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Results 451 - 500 of 1014
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Shousha S - - 2000
CONTEXT: Much has been written about the clinical management and prognosis of breast carcinomas presenting during pregnancy and lactation, yet little is known about the detailed histopathology of these tumors. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether these carcinomas have any specific diagnostic features. DESIGN: A detailed histologic and immunohistochemical study of 14 ...
Kronfeld-Schor N - - 2000
Circulating leptin levels are elevated during the later stages of pregnancy in mammals, suggesting that maternal leptin may play a role in maintenance of pregnancy and/or preparation for parturition and lactation. The regulation and source of circulating leptin during pregnancy remains undetermined, but leptin mRNA levels increase in adipose tissue ...
Prentice A - - 2000
Human pregnancy is associated with major changes in calcium and bone metabolism and in bone mineral status before and after gestation. The changes are compatible with the uptake and mobilization of calcium by the maternal skeleton to meet the high requirement for fetal growth and for breast-milk production. Breast-feeding is ...
Richert M M - - 2000
The mouse mammary gland is a complex tissue, which is continually undergoing changes in structure and function. Embryonically, the gland begins with invasion of the underlying fat pad by a rudimentary ductal structure. Postnatal growth occurs in two phases: ductal growth and early alveolar development during estrous cycles, and cycles ...
Nakai A - - 2000
The objective of the present study was to explore whether a free radical spin trap agent, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), influences bioenergetic failure induced in the 20-day-old fetal brain by 30 min of intrauterine ischemia in Wistar rats. Fetal brains were frozen in situ at the end of ischemia and after ...
Yoon B K - - 2000
To elucidate the changes in bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium, we measured serially the levels of serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpy) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, in 22 healthy women with normal pregnancy. Nineteen non-pregnant women served as control. The Dpy levels increased significantly ...
Sjögren B - - 2000
In order to study personality changes in first pregnancy and lactation, two groups of women (n = 161, mean age 26.8 years) completed the self-report inventory Karolinska Scales of Personality and a scale for emotional dependency during pregnancy and 3 or 6 months after delivery. The results were within normal ...
Makrides M - - 2000
Much interest has been expressed about the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) requirements of both preterm and term infants, whereas relatively little attention has been given to the LCPUFA needs of mothers, who may provide the primary source of LCPUFAs for their fetuses and breast-fed infants. Although maternal requirements for ...
Tedeschi D - - 2000
An impairment of mitochondrial function may contribute to the pathophysiology of myotonic dystrophy (MyD). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency has been previously observed, even if in a restricted sample of patients. The aim of this investigation was to obtain more information about coenzyme Q10 and its relationships to the aerobic metabolism ...
Ward W E - - 2000
Previous investigation demonstrated that feeding a 10% flaxseed (10F) diet during pregnancy and lactation enhanced the differentiation of highly proliferative terminal end bud (TEB) structures of rat mammary gland into less proliferative alveolar buds and lobules. From this study, it was hypothesized that the lignan component in flaxseed mediated the ...
Prentice A - - 2000
Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium requirement. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of calcium and bone metabolism during human pregnancy and lactation and discusses the findings in relation to the calcium nutrition of the mother. The evidence indicates that pregnancy and lactation are characterized by ...
Naylor K E - - 2000
During pregnancy, the mother adapts to meet the calcium demands of the fetus. The effect of this adaptation on the maternal skeleton is not fully understood. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover during pregnancy. We studied 16 women longitudinally, with baseline measurements ...
Szewczyk G - - 2000
Specimens of mouse mammary glands obtained from animals being in different phases of reproductive cycle were collected. After staining MCN, the total mast cell area (TMC), mean mast cell area (MMC), and lactiferous structure density index (LDI) were examined in sections, using a computer image analysis system. Statistically significant (P ...
Mifune H - - 2000
A-type (atrial) natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels in the auricular cardiocytes and plasma were examined by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and radioimmunoassay in pregnant and lactating mice. Additionally, the cardiocyte ANP mRNA expression was measured by the polymerase chain reaction method. ANP-immunoreactivity (IR) and the number of ANP-granules in the cardiocytes on ...
Gulson B L - - 1999
Recent longitudinal studies with human subjects and nonhuman primates using high-precision stable lead isotopes show that lead is mobilized from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We have now calculated the cumulative lead release (lead flux in micrograms) mobilized from the skeleton during these periods by means ...
Bowman B M - - 1999
There are dramatic changes in skeletal physiology and metabolism to accommodate the mineral requirements of the developing fetus during pregnancy and milk production during lactation. The purpose of this study was to document changes in skeletal growth, chemistry, and mass during and after multiple reproductive cycles in the rat, with ...
Toda T - - 1999
Three new 6-O-acylated isoflavone glycosides were isolated from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis (natto) and identified as daidzein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (1), genistein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (2), and glycitein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (3) on the basis of spectral data and chemical transformations. During fermentation, the content of the isoflavone glycosides first decreased and then increased, whereas ...
Plaut K - - 1999
The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism of 10 pregnant rats was measured on Day 20 of pregnancy and after parturition. Rats were flown on the space shuttle from Day 11 through Day 20 of pregnancy. After their return to earth, glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide increased 43% (P < ...
Weizman A - - 1999
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and lactation on the expression of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in platelet membranes. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding characteristics, Hamilton anxiety and depression rating Scores, and progesterone and prolactin (PRL) levels were evaluated during pregnancy ...
Dubovický M - - 1999
Stobadine (STO) is a potential neuro- and cardioprotective drug with high antioxidative properties. The presented study investigated the effects of oral STO administration (5, 15 and 50 mg/kg/d) during pregnancy and lactation to dams on neurobehavioural development of their offspring (body growth and maturation, sensory functions, neuromotor and reflex development, ...
Nishiwaki M - - 1999
To elucidate the effect of pregnancy, lactation and weaning on bone mineral density (BMD) in rats, a longitudinal study was done on the same individuals measuring BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and comparing their profiles with those of nonpregnant controls. Twenty-seven pregnant Wistar rats which had been mated at ...
Ott S M - - 1999
We used a nonhuman primate model (Macaca nemestrina) of adolescent human pregnancy to characterize bone remodeling at midpregnancy and at weaning and the associated changes in bone mass. In this longitudinal study, 125 nulliparous females were followed through pregnancy, 6 months of lactation, and 3 months postweaning; 13 nonpregnant females ...
Björklund K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether there is an association between pregnancy-related back and pelvic pain and changes in bone density. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, bone density was measured in the distal and ultra-distal forearm at 12 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and at 5 months post partum. The location ...
Hecht G S GS Department of Psychology and Center for Developmental Psychobiology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, - - 1999
Operant responding on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule for intravenous cocaine as well as sucrose reinforcement was examined in female rats throughout the reproductive process. Self-administration sessions began before mating, and continued throughout pregnancy and until lactational Day 8; following parturition, litters were present with dams during operant sessions. Physiological ...
Fantl V - - 1999
A specific defect of mice lacking cyclin D1 (Cyl-1(-/-)) is impaired development of the mammary gland during pregnancy. Here we show that when tissue from Cyl-1(-/-) mammary gland was transplanted into empty mammary fat pad of wild-type mice, the abnormal phenotype was maintained, indicating that it is epithelial cell autonomous. ...
Ortega R M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to study the relationship between riboflavin status during the third trimester of pregnancy and levels of this vitamin in transition milk (days 13 to 14 of lactation) and mature milk (day 40 of lactation). METHODS: The pregnancies and lactation periods of 57 ...
Losty P D - - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) frequently have associated anomalies that have a major impact on survival rate independent of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) represent a major group of lethal extrapulmonary abnormalities that often assume greatest prognostic significance in most CDH studies. Animal models resembling ...
Yasu T - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a subgroup of QW7437 microbubbles, dodecafluoropentane-based ultrasound contrast microspheres, resides for prolonged periods in the microvasculature. BACKGROUND: QW7437 produces echo enhancement in myocardium which may persist relatively longer than opacification in the left ventricular cavity. The mechanism for ...
Hunter D L - - 1999
Chlorpyrifos (O,O'-diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl] phosphorothionate) is a commonly used anticholinesterase insecticide, and therefore the potential for human exposure is high. The present time course and dose response studies were conducted to delineate the toxicokinetics of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in the pregnant rat and fetus. Time-pregnant, Long-Evans rats were treated orally ...
Hogge Jacquelyn P. - - 1999
Detection and management of breast abnormalities that develop during pregnancy and lactation is difficult for both the clinician and the radiologist. This article reviews the hormonal and physiologic effects on the breast during pregnancy and lactation. Breast masses that occur in pregnant or lactating patients, including pregnancy-associated breast cancer, are ...
Ghannam N N - - 1999
Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the anterio-posterior lumbar spine and the proximal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, as well as relevant clinical and biochemical parameters, were determined in 321 healthy Saudi females in order to establish reference values and to study the effects of physical and lifestyle factors on ...
Neville M C - - 1999
The physiology of human lactation is described with secretions on mammary gland anatomy and development, the mechanisms of milk secretion and ejection, and the temporal sequence of events during the transition from pregnancy to lactation (lactogenesis). Finally, interactions between lactation and maternal metabolism are briefly described and the interaction of ...
Lin W Y - - 1999
Rhenium-186 (Re-186) hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) has been shown to localize in metastatic foci within bone in a manner similar to Tc-99m bone-seeking agents. Usually, in the preparation of diagnostic Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals, the concentration of Tc is at trace level (10(-8) M). However, large amounts of carrier are included in the ...
Weed S S - - 1999
The Wise Woman tradition seeks to heal the whole individual. The primary techniques involve nourishing the woman through storytelling, simple ceremony, and dietary herbs. The "mysteries" of a woman's body--puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause--are seen as times of power and growth. Menopause is an opportunity for conscious change, not ...
Velonà T - - 1999
During the last few years, advances in the care of low-birth-weight and preterm neonates has stimulated research on the best dietetic program to improve survival and to reduce handicap incidence. At present, fortification of human milk with artificial formulas is the most usual dietetic solution. As yet, however, little is ...
Catalano P M - - 1999
The additional energy requirements of pregnancy are needed for increases in maternal (breast, uterus and adipose) and feto-placental tissue accrued during pregnancy as well as the additional running cost of pregnancy for example increased cardiac output. Based on prospective longitudinal studies, the additional energy requirements of pregnancy range from > ...
Shahtaheri S M - - 1999
Pregnancy and lactation make demands on maternal calcium homeostasis which may affect bone strength. Recently, changes in cancellous architecture have been described in iliac crest bone biopsies from normal pregnant women but the rarity of such human material means an animal model is essential. The microanatomy of cancellous bone was ...
Guzman R C - - 1999
Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness ...
van der Heijden H F - - 1999
The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol and the long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol on hypoxia-induced rat diaphragm force reduction. In vitro diaphragm twitch force (Pt) and maximal tetanic force (Po) of isolated diaphragm muscle strips were measured for ...
Lockwood D N - - 1999
The interaction between pregnancy, leprosy and leprosy reactions was examined in a systematic literature review. Several retrospective case series and one retrospective cohort study but only one prospective cohort study were identified in the English literature. Type 1 (reversal) reactions were particularly likely to occur during the post partum. This ...
Cheales-Siebenaler N J - - 1999
This case report describes the experiences of an gravida 3 para 0 adoptive mother who initiated the use of bilateral pumping, metoclopramide, syntocinon nasal spray, and a supplemental nursing system to induce lactation. Lactogenesis was initiated within 10 days of the adoption. No measurable milk was pumped until the baby ...
Kriston T - - 1999
The vasoconstrictor effects of pressor agents are attenuated during pregnancy. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in great quantities during hypertension in pregnancy, and therefore it is important to know whether pregnancy modifies the pressor effects of TXA2. The TXA2 analog U-46619 was infused in anesthetized, acutely prepared and conscious, chronically ...
Cox D B - - 1999
Breast volume and morphology of eight subjects were measured before conception and at intervals throughout pregnancy until 1 month of lactation. Breast volume before conception ranged from 293 to 964 ml. At the end of pregnancy the volume of breast tissue had increased by 145+/-19 ml (mean+/-S.E.M., n = 13 ...
Butte N F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Metabolic adjustments occur during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis; however, the effect of body composition and hormonal milieu on these changes is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that energy metabolism changes during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal growth and milk synthesis, and that ...
Kunz T H - - 1999
We previously demonstrated high leptin levels during late pregnancy in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We now extend these observations to a second species, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and also report that leptin increases after the first trimester of pregnancy. Leptin decreased to baseline 1 week following parturition, ...
Sapi E - - 1999
Colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and its receptor (CSF-1R, product of c-fms proto-oncogene) were initially implicated as essential for normal monocyte development as well as for trophoblastic implantation. However, recent findings have suggested that CSF-1 and CSF-1R might have additional roles in mammary gland development during pregnancy and lactation. Studies with ...
Popeski N - - 1999
Staining for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), a histochemical marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is increased in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei in late pregnant rats. To determine whether increases in staining were evident at other times during pregnancy and lactation the number of cells that ...
Balkan E - - 1999
PURPOSE: Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital and lethal disease, and the etiology of the disease is not clear. It is speculated that maternal ingestion of some drugs during pregnancy may be an etiologic factor. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of maternal ingestion ...
Schumacher B - - 1999
We studied the effect of 9 h of simulated airplane cabin conditions at cruising altitude (8,000 feet; inspired oxygen equivalent to 15% O2 at sea level) on fetal plasma lactate in near-term pregnant rabbits. Controls (n = 19) spent 9 h at sea level (21% O2). Study group I (n ...
Mukherjea R - - 1999
Energy needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation. These increased energy needs may be met through partitioning of nutrients for energy utilization which is under hormonal control. The objective of the present studies was to determine if changes in plasma leptin occurred during pregnancy and lactation and if the changes ...
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