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Results 451 - 500 of 1129
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Kritikou Ekaterini A - - 2003
STAT3 is the key mediator of apoptosis in mammary gland. We demonstrate here that LIF is the physiological activator of STAT3, because in involuting mammary glands of Lif(-/-) mice, pSTAT3 is absent and the STAT3 target, C/EBPdelta, is not upregulated. Similar to Stat3 knockouts, Lif(-/-) mammary glands exhibit delayed involution, ...
Augustine R A - - 2003
Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) expression in the brain is increased in lactating rats compared with non-pregnant animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the time-course of changes in PRL-R mRNA levels during pregnancy and/or lactation, and to determine relative levels of the two forms (short and/or long form) ...
Gentry P Robinan - - 2003
In recent years efforts have increased to develop a framework for assessing differences, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, between children and adults for purposes of assessing risk of adverse effects following chemical exposure. The specific goal of this study was to demonstrate an approach for using PBPK modeling to compare maternal ...
Rocha Milagros - - 2003
Pregnancy is characterized by an increase in food intake that, in turn, produce a positive energy balance in order to face the considerable metabolic demands associated with the challenge of reproduction. Since hypothalamus is a key brain region involved in many peripheral signals and neuronal pathways that control energy homeostasis ...
Wood G M - - 2003
The objective of this study was to use field data collected by dairy herd improvement programs to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Edited data were 36,074 test-day records of MUN and yields of milk, fat, and protein obtained from 6102 cows in Holstein herds in ...
Picciano Mary Frances - - 2003
Nutritional needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation for support of fetal and infant growth and development along with alterations in maternal tissues and metabolism. Total nutrient needs are not necessarily the sum of those accumulated in maternal tissues, products of pregnancy and lactation and those attributable to the maintenance ...
Kulcu R - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine serum Cu, Zn, Mn, K, and Mg levels before and during pregnancy and during the lactation period of sheep and cattle and to determine the relationships between periods. For this purpose, blood samples of 14 healthy, pregnant Brown Swiss cows fed under ...
Manton W I - - 2003
Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second ...
Reed W - - 2003
The incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, i.e. during pregnancy and lactation, and of pregnancy subsequent to a breast-cancer diagnosis will increase as more women choose childbearing at a later age. Few larger series are published on pregnancy-associated breast cancer. In a population-based study, we evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors ...
Prentice Ann - - 2003
The fluxes of the primary bone-forming minerals, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc, across the placenta and through breast milk place considerable demands on maternal mineral economy. Increases in food consumption, elevated gastrointestinal absorption, decreased mineral excretion and mobilization of tissue stores are several possible biological strategies for meeting these extra ...
Lonstein J S - - 2003
In many mammals, hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy and parturition produce neurochemical events that are necessary for the transition from a non-maternal state to a maternal state that occurs when infants are born. However, the nature of these events is mostly unknown. We investigated whether changes in dopamine (DA) and serotonin ...
Heikkinen Tuija - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, during pregnancy, delivery, and lactation in mothers and their infants. METHODS: Eleven mothers taking fluoxetine and their infants were enrolled in the study. A control group of 10 women who ...
Seagroves Tiffany N - - 2003
During pregnancy the mammary epithelium and its supporting vasculature rapidly expand to prepare for lactation, resulting in dramatic changes in the micro-environment. In order to investigate the role of oxygenation and metabolism in these processes, the oxygen-responsive component of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 complex, HIF1alpha, was deleted in the ...
Conneely Orla M - - 2003
The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), is a central coordinator of all aspects of female reproductive activity and plays a key role in pregnancy-associated mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of P on the mammary gland are mediated by two structurally and functionally distinct nuclear receptors PR-A and PR-B ...
Banapurmath Shobha - - 2003
The present study was conducted to evaluate whether mothers with babies less than 6 weeks of age can be helped to initiate or establish lactation in outpatient department. One thousand mothers with babies less than 6 weeks of age who completed 10 days of follow-up in outpatient have been analyzed. ...
Fraser Anna B - - 2003
The impact of lactation on maternal weight after delivery remains unclear. To address this question, we performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched PubMed, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS computerized databases for relevant articles and classified the evidence using the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force rating system. We found ...
Grossman M - - 2003
Objectives of this study are to describe the biological basis for multiphasic milk production and to propose a new empirical model for the lactation curve. To illustrate this model, we used data on 3573 first-lactation Holsteins having lactations of various lengths (285, 345, 405, 465, and 525 d) and with ...
Paton Lynda M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of pregnancy and lactation on measures of bone mineral in women remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether pregnancy or lactation has deleterious long-term effects on bone mineral in healthy women. DESIGN: We measured bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) in women aged > or = 18 y. ...
Gulson Brian L - - 2003
The skeleton is potential endogenous source of lead during pregnancy and lactation. We have undertaken a longitudinal investigation into the mobilization of lead from the human maternal skeleton to determine whether lead is mobilized from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation, and if so, when and how much is ...
More Csaba - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Biochemical markers of bone turnover are reliable indices for measuring changes in bone formation and bone resorption. Due to limitations in the use of bone densitometry during pregnancy biochemical markers of bone turnover provide an excellent alternative to examine the state of the skeleton during this physiologic state. STUDY ...
Brako Emmanuel E - - 2003
Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of (109)CdCl(2) (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 micro Ci (109)Cd/ml). (109)Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues ...
Brawley L - - 2003
Human and animal studies have shown that unbalanced maternal nutrition is associated with the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. In the Southampton maternal low protein model (SMLP), protein deprivation (50%) throughout pregnancy in rats leads to elevated blood pressure in adult offspring. Impaired peripheral arterial function may ...
Naylor Mathew J - - 2003
Prolactin (PRL) is essential for a number of developmental events in the mammary gland. Work with PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice has shown that PRL indirectly regulates ductal side branching during puberty and directly controls lobuloalveolar development and lactogenesis during pregnancy. Anterior pituitary or placental PRL is thought to ...
Sørmo E G - - 2003
Phocid seals have lipid rich milk, which is known to serve as a transfer medium through which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) move from mother to offspring during lactation. However, knowledge on this generational transfer of different POPs and the partitioning of these compounds in maternal and offspring tissues over the ...
Ronca April E - - 2003
Sustaining life beyond Earth on either space stations or other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction and development. Pregnancy, parturition (birth) and the early development of offspring are complex processes essential for successful reproduction and the proliferation of mammalian ...
Górniak Silvana Lima - - 2003
A perinatal study was performed to verify the toxic effects of Solanum malacoxylon, which contains a glycoside conjugated to Vitamin D(3). In the gestational study, female rats received S. malacoxylon leaves in the diet at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1% from days 6 to 21 of pregnancy. At 21 ...
Friedman Susan Hatters - - 2003
This article is a report on a complicated case of delusional disorder in pregnancy and lactation, and effective multidisciplinary treatment. Few reports in the literature concern delusional disorder in pregnancy, or regard olanzapine's safety in pregnancy and lactation. A gravid woman in her third trimester merited twin diagnoses of delusional ...
Paoletti Anna Maria - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bone resorption markers change during pregnancy and lactation, and how they are correlated with human placental lactogen (hPL) and PRL. SUBJECTS: Young women before pregnancy, during pregnancy and during a 12-month post-delivery period (study group; n = 22); and age- and weight-matched normal cycling women (control ...
Bobadilla Rosa A - - 2003
Peripheral vascular resistance and sensitivity to circulating pressor and vasoconstrictor agents are blunted during pregnancy. This has been mainly attributed to an increased production of endothelium-derived mediators. The objective of this work was to evaluate if pregnancy changes the relative participation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) in respect ...
Helland Ingrid B - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n-6) are important for development of the central nervous system in mammals. There is a growth spurt in the human brain during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first postnatal months, with a large increase in the cerebral ...
Patton Sheila W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review studies investigating the following: whether exposing developing infants to antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased risks of teratogenic, neonatal, and long-term neurobehavioural sequelae; whether schizophrenia itself affects pregnancy outcome; and whether the course of schizophrenia symptoms is altered by pregnancy and lactation. METHOD: ...
Kelly Paul A - - 2002
Development and differentiation of the mammary gland occur primarily during pregnancy. Females homozygous (-/-) for the null mutation of the PRL receptor (PRLR) gene are sterile due to a complete failure of blastocysts to implant. In progesterone-treated mice pregnancy is rescued but the mammary gland is severely underdeveloped. Interestingly, females ...
Petrie Linda - - 2002
Maternal malnutrition can lead to fetal abnormalities and increase susceptibility to disease in later life. Rat models have been developed to study the physiology and metabolism underlying this phenomenon. One particular model of 50 % protein restriction during pregnancy, the low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with methionine, has been developed to ...
Corpas Isabel - - 2002
The effect of lead (Pb) intoxication during pregnancy and lactation on the male reproductive system was studied to evaluate the alterations caused by Pb in the development of pups. The investigations covered the effect of lead on the course of spermatogenesis and the development of the epididymis and reproductive glands. ...
Laine Merja Anneli - - 2002
Clinical studies have shown that oral tissues can be affected by pregnancy. Pregnancy-related changes are most frequent and most marked in gingival tissue. Pregnancy does not cause gingivitis, but may aggravate pre-existing disease. The most marked changes are seen in gingival vasculature. Characteristic of pregnancy gingivitis is that the gingiva ...
Tran H A - - 2002
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is an uncommon condition. It predominantly affects thinly built, primigravid, lactating women. These patients can sustain vertebral fractures with minimal or no trauma, resulting in significant morbidity. The association with hypercalcaemia is rare and typically occurs during the first few months postpartum, while lactating. This condition is, however, ...
Dufour D L - - 2002
The purpose of this article is to compare the energetics of reproduction for human and other primates in order to evaluate the extent to which human reproductive energetics are distinct from other primates and other large-bodied placental mammals. The article also evaluates the energetics of human and primate gestation and ...
Mouihate A - - 2002
The fever response is blunted at near term. As the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in fever development, we measured its expression in rat hypothalamus during pregnancy and lactation. Western blot analysis revealed a 72-kDa COX-2-immunoreactive band in non-immune-challenged, pregnant rats at day 15 of pregnancy. In contrast, ...
Friis H H Research Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark. - - 2002
Excessive accumulation of fat in women of childbearing age is a concern, since obesity is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Deposition of fat during pregnancy, which is not metabolized during lactation, may contribute. However, the individual effects of age and gravidity on fat accumulation have not been disentangled. ...
Ngan Elly S W - - 2002
Fibroblast growth factor-3 (FGF-3) is a crucial developmental regulator. Aberrant activation of this gene by mouse mammary tumor virus insertion results in pregnancy-responsive mammary tumorigenesis. To characterize better FGF-3 function in postnatal mammary gland development and cancer initiation/progression, we used a mifepristone (RU486)-inducible regulatory system to express conditionally FGF-3 in ...
Graham Laura H - - 2002
The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is a popular zoo animal and an integral part of wetland ecosystems in its native continent of Africa. However, information about the reproductive physiology of the hippopotamus is limited compared to the other megaherbivores of Africa such as the elephant and the rhinoceros. This study is ...
Adebiyi Adebowale - - 2002
Using controlled in vivo and in vitro pharmacological methods, we evaluated the safety of papaya (Carica papaya) consumption in pregnancy with reference to its common avoidance during pregnancy in some parts of Asia. Ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. (Caricaecae) blend (500 ml/l water) was freely given to four groups of ...
Takewa Yoshiaki - - 2002
We have reported that infusion of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor (PGSI) reduced the severity of hypotension during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In the present study, we investigated the effects of PGSI on humoral conditions and whole body oxygen metabolism during normothermic CPB conducted for 60 min in 8 adult goats. The ...
Wysolmerski John J - - 2002
Calcium is required for skeletal growth in all vertebrate offspring. In eutherian mammals, calcium is provided by the mother via the placenta during fetal growth and via milk until weaning. Transferring calcium to offspring during pregnancy and lactation significantly stresses maternal calcium homeostasis. During human pregnancy, the extra calcium requirements ...
Carranza-Lira Sebastián - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time influence bone mineral density. METHODS: 50 healthy women aged 35 to 40 years were studied. Weight, height, number of term pregnancies, time since last pregnancy and breast-feeding time were analyzed. They were divided in three groups as follows: ...
Peaker Malcolm - - 2002
Current thinking is highlighting the mammary glands and the process of lactation in the evolutionary success of mammals over and above the selective advantages provided by the nutritional and antimicrobial properties of milk. The extended period of contact between mothers and their young, necessitated by the regular and frequent transfer ...
Bechtel Bethany S - - 2002
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra were collected on milk and colostrum obtained from the author during the pregnancy and post-partum periods for two births. Peak features in the downfield region, containing antibody and aromatic resonances (6.0 to 9.0 ppm), varied over time. This time variation pattern, while nearly identical for ...
Jones Hazel C - - 2002
H-Tx rats have fetal-onset inherited hydrocephalus. Linkage analysis has determined the genetics is complex, with at least three loci associated with hydrocephalus. In addition, maternal and/or intrauterine factors influence the frequency of expression. The aim of this study was to characterize nongenetic (epigenetic) factors that affect hydrocephalus in this strain. ...
Pires Jandyra B - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation during lactation on changes in blood lead indices from late pregnancy to early lactation in women with low calcium intakes and low lead-exposure. Forty-seven women, non-occupationally exposed to lead and with habitually low calcium intake ( approximately ...
Matsushita H - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of multiple pregnancies on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: The BMD of the lumbar spines (L2-L4) of 1,113 healthy women was measured within 7 days of childbirth. In addition 113 women had spine BMD measurements after their next delivery. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional ...
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