Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1001
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Krebs N F - - 1998
The requirements for zinc during lactation are greater than those during pregnancy, especially during the early weeks postpartum. Therefore, lactation poses a significant threat to maternal zinc homeostasis, particularly in populations with chronically low dietary zinc intakes. The current knowledge of maternal zinc status in lactation, particularly in developing countries, ...
Dési I - - 1998
The neurotoxic effects of Dimethoate (Dim), Dichlorvos (DDVP) and Methyl-Parathion (MP) respectively were investigated on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of rats after different treatment schedules at the macro and single unit cell level. At the macro investigations 1/25, 1/50 and 1/100 of the respective ...
Babetty Z - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the in vivo strength, knot efficiency, and knot security of 4 types of sliding knots, and to assess tissue reaction to study the effect of knot configuration, knot volume, and suture size. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: Experimental Medical Research Institute, Istanbul, Turkey. SUBJECTS: Wistar rats. ...
Stein H H - - 1998
Our objective was to develop a technique for cannulating the terminal ileum in pregnant sows and to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure in digestibility studies in pregnant and lactating sows. A simple T-cannula was inserted into the terminal ileum approximately 15 cm cranial to the ileo-cecal valve in a ...
Yalçin O - - 1998
Controversy exists concerning whether shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is contraindicated during pregnancy (4, 5). The effects of shock waves on a variety of cells are well documented in both clinical and experimental studies, but their effect on the foetus remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of SWL ...
Cassy S - - 1998
In this study, we have analyzed the developmental expression of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R) gene in the ewe mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Using Northern and slot-blot analysis and in situ hybridization, we showed that the level of PRL-R mRNA in mammary epithelial cells increased during the second half ...
Lees C J - - 1998
The effects of pregnancy and lactation on bone histomorphometry have been studied extensively in rats and dogs. However, these models differ greatly in reproductive physiology compared with women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histomorphometric changes in iliac crest bone biopsies taken from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), animals ...
Rogowitz G L - - 1998
Energy allocation for maternal maintenance and milk production was examined in lactating hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) supporting three to seven offspring at 10 degrees or 24 degrees C. Lactating mothers obtained most of their energy from dietary intake (ca. 90%), and the remainder was withdrawn from maternal stores. There ...
Kolthoff N - - 1998
1. The influence of pregnancy, lactation and weaning on bone mineral density in healthy women was investigated during a 2 year prospective study of 59 pregnant and lactating women from the 18th week of gestation. 2. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the non-dominant radius ...
Fiol G - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis was that during pregnancy nitric oxide acts as mediator in the hemodynamic response to volume expansion. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed on 12 rats on days 19 to 20 of pregnancy. Six rats were injected intravenously with hexamethonium bromide plus the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase ...
Gulson B L - - 1998
A cohort of 15 immigrant females to Australia and 7 native Australian controls were monitored on a monthly basis with high-precision lead isotopic methods during gestation and for 6 months after pregnancy to determine the extent of lead mobilization from the maternal skeleton. Quarterly environmental samples of house dust, drinking ...
Marshall J K JK Division of Gastroenterology, McMaster University, Hamilton, - - 1998
Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux is a common complication of pregnancy and lactation. However, the safety of many effective medical therapies, including oral proton pump inhibitors, has not been well defined. The administration of oral omeprazole to a 41-year-old female during the third trimester of pregnancy, after ranitidine and cisapride failed to ...
Giesemann M A - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of stage of the reproductive cycle and age on Ca and P metabolism and bone integrity of sows. Five-day balance studies were conducted with first- and fifth-parity sows, and sows were slaughtered during the last trimester of gestation, at the ...
Jain V - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that kinetics of vasorelaxation are altered during pregnancy. METHODS: Rings of aorta from rats at different stages of pregnancy (early, late, and term) and from nonpregnant female rats were precontracted with high-K+ and then allowed to relax in normal-K+ physiologic saline solution. The time to ...
Liel Y - - 1998
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is considered a rare complication of pregnancy and lactation, but the actual incidence is unknown. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is self-limited and usually does not recur during subsequent pregnancies, but little is known about its pathogenesis or the dynamics of bone density during the evolution and recovery phases of ...
Surbek D V - - 1998
Successful pregnancies in patients with transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassemia major are rare. We report the course of a pregnancy and newborn data during lactation and desferrioxamine therapy in the mother. The twin-pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. Besides normal iron level in breast milk, no clinical or hematological abnormalities due to desferrioxamine ...
Jain V - - 1998
The hypothesis that the changes in vascular reactivity seen during pregnancy are determined by the gestational age was examined. Experiments were designed to investigate changes in vascular responses with progression of pregnancy. The contractile responses to potassium and phenylephrine (in the presence and absence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric ...
Sohlström A - - 1998
Understanding the biological function of the fat retained during pregnancy is important when estimating energy needs during reproduction. Women as well as rats are often considered to gain fat at specific anatomical sites during pregnancy and use this fat as a source of energy during lactation. However, mobilized body fat ...
Toyoshima Y - - 1998
Histological changes in the rat nipple during the reproductive cycle were observed. In virgin and the first half (days 5 and 10) of pregnancy, the nipple had a dull conical shape and the germinative layer of epidermis, thicker than that of the skin surrounding the nipple, deeply ingrew into the ...
Wakerley J B - - 1998
The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a target site for the central actions of oxytocin (OT) in promoting behavioural and neuroendocrine responses involved in female reproduction, and binding studies suggest that OT sensitivity may be modulated over the peripartum period. Electrophysiological recordings from brain slices in vitro ...
Stefanidis K - - 1998
Three cases of breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation which were referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of loannina University Hospital during the period 1990-1997 are presented. Diagnosis and management of these cases are discussed and a strength protocol is suggested to identify new cases of breast cancer during ...
Leng G - - 1997
Oxytocin neurone terminals display a powerful opioid-mediated auto-inhibitory mechanism which restrains secretory activity. In pregnancy, upregulation of this mechanism may underlie the accumulation of large stores of oxytocin in the pituitary. In the present study, conscious pregnant rats were cannulated to allow blood samples to be taken for measurement of ...
Davis F C - - 1997
Melatonin is the mammalian fetus's window to periodicity of the outside world. Through melatonin, the fetus "knows" what time of year it is and, in all likelihood, also knows the time of day. The best known function of melatonin during development is to communicate information about photoperiod and thereby adaptively ...
Lucas S R - - 1997
Pregnant rats were subjected to 50% food restriction during the first or the second half of pregnancy, or throughout pregnancy. The effects of intrauterine food restriction, on kidney function and morphometry were studied in newborn and adult (3 months) offspring. No differences in glomerular diameter were observed in newborn restricted ...
Bara M - - 1997
The effects of Mg lactate, vitamin B6 and their association were studied on the ionic transfer through a membranous model: the human isolated amniotic membrane. The ionic transfer was evaluated by measuring of the total conductance in the maternal to fetal way (GtM) and in the fetal to maternal way ...
Ormandy C J - - 1997
A germ line null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene has been produced by replacing exon 5 with the Tk-NEO cassette. Heterozygous females showed almost complete failure of lactation following their first pregnancy when mated at 6-8 weeks of age. The severity of this phenotype was reduced when heterozygotes were ...
Suzuki Y - - 1997
The changes in the expression of the various adenylyl cyclases (ACs) in the rat uterus during the course of pregnancy and after delivery were examined by Northern blot analysis and AC assay. Northern blot analysis revealed that five isoforms of ACs (AC2, AC4, AC6, AC7, and AC9) were expressed in ...
Sicinski P - - 1997
Cyclin D1 is a critical component of the core cell cycle machinery. Mice lacking cyclin D1 develop mammary glands that fail to undergo normal lobuloalveolar proliferation during pregnancy. Thus, cyclin D1 seems to play a critical role in pregnancy-induced proliferation of mammary epithelium. Cyclin D1 also participates in neoplasia, as ...
Widmaier E P - - 1997
Leptin, the product of the obese gene first identified in mice, restores fertility in obese mice, and accelerates puberty in mice. We hypothesized that leptin's putative role in reproduction may extend to pregnancy and lactation. Leptin levels were determined in Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, a free-ranging mammal with ...
Kaske M - - 1997
The objective of this study was to assess feed intake and digesta passage characteristics in five Blackhead ewes fed hay ad libitum during pregnancy [I: d 60-80 post conceptionem (p conc); II: d 105-125 p conc; III: d 128-148 p conc] and lactation [IV: d 10-30 post partum (pp); V: ...
Eliason H L - - 1997
Although the mechanisms remain unknown, maternal core temperature (Tc) decreases near term of pregnancy and is increased throughout lactation in rats. The purpose of our present experiments was to determine whether pregnancy and lactation shift the thermoneutral zone of rats and to investigate whether the changes in maternal Tc during ...
Kuerer H M - - 1997
The most common malignancy concurrent with pregnancy is breast cancer. Since an increasing number of women are electing to postpone pregnancy to their late thirties and forties, the incidence of breast cancer concurrent with pregnancy is increasing. This article critically reviews the incidence, unique diagnostic and therapeutic considerations, the natural ...
Ramos L - - 1997
The levels of 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, including 13 coplanars (non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted chlorine) and 9 noncoplanar chirals (tri- and tetra-ortho-substituted chlorine), were measured in mothers milk from different mothers throughout their lactation periods. Important variations were found in the total PCB levels and PCB congener levels. The ...
Fung E B - - 1997
Zinc is essential for normal fetal growth and development and for milk production during lactation. The metabolic adjustments made in zinc utilization to meet these needs have not been described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractional zinc absorption (FZA) is altered during pregnancy and lactation and, ...
Donangelo C M - - 1997
Osteoporosis is a crippling disease that emerges as an important public health problem both in developed and developing countries including Brazil. The clinical condition is characterized mainly by loss of bone mineral mass in later life as the net result of complex physiological and environmental interacting factors during lifetime. Calcium ...
Mann P E - - 1997
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression was determined using in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) during pregnancy and lactation in rats with and without prior reproduction experience. POMC mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus were compared between primigravid (first pregnancy) and multigravid (second pregnancy) and primiparous and multiparous lactating rats, and between ...
Fewell J E - - 1997
Exposure of a rat to a novel environment (e.g., a simulated open field) induces a transient increase in body-core temperature, which is often called stress-induced hyperthermia. Although pregnancy is known to influence thermoregulatory control, its effect on stress-induced hyperthermia is unknown. Therefore, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats (8 nonpregnant and 16 pregnant) ...
Kai O - - 1997
Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations during pregnancy and lactation in Mongolian gerbils were measured by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). The P4 concentration was found to increase rapidly after mating and reach a peak on day 6 of pregnancy. The maximum level (166.0 to 184.8 ng/ml) was maintained to day 12 and then decreased ...
Weizman R - - 1997
The effect of pregnancy and lactation on GABA(A) receptor and central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (CBR and PBR, respectively) was studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnancy was associated with increased CBR density (on day 19) in the hippocampus and with decreased [3H]Ro 15-1788-specific binding in the hypothalamus during pregnancy and ...
Yanase S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of pregnancy and lactation on hexokinase II activity and gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rats. STUDY DESIGN: Intraabdominal adipose tissue and femoral quadriceps muscle were removed from Sprague-Dawley rats at various times (6 to 10 animals per group) ...
Yamanaka I - - 1997
Using specific antibodies and cDNA probe, we examined the expression pattern of a major gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), in rat mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation. Double immuno-fluorescence revealed that the labeling of Cx43 was superimposed in the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, suggesting that myoepithelial cell were interconnected by ...
Jeddi P A - - 1997
The authors used murine pregnancy as a model to investigate the regulation of IgG glycosylation. Pregnancy is associated with decreased levels of circulating IgG. The oligosaccharides on this IgG from late (day 15), but not early (day 8), pregnant Balb/c mice exhibited increased levels of terminal galactose. The levels remained ...
Vimy M J - - 1997
Neonatal uptake of mercury (Hg) from milk was examined in a pregnant sheep model, where radioactive mercury (Hg203)/silver tooth fillings (amalgam) were newly placed. A crossover experimental design was used in which lactating ewes nursed foster lambs. In a parallel study, the relationship between dental history and breast milk concentration ...
Woodside B - - 1996
It has been demonstrated in guinea pigs that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased in late pregnancy in some peripheral tissues and in the cerebellum. To determine whether similar changes would be observed in areas of the brain known to play a role in parturition, staining for NADPH-diaphorase, a ...
Ramos R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contraceptive efficacy of the lactational amenorrhoea method. DESIGN: Non-comparative prospective trial. SETTING: Urban Manila, the Philippines. SUBJECTS: 485 lower income, educated women with extensive experience of breast feeding. INTERVENTION: Women were offered all available contraceptives for use after birth. Those who chose the lactational amenorrhoea method ...
Skowron-Cendrzak A - - 1996
The ontogeny of graft versus host (GvH) reactivity of thymocytes and splenocytes was tested in C57BL female mice from the day of birth up to the age of 24 months. In comparison with virgin mice, the effect of a different number of pregnancies, with or without lactation, on the GvH ...
Baum A L - - 1996
We explore the effects on the developing fetus and neonate of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and lactation, reviewing the relevant animal and human studies published in English from 1976 to the present. Medline was used to search the terms SSRI, fluoxetine, pregnancy, lactation, and teratogenesis. Animal studies were ...
Blasco Casares F J - - 1996
An experimental study was conducted in rats to assess urographically the function of the integrated autologous free graft (IAFG) of the ureter, in which the ureter is reimplanted after being extracted from the animal's body and involves complete devascularization and ureteral ischemia. The technique employed included direct vascular injection of ...
Sachser N - - 1996
This study investigated the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the female offsprings' behaviour and body weight. The subjects studied were daughters whose mothers had lived: a) in a stable social environment (SSE) during pregnancy and lactation; b) in an unstable social environment (USE) during pregnancy ...
Whitelaw C B - - 1996
The major milk whey protein of ruminants is beta-lactoglobulin. Transgenic mice which carry genomic fragments of ovine beta-lactoglobulin express the transgene at high levels in the mammary gland. Using DNaseI as a probe for transcription complex formation in chromatin, the temporal induction pattern of beta-lactoglobulin in transgenic mice has been ...
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