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Results 551 - 600 of 1084
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Ghannam N N - - 1999
Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the anterio-posterior lumbar spine and the proximal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, as well as relevant clinical and biochemical parameters, were determined in 321 healthy Saudi females in order to establish reference values and to study the effects of physical and lifestyle factors on ...
Neville M C - - 1999
The physiology of human lactation is described with secretions on mammary gland anatomy and development, the mechanisms of milk secretion and ejection, and the temporal sequence of events during the transition from pregnancy to lactation (lactogenesis). Finally, interactions between lactation and maternal metabolism are briefly described and the interaction of ...
Lin W Y - - 1999
Rhenium-186 (Re-186) hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) has been shown to localize in metastatic foci within bone in a manner similar to Tc-99m bone-seeking agents. Usually, in the preparation of diagnostic Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals, the concentration of Tc is at trace level (10(-8) M). However, large amounts of carrier are included in the ...
Weed S S - - 1999
The Wise Woman tradition seeks to heal the whole individual. The primary techniques involve nourishing the woman through storytelling, simple ceremony, and dietary herbs. The "mysteries" of a woman's body--puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause--are seen as times of power and growth. Menopause is an opportunity for conscious change, not ...
Velonà T - - 1999
During the last few years, advances in the care of low-birth-weight and preterm neonates has stimulated research on the best dietetic program to improve survival and to reduce handicap incidence. At present, fortification of human milk with artificial formulas is the most usual dietetic solution. As yet, however, little is ...
Catalano P M - - 1999
The additional energy requirements of pregnancy are needed for increases in maternal (breast, uterus and adipose) and feto-placental tissue accrued during pregnancy as well as the additional running cost of pregnancy for example increased cardiac output. Based on prospective longitudinal studies, the additional energy requirements of pregnancy range from > ...
Shahtaheri S M - - 1999
Pregnancy and lactation make demands on maternal calcium homeostasis which may affect bone strength. Recently, changes in cancellous architecture have been described in iliac crest bone biopsies from normal pregnant women but the rarity of such human material means an animal model is essential. The microanatomy of cancellous bone was ...
Guzman R C - - 1999
Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness ...
van der Heijden H F - - 1999
The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol and the long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol on hypoxia-induced rat diaphragm force reduction. In vitro diaphragm twitch force (Pt) and maximal tetanic force (Po) of isolated diaphragm muscle strips were measured for ...
Lockwood D N - - 1999
The interaction between pregnancy, leprosy and leprosy reactions was examined in a systematic literature review. Several retrospective case series and one retrospective cohort study but only one prospective cohort study were identified in the English literature. Type 1 (reversal) reactions were particularly likely to occur during the post partum. This ...
Cheales-Siebenaler N J - - 1999
This case report describes the experiences of an gravida 3 para 0 adoptive mother who initiated the use of bilateral pumping, metoclopramide, syntocinon nasal spray, and a supplemental nursing system to induce lactation. Lactogenesis was initiated within 10 days of the adoption. No measurable milk was pumped until the baby ...
Kriston T - - 1999
The vasoconstrictor effects of pressor agents are attenuated during pregnancy. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in great quantities during hypertension in pregnancy, and therefore it is important to know whether pregnancy modifies the pressor effects of TXA2. The TXA2 analog U-46619 was infused in anesthetized, acutely prepared and conscious, chronically ...
Cox D B - - 1999
Breast volume and morphology of eight subjects were measured before conception and at intervals throughout pregnancy until 1 month of lactation. Breast volume before conception ranged from 293 to 964 ml. At the end of pregnancy the volume of breast tissue had increased by 145+/-19 ml (mean+/-S.E.M., n = 13 ...
Butte N F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Metabolic adjustments occur during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis; however, the effect of body composition and hormonal milieu on these changes is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that energy metabolism changes during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis, and that ...
Kunz T H - - 1999
We previously demonstrated high leptin levels during late pregnancy in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We now extend these observations to a second species, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and also report that leptin increases after the first trimester of pregnancy. Leptin decreased to baseline 1 week following parturition, ...
Sapi E - - 1999
Colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and its receptor (CSF-1R, product of c-fms proto-oncogene) were initially implicated as essential for normal monocyte development as well as for trophoblastic implantation. However, recent findings have suggested that CSF-1 and CSF-1R might have additional roles in mammary gland development during pregnancy and lactation. Studies with ...
Popeski N - - 1999
Staining for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), a histochemical marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is increased in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei in late pregnant rats. To determine whether increases in staining were evident at other times during pregnancy and lactation the number of cells that ...
Balkan E - - 1999
PURPOSE: Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital and lethal disease, and the etiology of the disease is not clear. It is speculated that maternal ingestion of some drugs during pregnancy may be an etiologic factor. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of maternal ingestion ...
Schumacher B - - 1999
We studied the effect of 9 h of simulated airplane cabin conditions at cruising altitude (8,000 feet; inspired oxygen equivalent to 15% O2 at sea level) on fetal plasma lactate in near-term pregnant rabbits. Controls (n = 19) spent 9 h at sea level (21% O2). Study group I (n ...
Mukherjea R - - 1999
Energy needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation. These increased energy needs may be met through partitioning of nutrients for energy utilization which is under hormonal control. The objective of the present studies was to determine if changes in plasma leptin occurred during pregnancy and lactation and if the changes ...
Balkan E - - 1999
PURPOSE: Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital disease, and the etiology of the disease is unclear. It is speculated that maternal ingestion of some drugs during pregnancy may be an etiologic factor. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of maternal ingestion of ethanol on ...
Terada Y - - 1998
The serum leptin profile and its production in adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation were investigated along with changes in appetite and factors reflecting nutritional status in 11-week-old rats. Serum leptin levels in pregnant rats were stable except on day 20 of pregnancy and significantly reduced during lactation compared to ...
Gupta S - - 1998
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have become the agents of first choice in the treatment of depression because of their safe side effect profile. This paper reviews the current literature on the use of SSRIs in pregnancy and lactation concerning their safety. There are human studies that only used fluoxetine ...
Mounzih K - - 1998
Leptin levels are significantly elevated in pregnant mice, rats and humans suggesting a critical role for leptin during gestation. To address whether leptin plays a putative role in the physiology of pregnancy, we asked whether a mouse pregnancy would be affected by the complete absence of leptin from both the ...
Lees C J - - 1998
A substantial amount of calcium is transferred from the mother to the fetus and infant during pregnancy and lactation. Involvement of the skeleton in meeting this demand should be reflected in changes in bone mass and turnover. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of pregnancy, lactation, ...
Gran J T - - 1998
Few studies have been performed regarding clinical, radiological and prognostic features of females with spondyloarthropathies other than ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In AS, clinical manifestations appear similar in men and women, whereas radiological features appear more frequent and severe in males. However, no consistent differences in outcome and mortality between men ...
Kim B K - - 1998
Upon stimulation with high K+, oxytocin, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha or carbachol, myometrium isolated from pregnant rats (21 days after pregnancy) developed 2-3 times greater isometric force than that from non-pregnant rats (estrus). High K+ increased the level of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation to a similar extent in ...
Gerber R T - - 1998
1. Small mesenteric arteries from pregnant rats demonstrated greater sensitivity (pEC50 : P<0.001) and maximum relaxation (P<0.01) to acetylcholine (ACh) than those of control non-pregnant animals. 2. Maximum relaxation, but not sensitivity, to ACh remained greater (P<0.01) in pregnant animals when evaluated in 25 mM KCl, which prevents relaxation dependent ...
Boldrini S C - - 1998
The primary (connective tissue papillae) and secondary projections of the subepithelial connective tissue of the lamina propria were studied in the hard palate of normal (control group), and in protein-deficient pups (experimental group) obtained through maternal protein deprivation during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, the primary projections in the control ...
Liu X - - 1998
Prolactin induces mammopoiesis and lactogenesis through the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway, with Stat5a being a principal and obligate cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling molecule. Mice from which the Stat5a gene has been deleted fail to develop functional mammary tissue during their first pregnancy. Lobuloalveolar outgrowth is curtailed, ...
Crocker D E - - 1998
Northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, fast completely from food and water during lactation. Previous investigations of maternal investment suggested physiological constraints on the level of energy expenditure during lactation. In this study, two components of phocid fasting physiology, protein sparing and reduced glomerular filtration rate, were examined for effects of ...
Adamczewski J Z - - 1998
Among wild ruminants, muskoxen have an exceptional ability to fatten, but their pregnancy rates are variable and often low. To test whether the likelihood of pregnancy in muskoxen is associated with exceptionally good body condition, we used logistic regression analysis with data from 32 pregnant and 18 nonpregnant muskoxen > ...
Follesa P - - 1998
The abundance of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA receptor) subunit mRNAs and polypeptides as well as muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake were measured in rat cerebral cortex or hippocampus at various times during pregnancy and after delivery. RNase protection assays revealed that the amount of the gamma2L subunit mRNA decreased progressively ...
Krebs N F - - 1998
The requirements for zinc during lactation are greater than those during pregnancy, especially during the early weeks postpartum. Therefore, lactation poses a significant threat to maternal zinc homeostasis, particularly in populations with chronically low dietary zinc intakes. The current knowledge of maternal zinc status in lactation, particularly in developing countries, ...
Dési I - - 1998
The neurotoxic effects of Dimethoate (Dim), Dichlorvos (DDVP) and Methyl-Parathion (MP) respectively were investigated on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of rats after different treatment schedules at the macro and single unit cell level. At the macro investigations 1/25, 1/50 and 1/100 of the respective ...
Babetty Z - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the in vivo strength, knot efficiency, and knot security of 4 types of sliding knots, and to assess tissue reaction to study the effect of knot configuration, knot volume, and suture size. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: Experimental Medical Research Institute, Istanbul, Turkey. SUBJECTS: Wistar rats. ...
Stein H H - - 1998
Our objective was to develop a technique for cannulating the terminal ileum in pregnant sows and to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure in digestibility studies in pregnant and lactating sows. A simple T-cannula was inserted into the terminal ileum approximately 15 cm cranial to the ileo-cecal valve in a ...
Yalçin O - - 1998
Controversy exists concerning whether shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is contraindicated during pregnancy (4, 5). The effects of shock waves on a variety of cells are well documented in both clinical and experimental studies, but their effect on the foetus remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of SWL ...
Cassy S - - 1998
In this study, we have analyzed the developmental expression of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R) gene in the ewe mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Using Northern and slot-blot analysis and in situ hybridization, we showed that the level of PRL-R mRNA in mammary epithelial cells increased during the second half ...
Lees C J - - 1998
The effects of pregnancy and lactation on bone histomorphometry have been studied extensively in rats and dogs. However, these models differ greatly in reproductive physiology compared with women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histomorphometric changes in iliac crest bone biopsies taken from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), animals ...
Rogowitz G L - - 1998
Energy allocation for maternal maintenance and milk production was examined in lactating hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) supporting three to seven offspring at 10 degrees or 24 degrees C. Lactating mothers obtained most of their energy from dietary intake (ca. 90%), and the remainder was withdrawn from maternal stores. There ...
Kolthoff N - - 1998
1. The influence of pregnancy, lactation and weaning on bone mineral density in healthy women was investigated during a 2 year prospective study of 59 pregnant and lactating women from the 18th week of gestation. 2. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the non-dominant radius ...
Fiol G - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis was that during pregnancy nitric oxide acts as mediator in the hemodynamic response to volume expansion. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed on 12 rats on days 19 to 20 of pregnancy. Six rats were injected intravenously with hexamethonium bromide plus the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase ...
Gulson B L - - 1998
A cohort of 15 immigrant females to Australia and 7 native Australian controls were monitored on a monthly basis with high-precision lead isotopic methods during gestation and for 6 months after pregnancy to determine the extent of lead mobilization from the maternal skeleton. Quarterly environmental samples of house dust, drinking ...
Marshall J K JK Division of Gastroenterology, McMaster University, Hamilton, - - 1998
Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux is a common complication of pregnancy and lactation. However, the safety of many effective medical therapies, including oral proton pump inhibitors, has not been well defined. The administration of oral omeprazole to a 41-year-old female during the third trimester of pregnancy, after ranitidine and cisapride failed to ...
Giesemann M A - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of stage of the reproductive cycle and age on Ca and P metabolism and bone integrity of sows. Five-day balance studies were conducted with first- and fifth-parity sows, and sows were slaughtered during the last trimester of gestation, at the ...
Jain V - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that kinetics of vasorelaxation are altered during pregnancy. METHODS: Rings of aorta from rats at different stages of pregnancy (early, late, and term) and from nonpregnant female rats were precontracted with high-K+ and then allowed to relax in normal-K+ physiologic saline solution. The time to ...
Liel Y - - 1998
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is considered a rare complication of pregnancy and lactation, but the actual incidence is unknown. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is self-limited and usually does not recur during subsequent pregnancies, but little is known about its pathogenesis or the dynamics of bone density during the evolution and recovery phases of ...
Surbek D V - - 1998
Successful pregnancies in patients with transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassemia major are rare. We report the course of a pregnancy and newborn data during lactation and desferrioxamine therapy in the mother. The twin-pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. Besides normal iron level in breast milk, no clinical or hematological abnormalities due to desferrioxamine ...
Jain V - - 1998
The hypothesis that the changes in vascular reactivity seen during pregnancy are determined by the gestational age was examined. Experiments were designed to investigate changes in vascular responses with progression of pregnancy. The contractile responses to potassium and phenylephrine (in the presence and absence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric ...
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