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Results 551 - 600 of 990
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Figueroa R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether the observed relaxation to lactate and other agents in placental vessels of normal pregnancies is altered in severe preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated placental arteries and veins from women with severe preeclampsia and uncomplicated term pregnancies were precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha under 5% ...
Escobar M R - - 1995
The effect of L(+)-, D(-)- and racemic (DL)-lactate on the energy-dependent renal uptake of the achiral organic cation amantadine was determined with purified proximal and distal cortical tubule fragments isolated from rat kidneys. Kinetic parameters for uptake of amantadine were measured, under constant pH, in bicarbonate buffer (Krebs-Henseleit [KHS]), and ...
Westgren M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare lactate levels with acid-base balance in the umbilical artery with respect to the prediction of pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 4045 cord samples was performed. Lactate was measured with a new method that requires 5 microliters of blood and provides the ...
Miles C B - - 1995
Migraine onset, frequency and severity are influenced by hormonal changes throughout the various female reproductive life events, including pregnancy. Migraine may worsen during the first trimester, but usually improves thereafter. The treatment of migraine during pregnancy and lactation is difficult because of the risks to the fetus and newborn. This ...
Matsumoto I - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of pregnancy and postpartal lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: In this study, the BMD of 22 pregnant women in a longitudinal study, and of 75 pregnant and 111 puerperant women in a cross-sectional study was estimated at the distal radius of the forearm ...
Baylis C - - 1995
In these studies, the Fx1A model of accelerated, passive Heymann nephritis was used to produce membranous glomerulonephropathy. Female rats were studied at 7 wk after the administration of the Fx1A antibody either in the virgin state or in late pregnancy. The goals of these experiments were to determine whether preexisting ...
Kazi A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of the lactational amenorrhea method of family planning (amenorrhea during full or nearly full breastfeeding for 6 months postpartum). DESIGN: Prospective noncomparative study. SETTING: Normal breastfeeding women in Karachi and Multan, Pakistan, most delivered at home by a midwife. PATIENTS: Three hundred ninety-nine newly delivered ...
Scott-Conner C E - - 1995
BACKGROUND: In addition to mastitis, lactational breast abscesses, and several other benign conditions unique to the puerperium, pregnant women may develop any of the other breast problems seen in the nonpregnant female population. This review deals with the diagnosis and management of breast problems during pregnancy and lactation. DATA SOURCES: ...
Besnard P - - 1995
Expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been studied in the liver of pregnant and lactating rats. The L-FABP concentration found in the cytosol by immuno-enzymatic assay (ELISA) was consistently higher in the dams during the pregnancy and the lactation than in the age-matched virgin females. Paradoxically, ...
Katz J - - 1995
The prevalence of night blindness during pregnancy and lactation was assessed in a sample of 426 women living in the rural terai of Nepal. These women were also examined for ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency. Among 241 lactating women, 16.2% reported experiencing night blindness at some time during the ...
Bradbury J M - - 1995
Expression of Wnt-4, a member of the Wnt gene family, is induced during early pregnancy in the mouse mammary gland. To investigate the function of Wnt-4, we used a recombinant retrovirus to constitutively express the gene in transplanted mammary epithelium grown in virgin animals. In fully grown glands, Wnt-4 expression ...
Starling R D - - 1995
Eight competitive male swimmers completed a standardized 365.8 m (400 yd) freestyle swimming trial at a fixed pace (approximately 90% of maximal effort) while wearing a torso swim suit (TOR) or a standard racing suit (STD). Oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and distance per stroke (DPS) measurements ...
Bohler E - - 1995
The relationship between breast-feeding and subsequent pregnancy in East Bhutan is examined, against the background of local attitudes to family planning. Ninety-eight mothers who had given birth 30-36 months earlier were interviewed. Semisolid supplementary feeding was introduced at a median age of 3 months. Median total duration of breast-feeding was ...
Momoeda M - - 1995
Cellular proliferation and differentiation in mammary gland are known to be significantly altered during pregnancy and subsequent lactation. To characterize the different stages of mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, we analyzed the glycosphingolipid compositions in the mammary gland of DDD and ICR mice at several periods of pregnancy and ...
Robinson S R - - 1995
Presentation of an artificial nipple to the rat fetus on E19, E20, or E21 of gestation promotes the expression of organized behavioral responses. Fetal responses include mouthing, licking, head-turning, and oral grasping of the nipple. Fetuses on E21 were more successful at grasping the nipple. Because all subjects were naive ...
Pinto M L - - 1995
The effects of physical activity during pregnancy and lactation on the fetal outcome and the growth of pups was studied in Wistar rats (n 144). Rats were trained to swim for 2 h every day, 6 d/week through pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation. Maternal exercise during pregnancy, despite the dams having ...
Mamede J A - - 1995
1. The antiviral effect of azidothymidine (AZT) can be potentiated by acyclovir (ACV), and this drug association has been used in the management of HIV-infected patients. In the present study we examined the effects of such an association on rat pregnancy. 2. AZT (60 mg/kg b.w.) and ACV (60 mg/kg ...
Roy B N - - 1995
The endocrinology of lactation in the Djungarian hamster was investigated through once-daily sampling of females on Days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 postpartum. Serum prolactin (PRL) was elevated during early lactation but declined with time. Serum progesterone (P4) levels were uniformly low, and serum estradiol (E2) levels ...
Nathan L - - 1995
1. Pregnancy is characterized by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and a blunting of the angiotensin II (AII) pressor response. We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in these vascular changes of pregnancy in anaesthesized, ganglion blocked non-pregnant and pregnant rats. 2. Inhibition of NO synthesis ...
Haines J W - - 1995
Transfer of 210Po to the foetus measured 3 days after administration in rat and 7 days later in guinea pig increased with increasing gestational age to about 0.1% injected activity per rat foetus at birth and 0.6% per guinea pig foetus on day 57, corresponding to whole-body foetus:mother concentration ratios ...
Cross N A - - 1995
Ten women were followed serially to determine the effect of stages of reproduction on calcium and bone metabolism. The study periods were nonpregnant nonlactating, the end of each trimester of gestation, 3 mo lactation, and postweaning. Comparisons were with nonpregnant nonlactating status for each individual. Fractional calcium absorption (P < ...
Atkinson H C - - 1995
The circadian variation in immunoreactive (I-) ACTH and corticosterone was studied at several stages throughout rat pregnancy and compared with those before pregnancy and during lactation. Serial blood samples were obtained from chronically cannulated, conscious rats at 2- to 3-h intervals beginning at 0800 h at diestrus of the cycle; ...
Bandyopadhyay G K - - 1995
Effects of pregnancy and lactation on lipid metabolism in mouse mammary fat pads and nonmammary adipose tissues have been studied. In order to address the question whether the influence of hormonal milieu on lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy and lactation is the same as in fat cells, ...
Sowers M - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To determine if pregnancy after an extended period of lactation curtails the recovery of maternal bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty-five women who fully breast-fed their infants for at least 6 months and had a subsequent pregnancy within 18 months of initiating lactation were studied longitudinally. Twenty controls breast-fed similarly, ...
Hooper S B - - 1995
It has been known for may years that hypoxaemia in the fetus induces a number of biophysical, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic responses by the fetus, some of which are not sustained if the period of hypoxaemia is extended. For instance, fetal breathing and body movements and the circulating concentrations of ...
Leopold S S - - 1995
Pregnancy and lactation are known to cause structural and mechanical changes in bone, but the effects of pregnancy alone have not been evaluated thoroughly. This study used radiographic measurements, torsion testing, mineral analyses, and histological evaluation to determine whether there are changes in bone material and geometric properties during pregnancy ...
He S - - 1995
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and platelet counts were measured in 26 normal pregnant women and 51 preeclamptic women. In the normal-pregnancy group, no significant changes were found in the results of these tests. In the preeclampsia group, ALT and AST concentrations were not ...
Goldstein A - - 1995
This paper reviews research on somatostatin (SS) levels during infancy, pregnancy, and lactation. Neonates have elevated levels of circulating SS, which reach a peak at the age of 3 months and then decrease gradually, but remain elevated during the first years of life. SS response to feeding is not well ...
Tomson T - - 1994
A gas-chromatographic method was used to determine plasma concentrations of the ethosuximide enantiomers during three pregnancies in two epileptic women, in samples from the umbilical cord in one, and in breast milk in two patients. The ratio of the two enantiomers of ethosuximide ranged from 1.00 to 1.36 and was ...
Prieto R M - - 1994
The changes in intestinal disaccharidase activities in pregnancy and lactation could be explained as a result of an adaptation to the energy demands of each reproductive stage. To examine these changes, disaccharidase activities (lactase, sucrase, maltase, and trehalase) were measured in the jejunum and ileum of virgin, pregnant and lactating ...
Tsimoyiannis E C - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of formation of gallstones during pregnancy and lactation, the time when gallstones first appear, and any changes in predisposing factors. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: District hospital, Greece. SUBJECTS: 669 pregnant women seen between 1988 and 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (kg/m2); real time ...
Gower B A - - 1994
We investigated the hypothesis that photoperiod information received during the prenatal and/or early postnatal periods influences subsequent development in collared lemmings. Pregnant lemmings were exposed to either a short [8:16-h light-dark cycle (8:16)] or long (22:2) photoperiod throughout gestation. On the day of birth, pups were cross-fostered to dams housed ...
Pollard J W - - 1994
The study of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), a homodimeric serum growth factor that regulates mononuclear phagocytes and is involved in maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy, was dramatically enhanced by the observation that the recessive mutation osteopetrosis, op, is an inactivating mutation in the CSF-1-encoding gene. Homozygous mutant (op/op) mice completely ...
Baksh M - - 1994
To determine the effects that pregnancy and infant care have on Embu women's commercial, agricultural and household activities, time use patterns were studied for women at different stages of pregnancy and lactation. Time allocation data were collected from 169 households, visited at random intervals over a year, by use of ...
Johnson L W - - 1994
An understanding and appreciation of the New World Camelids' unique gastric anatomy and physiology, including rapid motility, prolonged digesta retention, rapid liquid passage rate, low protein maintenance requirements, low metabolized energy requirements, and low basal metabolism are imperative. Using this background, feeding recommendations for growing male llamas are proposed, and ...
Monaghan P - - 1994
We investigated the expression of gap junctions in virgin, pregnant, lactating, and involuting mouse mammary gland epithelium with a panel of sequence-specific antibodies to connexins 26, 32, 40 and 43. Indirect immunofluorescence labeling of frozen sections of mammary gland showed that connexin26 was the major connexin in mammary epithelium. Connexins ...
Prunier A - - 1994
Primiparous Large White females were exposed to one of two light regimens characterized by an increase (from 12 to 16 h/d, LONG treatment) or a decrease (from 12 to 8 h/d, SHORT treatment) in photoperiod during gestation. Two successive replicates were conducted, and farrowings occurred in January and July. During ...
Martin-Hidalgo A - - 1994
To investigate the factors controlling maternal depot fat accumulation during early pregnancy and net decrease during late pregnancy, the activity and mRNA expression of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were related to several other lipid metabolic parameters. Virgin control rats, pregnant rats (at days 12, 15, ...
Kramer K - - 1994
Cortical synaptosomes were prepared from pregnant dams (GD-17) and rat fetuses (ED-17), loaded with [3H]5-HT and assayed to evaluate release mediated by cocaine (COC), fenfluramine (FEN) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). COC and FEN elicited a high-affinity (10(-9) M) release response in fetal tissue which was not apparent in the dam. MDMA-induced ...
Prentice A - - 1994
Recommendations for calcium intakes during pregnancy and lactation differ around the world, reflecting the inadequacy of knowledge about calcium requirements in human reproduction. In theory, insufficient calcium supply during pregnancy and lactation could result in maternal bone loss, reduced breast-milk calcium secretion or impaired infant bone development. However, although calcium ...
Nehlig A - - 1994
The present review is devoted to effects on the newborn of maternal ingestion of caffeine during gestation and lactation. In rodents, caffeine is able to induce malformations, but usually at high doses never encountered in humans; indeed, when caffeine is administered in fractioned quantities during the day, as it is ...
Sayama K - - 1994
Mammary tumours developed in 110 (95.7%) of 115 DDD/1-Mtv-2/Mtv-2 (DDD/1-Mtv-2) and 24 (47.1%) of 51 DDD/1fDDD/1-Mtv-2 (DDD/1fMtv-2) force-bred female mice during a one-year period. The mean tumour age +/- SE was 220 +/- 7 and 269 +/- 7 days, respectively. These tumours were examined for responsiveness to pregnancies by comparing ...
Prieto R M - - 1994
In order to know the adaptive changes of small intestine regions (duodenum, and proximal, medial and distal jejunum-ileum) due to the reproductive stage (virgin, pregnancy and lactation), the weight, mucosal proportion, mucosal DNA and protein contents and protein/DNA ratio in female Wistar rats were measured. Pregnancy induces hypertrophy of the ...
Libbus M K - - 1994
Seventy-five agencies providing services to a large percentage of economically disadvantaged pregnant women returned mailed survey questionnaires. These surveys described the timing and nature of lactation education available to clients of the respondent agencies. Lactation education was most frequently introduced at 16-week gestation. Fifty-seven (76%) of the respondents stated that ...
Pompa G - - 1994
After administration of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (30 mg/kg) to sixteen pregnant rabbits, the transfer and distribution of this insecticide and its metabolite pentachlorobenzene, in foetuses and newborns at the 5th, 10th and 20th days after birth, were investigated. Over one lactation the mothers excreted via the milk about 30% of the ...
Allen L H - - 1994
This overview of vitamin B12 metabolism and requirements during the continuum of pregnancy and lactation has identified several gaps in our knowledge. More information is needed concerning the roles of the different transcobalamins during pregnancy and lactation, including their impact on placental and mammary transfer of cobalamin and their effect ...
Hamann S R - - 1994
Morphine, U50-488, and (-)-lobeline produced dose-related shortening of a low-intensity thermally evoked tail avoidance response (LITETAR) (e.g., hyperalgesia) when microinjected into the dorsal posterior mesencephalic tegmentum (DPMT) of conscious rats. The hyperalgesic potency of (-)-lobeline was greater than either morphine or U50-488. With higher doses, morphine's hyperalgesic actions diminished and ...
Juraska J M - - 1994
There are reports by Diamond and her colleagues, based on measurements made shortly after parturition, that pregnancy increases the size of the cerebral cortex in rats. As a prelude to examining the cellular basis for this phenomenon, we measured the size of the cortex in three coronal planes in hooded ...
Douglas A J - - 1994
Since stress and opioids affect oxytocin secretion we investigated the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and enkephalin on the regulation of oxytocin production during pregnancy and parturition by measuring CRH, proenkephalin A (PENK) and oxytocin mRNA's in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) using quantitative in situ hybridisation. On day 21 of ...
Bellavía S L - - 1993
Twenty-five-day-old rats maintained in constant darkness since birth and born from mothers kept in the dark since the 14th day of pregnancy showed a circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase content in parotid glands, which may be explained by a mechanism of maternal co-ordination. Rats in the same conditions, except that their ...
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