Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1086
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Wysolmerski John J - - 2002
Calcium is required for skeletal growth in all vertebrate offspring. In eutherian mammals, calcium is provided by the mother via the placenta during fetal growth and via milk until weaning. Transferring calcium to offspring during pregnancy and lactation significantly stresses maternal calcium homeostasis. During human pregnancy, the extra calcium requirements ...
Carranza-Lira Sebastián - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time influence bone mineral density. METHODS: 50 healthy women aged 35 to 40 years were studied. Weight, height, number of term pregnancies, time since last pregnancy and breast-feeding time were analyzed. They were divided in three groups as follows: ...
Peaker Malcolm - - 2002
Current thinking is highlighting the mammary glands and the process of lactation in the evolutionary success of mammals over and above the selective advantages provided by the nutritional and antimicrobial properties of milk. The extended period of contact between mothers and their young, necessitated by the regular and frequent transfer ...
Bechtel Bethany S - - 2002
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra were collected on milk and colostrum obtained from the author during the pregnancy and post-partum periods for two births. Peak features in the downfield region, containing antibody and aromatic resonances (6.0 to 9.0 ppm), varied over time. This time variation pattern, while nearly identical for ...
Jones Hazel C - - 2002
H-Tx rats have fetal-onset inherited hydrocephalus. Linkage analysis has determined the genetics is complex, with at least three loci associated with hydrocephalus. In addition, maternal and/or intrauterine factors influence the frequency of expression. The aim of this study was to characterize nongenetic (epigenetic) factors that affect hydrocephalus in this strain. ...
Pires Jandyra B - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation during lactation on changes in blood lead indices from late pregnancy to early lactation in women with low calcium intakes and low lead-exposure. Forty-seven women, non-occupationally exposed to lead and with habitually low calcium intake ( approximately ...
Matsushita H - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of multiple pregnancies on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: The BMD of the lumbar spines (L2-L4) of 1,113 healthy women was measured within 7 days of childbirth. In addition 113 women had spine BMD measurements after their next delivery. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional ...
Madern Dominique - - 2002
The NAD(P)-dependent malate (L-MalDH) and NAD-dependent lactate (L-LDH) form a large super-family that has been characterized in organisms belonging to the three domains of life. In the first part of this study, the group of [LDH-like] L-MalDH, which are malate dehydrogenases resembling lactate dehydrogenase, were analyzed and clearly defined with ...
Tam Siu Lin - - 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis increases during pregnancy and has been shown to suppress baroreceptor activity. The renal response to a simulated increase in circulating blood volume (atrial distension) is also attenuated at this time. We hypothesized that blocking NO biosynthesis during pregnancy would restore the renal response. Female rats were ...
Yücel Ferruh - - 2002
To our knowledge there are no histomorphological studies examining the lingual papillae in pregnancy. Therefore, this present study was planned. The purpose of this study was to clarify different physiological results and to investigate whether there are any changes on the dorsal surface of the rat tongue during pregnancy. On ...
Capuco Anthony V - - 2002
The effect of pregnancy on postweaning mammary gland involution was investigated in mice. On the third day after forced weaning at Lactation Day 10, the apoptotic index was 56% lower in mammary tissue of mice that were pregnant at the time of weaning than in nonpregnant mice. Conversely, the bromodeoxyuridine-labeling ...
Hatton Glenn I - - 2002
In the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the incidence of conducting gap junctions (gjs), as indicated by dye coupling, is low in cycling females, but dramatically elevated in nursing mothers. Functionally, this is consistent with the well-established presence of synchronous milk ejection bursts among oxytocin neurons only in the lactating rat. In ...
Miller M E - - 2002
Recent evidence suggests oxytocin (OT) may regulate vascular tone. OT and its receptor (OTR) have been identified in the rat heart and great vessels. Expression of OT and OTR is increased in some tissues during pregnancy. We hypothesized that the OT/OTR system may be a physiological regulator of vascular tone ...
Grattan David R - - 2002
The role of prolactin in the regulation of mammary gland development and function during pregnancy and lactation is well established. However, in addition, prolactin appears to have a much wider role in the physiology of lactation. There is widespread expression of prolactin receptors in the hypothalamus during lactation, indicative of ...
Ohtera K - - 2002
As there is evidence that ligamentous laxity is affected by the female hormones, we hypothesized that hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy could have a therapeutic role in preventing the development of a joint contracture. Knee joint contractures were created in pregnant and nonpregnant rats. After 2 wk of immobilization, the ...
Koketsu Yuzo - - 2002
To set productivity standards and targets, and investigate inter-relationships between key measurements in swine breeding herds, farm productivity measurements were analyzed on 87 Japanese commercial farms in 14 prefectures. The 87 herds were ranked on the basis of number of pigs weaned per mated female per year (PWMFY), and 23 ...
Serafim A P - - 2002
The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study ...
Leshem M - - 2002
These experiments sought to distinguish whether increased calcium intake during pregnancy and lactation in the rat is due to arousal of a specific calcium appetite, with altered taste hedonics, as occurs with sodium depletion, to reduced taste sensitivity, or to the hyperdipsia of reproduction. We find that, during pregnancy and ...
Ensom Mary H H - - 2002
Despite numerous studies and case reports of changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy, the postpartum, and lactation, controversy exists regarding the time course of BMD changes and recovery to baseline levels. The degree to which pregnancy affects BMD long-term remains unclear. Several influencing factors, including breast-feeding, length of ...
Kalkwarf Heidi J - - 2002
Significant calcium transfer from the mother to the fetus and infant occurs during pregnancy and lactation, theoretically placing the mother at an increased risk for osteoporosis later in life. During pregnancy, intestinal calcium absorption increases to meet much of the fetal calcium needs. Maternal bone loss also may occur in ...
Kanazawa Takuya - - 2002
We generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against mouse alpha(s1)- and beta-casein and used them to survey casein immunochemically in mammary glands of mice at peri-coitous and pregnant stages. Two MAb-producing hybridoma cells, designated MCalpha1 cell and MCbeta1 cell, were established. Each antibody, when used in Western blotting, recognized specifically mouse alpha(s1)- ...
Itoh H - - 2002
To evaluate the significance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in milk in the perinatal period, we examined immunoreactive HGF levels and bioactivity in human milk. Human milk samples were obtained from women at various postpartum ages, and the levels of HGF were measured by ELISA. In the cross sectional study, ...
Coşkun Abdurrahman - - 2002
The present study reports liver carnitine biosynthesis and concentrations in non-pregnant (dry), pregnant and lactating rabbits (n = 17). To determine carnitine biosynthesis in liver tissues; we purified gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in carnitine biosynthesis, and measured its activity. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to ...
Espiridião S - - 2002
The worldwide use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as an analgesic-antipyretic drug, including during pregnancy, prompted us to investigate its potentially deleterious effects in that condition. Pregnant rats were treated with ASA (1, 10 or 100 mg/kg once a day) from the first day up to term pregnancy. No histological changes ...
Brelińska R - - 2002
Alterations in the thymic epithelial cell activity were analysed during pregnancy and lactation in Wistar rats by examining the presence and in situ distribution of lymphoepithelial complexes formed by thymic nurse cells (TNC). TNC were identified in paraffin sections by their expression of MHC class II antigens, CD54 molecule and ...
Iqbal Mohammad Masud - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy and lactation, little information is available about their effect on the developing fetus and on nursing infants. The authors review what is currently known about the effects of benzodiazepine therapy on the fetus and on nursing infants. METHODS: A MEDLINE search ...
Munarini Nadia - - 2002
We have previously documented the cell-type-specific and hormone-dependent expression of the EphB4 receptor in the mouse mammary gland. To investigate its role in the biology of the mammary gland, we have established transgenic mice bearing the EphB4 receptor under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter, which represents the first transgenic ...
Rocha J B T - - 2002
Undernutrition of dams and pups disrupts the retrieval efficiency of mothers. However, if the mothers are assessed in their home cages, they spend more time with their litters. In the present study the effect of test conditions on pup retrieval behavior of mothers receiving a 25% (well-nourished group) and 8% ...
Gadd M - - 2001
A coordinated growth arrest during mammary involution completes the dramatic changes in mammary cell proliferation seen during pregnancy and lactation. Signals regulating this arrest are poorly understood, despite their potential relevance to oncogenesis. Here we report that the arrest involves a unique pulse of p16(INK4A) expression in vivo, which accompanies ...
Knox R V - - 2001
Characterization of factors influencing estrus and ovulation in sows may facilitate development of procedures for improving reproductive performance. The experiment was conducted in confinement during 1997 to 1999 using 174 Large White x Landrace sows. After weaning, sows were checked for estrus twice daily. In the 1st yr, transrectal ultrasound ...
Gobello C - - 2001
The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches ...
Campino C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fully breastfeeding women experience an amenorrhoea of variable duration. Our aim was to identify in pregnancy, endocrine markers that could predict the duration of subsequent lactational amenorrhoea. METHODS: We studied 17 healthy women at 34 and 38 weeks gestation, and 1 and 3 months post-partum. The women fully breastfed ...
Dunbar M E - - 2001
We have previously demonstrated that overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary glands of transgenic mice results in defects in ductal elongation and branching during puberty and in lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy. In addition, we have shown that PTHrP is necessary for the formation of the initial ductal ...
Bonnette S G - - 2001
IGF-I mediates mammary ductal development through stimulation of terminal end bud (TEB) development; however, no published data exist on the mechanism through which this occurs. The mechanism of IGF-I action on the TEB was studied by determining the requirement for the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in IGF-I-dependent ductal development. We hypothesized ...
Kirkman M - - 2001
In Australia in 1988, Linda Kirkman gestated a baby for her sister, Maggie Kirkman (conceived using Maggie's ovum and IVF). During the pregnancy, a variety of means were used to stimulate lactation. After the birth, several women donated breastmilk as supplements to Maggie's supply. The paper discusses not only the ...
Hennighausen L - - 2001
Unlike most other organs, development of the mammary gland occurs predominantly after birth, under the control of steroid and peptide hormones. Once the gland is established, cycles of proliferation, functional differentiation, and death of alveolar epithelium occur repeatedly with each pregnancy. Although it is unique in this respect, the signaling ...
Ramirez R J - - 2001
Supraphysiological increases in serum triglycerides and cholesterol often occur during pregnancy, but their effects on vascular function are poorly understood. Intraperitoneal injection of the nontoxic surfactant poloxamer 407 (P-407) results in sustained elevation of triglycerides and cholesterol. We asked if P-407-induced hyperlipidemia during late pregnancy adversely affects mesenteric resistance artery ...
Knight C H - - 2001
Two critical windows in mammary development have been proposed. The first arises from observations in rodents that nutrition during fetal and neonatal periods can affect mammary ductular outgrowth, subsequent proliferative activity and, eventually, tumorigenesis, that is, potentially it could have a long-term effect on pathological outcome (breast cancer) in women. ...
Grattan D R - - 2001
Numerous studies have documented prolactin regulation of a variety of brain functions, including maternal behavior, regulation of oxytocin neurons, regulation of feeding and appetite, suppression of ACTH secretion in response to stress, and suppression of fertility. We have observed marked changes in expression of prolactin receptors in specific hypothalamic nuclei ...
Croce M V - - 2001
Serum levels of MUC1 and antibodies (Abs) against MUC1 (IgG and IgM-MUC1) were evaluated in healthy women related to pregnancy and lactation status. A total of 149 serum samples were obtained from: nulliparous, primiparous pregnant, multiparous pregnant that have lactated, multiparous pregnant without lactation, multiparous non-pregnant actual lactating, multiparous non-pregnant ...
Menegola E - - 2001
The double staining of fetal skeleton for bone and cartilage is a very useful method to evidence skeletal abnormalities in laboratory animals. However, this method has been rarely used in routine developmental toxicity tests. One reason could be the difficulty of comparing the single skeletal pieces and of having reference ...
Hampl J S - - 2001
The beneficial effects of pregnancy on rheumatoid arthritis have been known for decades. Only recently, however, have lactation and prolactin been targeted as predictors of onset, flare, or relapse of arthritis. Among genetically susceptible women, breastfeeding is associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, particularly after the first pregnancy. ...
Takahata Y - - 2001
We analyzed IL-18 levels of human milk. Colostrum contained significantly higher levels of IL-18 compared with early milk and mature milk. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, preterm delivery and pregnancy complications of mothers significantly correlated with high levels of IL-18 in human milk (p = 0.0007 and 0.0018, respectively). ...
Srivastava S - - 2001
A new alkaloid designated as ervatine, in addition to seven known alkaloids, viz. tabersonine, coronaridine, heyneanine, voacristine, voacristine hydroxyindolenine, hydroxyibogamine, and coronaridine hydroxyindolenine, were isolated from the fruit of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Characterisation and structure elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of their spectral analyses. The ethanolic ...
Ehrhardt R A - - 2001
Maternal plasma leptin is elevated during pregnancy in several species, but it is unclear to what extent this elevation reflects changes in adiposity or energy balance. Therefore, Karakul ewes (n = 8) were fed to minimize changes in maternal energy status over the pregnancy-lactation cycle. They were studied 20-40 d ...
Chan T W - - 2001
Epidemiological studies have shown that early first pregnancy is associated with a life-long reduction in breast cancer risk. The terminal differentiation associated with pregnancy and lactation has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the protective effect of pregnancy. We report that treatment of rats with ICI 182,780 (ICI) caused a ...
Hashimoto H - - 2001
The relationship among ultrasonic vocalization (USV), prolactin and maternal behavior was investigated in lactating rat mothers and their pups. The lactating mother had a cannula inserted into the external jugular vein, and was exposed to USVs emitted from a pup immediately. Changes of prolactin and maternal behavior were determined. Prolactin ...
Omi N - - 2001
This study investigated changes in Ca balance and BMD during pregnancy in female rats. During pregnancy, the intestinal Ca absorption increased significantly, and Ca accumulation was also markedly elevated. However, BMD values for the lumbar spine decreased significantly during pregnancy. Twenty female SD rats, 10 weeks of age (Japan SLC ...
Bowman B M - - 2001
Remarkable changes occur in the mammalian skeleton prior to, during and after the reproductive cycle. Skeletal changes occur with ovarian maturation and initiation of menses and estrus in adolescence, which may result in a greater accumulation of skeletal mineral in the female vs the male skeleton. There is also some ...
King J C - - 2001
Nutrient needs increase during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis, respectively. Physiological adjustments that are made to meet those needs alter the fraction of ingested nutrient retained, or the bioavailability. Using stable isotopes as tracers, we measured calcium, zinc and selenium homeostasis in women during reproduction. ...
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