Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1012
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Yanase S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of pregnancy and lactation on hexokinase II activity and gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rats. STUDY DESIGN: Intraabdominal adipose tissue and femoral quadriceps muscle were removed from Sprague-Dawley rats at various times (6 to 10 animals per group) ...
Yamanaka I - - 1997
Using specific antibodies and cDNA probe, we examined the expression pattern of a major gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), in rat mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation. Double immuno-fluorescence revealed that the labeling of Cx43 was superimposed in the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, suggesting that myoepithelial cell were interconnected by ...
Jeddi P A - - 1997
The authors used murine pregnancy as a model to investigate the regulation of IgG glycosylation. Pregnancy is associated with decreased levels of circulating IgG. The oligosaccharides on this IgG from late (day 15), but not early (day 8), pregnant Balb/c mice exhibited increased levels of terminal galactose. The levels remained ...
Vimy M J - - 1997
Neonatal uptake of mercury (Hg) from milk was examined in a pregnant sheep model, where radioactive mercury (Hg203)/silver tooth fillings (amalgam) were newly placed. A crossover experimental design was used in which lactating ewes nursed foster lambs. In a parallel study, the relationship between dental history and breast milk concentration ...
Woodside B - - 1996
It has been demonstrated in guinea pigs that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased in late pregnancy in some peripheral tissues and in the cerebellum. To determine whether similar changes would be observed in areas of the brain known to play a role in parturition, staining for NADPH-diaphorase, a ...
Ramos R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contraceptive efficacy of the lactational amenorrhoea method. DESIGN: Non-comparative prospective trial. SETTING: Urban Manila, the Philippines. SUBJECTS: 485 lower income, educated women with extensive experience of breast feeding. INTERVENTION: Women were offered all available contraceptives for use after birth. Those who chose the lactational amenorrhoea method ...
Skowron-Cendrzak A - - 1996
The ontogeny of graft versus host (GvH) reactivity of thymocytes and splenocytes was tested in C57BL female mice from the day of birth up to the age of 24 months. In comparison with virgin mice, the effect of a different number of pregnancies, with or without lactation, on the GvH ...
Baum A L - - 1996
We explore the effects on the developing fetus and neonate of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and lactation, reviewing the relevant animal and human studies published in English from 1976 to the present. Medline was used to search the terms SSRI, fluoxetine, pregnancy, lactation, and teratogenesis. Animal studies were ...
Blasco Casares F J - - 1996
An experimental study was conducted in rats to assess urographically the function of the integrated autologous free graft (IAFG) of the ureter, in which the ureter is reimplanted after being extracted from the animal's body and involves complete devascularization and ureteral ischemia. The technique employed included direct vascular injection of ...
Sachser N - - 1996
This study investigated the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the female offsprings' behaviour and body weight. The subjects studied were daughters whose mothers had lived: a) in a stable social environment (SSE) during pregnancy and lactation; b) in an unstable social environment (USE) during pregnancy ...
Whitelaw C B - - 1996
The major milk whey protein of ruminants is beta-lactoglobulin. Transgenic mice which carry genomic fragments of ovine beta-lactoglobulin express the transgene at high levels in the mammary gland. Using DNaseI as a probe for transcription complex formation in chromatin, the temporal induction pattern of beta-lactoglobulin in transgenic mice has been ...
Gulbis B - - 1996
The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the human gestational sac. Total lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes were measured in matched coelomic fluid and samples of villous and decidual tissues collected at the time of pregnancy termination in a group of 16 ...
Milley J R - - 1996
Corticosteroid administration adversely affects fetal growth and consequently, unless metabolic rate increases (thereby increasing the need for fetal metabolic substrates), reduces fetal need for exogenous substrates. To find whether the uptake of all or only certain metabolic substrates was affected by fetal hypercortisolemia, we measured exogenous uptake of glucose, lactate, ...
Pollack G M - - 1996
We undertook the present project to elucidate the physiologic factors that govern methanol delivery to the developing conceptus after maternal methanol exposure, and to develop a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to describe methanol disposition in pregnancy. A multi-experimental approach addressed the goals of this project. Initial experiments characterized the systemic ...
France M M - - 1996
AIM: To evaluate the acceptance and efficacy of the lactational amenorrhoea method of family planning in breastfeeding clients attending clinics of the NZ Association of Natural Family Planning. METHODS: Mothers who were fully breastfeeding their babies, were amenorrhoeic and were early postpartum were offered for the purpose of family planning ...
Kuller J A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To review published data pertaining to safety of psychoactive drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and lactation. DATA SOURCES: A computerized search of articles published through July 1995 was performed on the MEDLINE data base. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: All identified ...
Tzeng Y J - - 1996
Transgenic animals of the line 8 contain the WAP-SV-T transgene. Females of this line synthesise the SV40 T-antigen in mammary gland epithelial cells during pregnancy and the lactation period. All females are 'milk-less' and the offspring have to be nursed by foster mothers. The reason for this phenomenon is a ...
Escalada J - - 1996
It is known that dopamine (DA) is the major PRL-inhibiting factor, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most potent and physiological PRL-releasing factors. We have investigated the implication of DA and VIP in PRL gene expression and peptide secretion regulation during the physiological hyperprolactinemic states of pregnancy ...
Duncan M E - - 1996
Women with leprosy (even apparently cured) run a serious risk of deterioration in nerve function when they become pregnant. During pregnancy and lactation the woman with leprosy may suffer: relapse, reactivation and transient exacerbation maximally in late pregnancy; ENL in the first and third trimesters, continuing with nerve damage postpartum; ...
Szczurowicz A - - 1996
Gravidic macromastia is a condition characterized by an excessive and generalized enlargement of the breasts which occurs during pregnancy or shortly after pregnancy. It is a rare condition whose etiology is unknown. Most Authors describe it as a pathology which is influenced by a disturbed play of hormones of hypersensitivity ...
Cohen B S - - 1996
A hot and humid environment can be detrimental to race performance. Caffeine, on the other hand, has been shown to be an ergogenic aid for improving endurance performance. To examine the influence of caffeine ingestion on race performance during high heat stress, seven endurance trained competitive road racers aged between ...
Cardenas H - - 1996
The activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator during lactation was assessed by direct determination of GnRH levels impinging upon the pituitary gland. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted on day 15 of pregnancy with a push-pull perfusion cannula directed to the anterior pituitary. All implanted animals showed normal parturition, maternal ...
Figueroa R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether the observed relaxation to lactate and other agents in placental vessels of normal pregnancies is altered in severe preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated placental arteries and veins from women with severe preeclampsia and uncomplicated term pregnancies were precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha under 5% ...
Escobar M R - - 1995
The effect of L(+)-, D(-)- and racemic (DL)-lactate on the energy-dependent renal uptake of the achiral organic cation amantadine was determined with purified proximal and distal cortical tubule fragments isolated from rat kidneys. Kinetic parameters for uptake of amantadine were measured, under constant pH, in bicarbonate buffer (Krebs-Henseleit [KHS]), and ...
Westgren M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare lactate levels with acid-base balance in the umbilical artery with respect to the prediction of pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 4045 cord samples was performed. Lactate was measured with a new method that requires 5 microliters of blood and provides the ...
Miles C B CB Neurology Associates, Sioux Falls, SD, - - 1995
Migraine onset, frequency and severity are influenced by hormonal changes throughout the various female reproductive life events, including pregnancy. Migraine may worsen during the first trimester, but usually improves thereafter. The treatment of migraine during pregnancy and lactation is difficult because of the risks to the fetus and newborn. This ...
Matsumoto I - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of pregnancy and postpartal lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: In this study, the BMD of 22 pregnant women in a longitudinal study, and of 75 pregnant and 111 puerperant women in a cross-sectional study was estimated at the distal radius of the forearm ...
Baylis C - - 1995
In these studies, the Fx1A model of accelerated, passive Heymann nephritis was used to produce membranous glomerulonephropathy. Female rats were studied at 7 wk after the administration of the Fx1A antibody either in the virgin state or in late pregnancy. The goals of these experiments were to determine whether preexisting ...
Kazi A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of the lactational amenorrhea method of family planning (amenorrhea during full or nearly full breastfeeding for 6 months postpartum). DESIGN: Prospective noncomparative study. SETTING: Normal breastfeeding women in Karachi and Multan, Pakistan, most delivered at home by a midwife. PATIENTS: Three hundred ninety-nine newly delivered ...
Scott-Conner C E - - 1995
BACKGROUND: In addition to mastitis, lactational breast abscesses, and several other benign conditions unique to the puerperium, pregnant women may develop any of the other breast problems seen in the nonpregnant female population. This review deals with the diagnosis and management of breast problems during pregnancy and lactation. DATA SOURCES: ...
Besnard P - - 1995
Expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been studied in the liver of pregnant and lactating rats. The L-FABP concentration found in the cytosol by immuno-enzymatic assay (ELISA) was consistently higher in the dams during the pregnancy and the lactation than in the age-matched virgin females. Paradoxically, ...
Katz J - - 1995
The prevalence of night blindness during pregnancy and lactation was assessed in a sample of 426 women living in the rural terai of Nepal. These women were also examined for ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency. Among 241 lactating women, 16.2% reported experiencing night blindness at some time during the ...
Bradbury J M - - 1995
Expression of Wnt-4, a member of the Wnt gene family, is induced during early pregnancy in the mouse mammary gland. To investigate the function of Wnt-4, we used a recombinant retrovirus to constitutively express the gene in transplanted mammary epithelium grown in virgin animals. In fully grown glands, Wnt-4 expression ...
Starling R D - - 1995
Eight competitive male swimmers completed a standardized 365.8 m (400 yd) freestyle swimming trial at a fixed pace (approximately 90% of maximal effort) while wearing a torso swim suit (TOR) or a standard racing suit (STD). Oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and distance per stroke (DPS) measurements ...
Bohler E - - 1995
The relationship between breast-feeding and subsequent pregnancy in East Bhutan is examined, against the background of local attitudes to family planning. Ninety-eight mothers who had given birth 30-36 months earlier were interviewed. Semisolid supplementary feeding was introduced at a median age of 3 months. Median total duration of breast-feeding was ...
Momoeda M - - 1995
Cellular proliferation and differentiation in mammary gland are known to be significantly altered during pregnancy and subsequent lactation. To characterize the different stages of mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, we analyzed the glycosphingolipid compositions in the mammary gland of DDD and ICR mice at several periods of pregnancy and ...
Robinson S R - - 1995
Presentation of an artificial nipple to the rat fetus on E19, E20, or E21 of gestation promotes the expression of organized behavioral responses. Fetal responses include mouthing, licking, head-turning, and oral grasping of the nipple. Fetuses on E21 were more successful at grasping the nipple. Because all subjects were naive ...
Pinto M L - - 1995
The effects of physical activity during pregnancy and lactation on the fetal outcome and the growth of pups was studied in Wistar rats (n 144). Rats were trained to swim for 2 h every day, 6 d/week through pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation. Maternal exercise during pregnancy, despite the dams having ...
Mamede J A - - 1995
1. The antiviral effect of azidothymidine (AZT) can be potentiated by acyclovir (ACV), and this drug association has been used in the management of HIV-infected patients. In the present study we examined the effects of such an association on rat pregnancy. 2. AZT (60 mg/kg b.w.) and ACV (60 mg/kg ...
Roy B N - - 1995
The endocrinology of lactation in the Djungarian hamster was investigated through once-daily sampling of females on Days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 postpartum. Serum prolactin (PRL) was elevated during early lactation but declined with time. Serum progesterone (P4) levels were uniformly low, and serum estradiol (E2) levels ...
Nathan L - - 1995
1. Pregnancy is characterized by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and a blunting of the angiotensin II (AII) pressor response. We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in these vascular changes of pregnancy in anaesthesized, ganglion blocked non-pregnant and pregnant rats. 2. Inhibition of NO synthesis ...
Haines J W - - 1995
Transfer of 210Po to the foetus measured 3 days after administration in rat and 7 days later in guinea pig increased with increasing gestational age to about 0.1% injected activity per rat foetus at birth and 0.6% per guinea pig foetus on day 57, corresponding to whole-body foetus:mother concentration ratios ...
Cross N A - - 1995
Ten women were followed serially to determine the effect of stages of reproduction on calcium and bone metabolism. The study periods were nonpregnant nonlactating, the end of each trimester of gestation, 3 mo lactation, and postweaning. Comparisons were with nonpregnant nonlactating status for each individual. Fractional calcium absorption (P < ...
Atkinson H C - - 1995
The circadian variation in immunoreactive (I-) ACTH and corticosterone was studied at several stages throughout rat pregnancy and compared with those before pregnancy and during lactation. Serial blood samples were obtained from chronically cannulated, conscious rats at 2- to 3-h intervals beginning at 0800 h at diestrus of the cycle; ...
Bandyopadhyay G K - - 1995
Effects of pregnancy and lactation on lipid metabolism in mouse mammary fat pads and nonmammary adipose tissues have been studied. In order to address the question whether the influence of hormonal milieu on lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy and lactation is the same as in fat cells, ...
Sowers M - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To determine if pregnancy after an extended period of lactation curtails the recovery of maternal bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty-five women who fully breast-fed their infants for at least 6 months and had a subsequent pregnancy within 18 months of initiating lactation were studied longitudinally. Twenty controls breast-fed similarly, ...
Hooper S B - - 1995
It has been known for may years that hypoxaemia in the fetus induces a number of biophysical, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic responses by the fetus, some of which are not sustained if the period of hypoxaemia is extended. For instance, fetal breathing and body movements and the circulating concentrations of ...
Leopold S S - - 1995
Pregnancy and lactation are known to cause structural and mechanical changes in bone, but the effects of pregnancy alone have not been evaluated thoroughly. This study used radiographic measurements, torsion testing, mineral analyses, and histological evaluation to determine whether there are changes in bone material and geometric properties during pregnancy ...
He S - - 1995
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and platelet counts were measured in 26 normal pregnant women and 51 preeclamptic women. In the normal-pregnancy group, no significant changes were found in the results of these tests. In the preeclampsia group, ALT and AST concentrations were not ...
Goldstein A - - 1995
This paper reviews research on somatostatin (SS) levels during infancy, pregnancy, and lactation. Neonates have elevated levels of circulating SS, which reach a peak at the age of 3 months and then decrease gradually, but remain elevated during the first years of life. SS response to feeding is not well ...
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