective 7-day bowel habit diaries were completed during each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and after birth. Sensations of ...
S.E.M. Barakat
Detailed study of mild and advanced cases of pregnancy toxaemia was carried out on 39 affected goats. Total fifteen of these goats were diagnosed as mild cases of the disease, whereas 24 of them were considered as advanced cases. The estimation of blood glucose, plasma protein, lactate, pyruvate, Creatine Kinase ...
Grace T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor
Nulliparous crossbred does aged 10 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding varying levels of concentrate and lablab on performance of rabbit does. The does were allocated to four concentrate and lablab hay combinations on a gram:gram basis (weight supplied daily): 20:130 (CL1), 40:110 (CL2), 80:70 (CL3) and ...
Annen E L - - 2007
Objectives were to determine effects of continuous milking (CM) and bovine somatotropin (bST) administration on 1) mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, apoptosis, and ultrastructure during late gestation and early lactation, 2) expression of genes associated with proliferation, and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, and 3) milk yield and composition. Second-gestation, ...
Cahill Leah E - - 2007
Dietary soya protein substitution for casein initiated at weaning slows disease progression in animal models of chronic renal disease. As there is increasing evidence that fetal programming can have a significant impact on kidney physiology and function in offspring, the objective of the current study was to determine whether exposure ...
Ringseis Robert - - 2007
Feeding oxidized fats causes activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the liver of rats. However, whether feeding oxidized fat during pregnancy also results in activation of PPARalpha in fetal liver is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to explore whether feeding oxidized fat during pregnancy causes a PPARalpha response ...
Huang Hui - - 2006
In this study we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C and CYP2J isoforms in renal proximal tubules and microvessels isolated from rats at different stages of pregnancy. We also selectively inhibited epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) production by the administration of N-methanesulfonyl-6-(2-proparyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MSPPOH 20 mg/kg/day iv) to rats during Days ...
Gonsalves Lilian - - 2006
Failure to treat depression during pregnancy can lead to problems for the mother and the baby. However, given the lack of convincing evidence of the safety of antidepressant drugs to the fetus during pregnancy and lactation, any antidepressive treatment plan must be embarked on with caution. The authors offer practical ...
Ohlsson A - - 2007
A 31-year old patient who is compound heterozygous for the two galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations p.Q188R and p.R333W delivered two healthy boys after uneventful spontaneous pregnancies. The patient chose to breast-feed her first baby and her galactose metabolites in blood and urine were monitored closely. A temporary increase in her galactose-1-phosphate ...
Locke Darren - - 2007
Oligonucleotide microarray analysis uniquely shows that several members of the connexin family of gap junction proteins are expressed by the epithelium during mouse mammary gland development. Connexin 26 (Cx26) is present throughout pregnancy and lactation, is then undetectable shortly after weaning, but reappears during involution. Additionally, Cx30 is abundant in ...
Sherwood Kelly L - - 2006
Many women are advised to consume a folic acid-containing prenatal supplement for the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Whether this remains necessary after folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America has yet to be determined. Our objective was to assess the dietary folate intake of a sample ...
Church Michael W MW Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. - - 2007
Consumption of the nutrients omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is considered beneficial to fetal and infant development. It may also reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging gestational length. However several recent human and animal studies have reported that over-supplementation with omega-3 FA, ...
Léonhardt Marion - - 2007
Maternal adversity is associated with long-lasting consequences on cognitive development, behavior and physiological responses in rat offspring. Few studies have examined whether repeated maternal stress produces repeated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mothers and whether it modifies maternal behavior. Here, we tested a novel model of perinatal stress ...
Brisken Cathrin - - 2006
The mouse mammary gland is a complex tissue that proliferates and differentiates under the control of systemic hormones during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Once a highly branched milk duct system has been established, during mid/late pregnancy, alveoli, little saccular outpouchings, sprout all over the ductal system and differentiate to become ...
Waldhauser Katri Maria - - 2006
The aim of this work was to compare hepatocellular toxicity and pharmacological activity of amiodarone (2-n-butyl-3-[3,5 diiodo-4-diethylaminoethoxybenzoyl]-benzofuran; B2-O-Et-N-diethyl) and of eight amiodarone derivatives. Three amiodarone metabolites were studied, namely, mono-N-desethylamiodarone (B2-O-Et-NH-ethyl), di-N-desethylamiodarone (B2-O-Et-NH(2)), and (2-butyl-benzofuran-3-yl)-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)-methanone (B2) carrying an ethanol side chain [(2-butylbenzofuran-3-yl)-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]-methanone; B2-O-Et-OH]. In addition, five amiodarone analogs were investigated, ...
Sternlicht Mark D MD Department of Anatomy and Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0452, USA. - - 2006
Unlike other branched organs, the mammary gland undergoes most of its branching during adolescent rather than embryonic development. Its morphogenesis begins in utero, pauses between birth and puberty, and resumes in response to ovarian estrogens to form an open ductal tree that eventually fills the entire mammary fat pad of ...
Jochum Frank - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine may be a conditionally indispensable amino acid in neonates and should be given in adequate amounts. Reliable information concerning the glutamine content of human milk is lacking. AIM: To assess total glutamine content in human milk using a novel analytical procedure, and to evaluate the potential influence of ...
Kabaroff L - - 2006
Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during ...
Sliwa E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The effect of dexamethasone (Dex) on postnatal bone formation processes is known to decrease the synthesis of collagen and bone matrix, but the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is to induce positive effects on growth and skeletal development during postnatal life. However, the effects of Dex and AKG treatment on ...
Settle Paul - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare lactate uptake in the microvillous plasma membrane (maternal facing [MVM]) in term and preterm placentas in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA) controls, and in the basal plasma membrane (fetal facing [BM]) at term. In addition, we examine the expression of monocarboxylate ...
Žvorc, Zdravko
The aim of this research was to describe changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients, and haematological parameters during pregnancy and lactation of sows. Data presented here were obtained by using blood samples from healthy, conventionally managed sows from a breeding herd. The samples were taken at three different points ...
Sharma Sushma - - 2006
Pregnancy is known to cause refractive changes as a result of various hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy. These changes may persist for a few weeks post-partum and during lactation. In this article we discuss various refractive issues in pregnancy that have an effect on contact lens use, myopia and the ...
Macdonald, Alastair A
The nutritional requirements of animals during pregnancy and lactation differ from the requirements of the growing animal, or the non-pregnant adult, as revealed by studies of the domestic species. However, relatively little information has been published to indicate the comparable requirements for pregnancy and lactation of most animals in the ...
Kobayashi-Hattori Kazuo - - 2006
We investigated the change in renal mdr1b mRNA expression in offspring exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) via the placenta and lactation or via lactation, using the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Pregnant ICR mice were given water containing TBTC (0, 15, and 50 microg/ml) ad libitum from the start of ...
Xing Yan - - 2006
Nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 are important podocyte proteins that help maintain the integrity of the slit diaphragm and prevent proteinuria. Studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, glucocorticoids, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have antiproteinuric effects. However, it is still unclear whether these drugs, with different pharmacological mechanisms, lead ...
Sendemir E - - 2006
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is expressed in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. High co-localization rates of SHBG with oxytocin have been observed in the hypothalamus, indicating that SHBG plays a role in pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Further studies have shown that hypothalamic SHBG expression is malleable to changing steroid conditions. In this ...
Thomas Michael - - 2006
Calcium consumption is essential for bone development and maintenance throughout life, yet more than one half of the female population in the United States does not consume the recommended amount of calcium. Calcium intake is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation because of the potential adverse effect on maternal bone ...
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