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Lawler John M - - 2002
Creatine is the most popular supplement proposed to be an ergogenic aid. There is some evidence in the literature that creatine supplementation increases lean body mass, muscular strength, and sprint power. However, the efficacy of creatine has not been consistent, and the potential mechanisms are unresolved. While limited evidence that ...
Carretti Nicola - - 2002
During pregnancy, plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) and transferrin (TSF) show a gradual increase till term, when a slight decrease occurs. Human chorionic somatotropin (hCS) is a peptide hormone with a direct effect on the function of the syncytiotrophoblast and on the mass of functional placental tissue. In order to ...
de Jong Nynke - - 2002
Low birthweight is associated with maternal anaemia and, in some circumstances, with low iron and zinc status, but this relationship has not been investigated in the Philippines. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and suboptimal iron and zinc status in pregnant women from three geographical regions (mountain, ...
Myers M F - - 2001
Maternal consumption of folic acid before pregnancy and during early pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk for some birth defects. Whether folic acid can reduce the risk for imperforate anus is unknown. As part of a public health campaign conducted in China from 1993 through 1995, the outcomes of ...
McGready R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Before its recognition, infantile beriberi was the leading cause of infant death in camps for displaced persons of the Karen ethnic minority on Thailand's western border. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to document thiamine status in the peripartum period to examine the current supplementation program and the correlation between the ...
Mehta B C - - 2001
Ironhydroxide polymaltose (IPC) preparations were used to treat four pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia. Despite patient compliance for sufficient length of time, hemoglobin failed to rise. By the time this was noticed, pregnancy was well advanced and delivery was only few weeks away. Patients were switched over to ferrous ...
Anderson A S - - 2001
It is thought that nutrition during pregnancy plays a key role in the well-being of the mother and the newborn infant, and further influences health during childhood and adulthood. Pregnancy is a time of increased nutritional requirements, but many of these requirements will be met by adaptive physiological changes that ...
Ashworth C J - - 2001
Vitamins and minerals serve essential roles in cellular metabolism, maintenance and growth throughout life. They are also central components of many enzymes and transcription factors. However, the need for optimum amounts of key micronutrients at critical stages during the periovulatory period and subsequent embryonic and fetal life has become the ...
Pearce C B - - 2001
We describe two cases in which self-propelling, blind placed nasojejunal tubes were placed in severe hyperemesis gravidarum. This method provides an alternative to parenteral nutrition and to percutaneous endoscopic tubes, is well tolerated, cost effective and with a low rate of complication. Both mothers were given nutritional support at home, ...
Gindler J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although taking supplements that contain 400 microg of folic acid before and during early pregnancy reduces a woman's risk for having a baby with a neural-tube defect (NTD), the effects of such supplements on other pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. We examined whether the use of such supplements affects the ...
Whittaker P G - - 2001
Studies of Fe absorption in pregnancy often make unfounded assumptions of erythrocyte incorporation. Therefore, we measured the absorption and utilisation of Fe during early and late pregnancy by the erythrocyte incorporation of two stable isotopes. 8.5 mg 57Fe (oral) and 0.5 mg (58)Fe (intravenous) were given to five non-pregnant women, ...
Haram K - - 2001
Approximately 20% of women in industrialized countries have iron deficiency in pregnancy. This article focuses on the diagnostic problem of anemia and iron deficiency and discusses different strategies for iron supplementation in pregnancy. S-ferritin is commonly used to diagnose empty iron stores and is considered useful early in pregnancy as ...
Tsui B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the usage patterns of dietary supplements during pregnancy, providing information about type of supplements used, prevalence of use, and rationale for use. STUDY DESIGN: A survey was distributed to pregnant patients who were touring the University of California, San Francisco birthing center or who were receiving ...
Tapiero H - - 2001
A report from the World Health Organization estimates that 46% of the world's 5- to 14-year-old children are anemic. In addition, 48% of the world's pregnant women are anemic. A majority of these cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. Our aim here is to review the latest data ...
Gregory J F JF - - 2001
To investigate the effects of pregnancy on folate metabolism, we conducted an 84-d study in second-trimester (gestational wk 14-25) pregnant women (n = 6) and nonpregnant controls (n = 6) with stable-isotopic tracer methods. All subjects were fed a diet containing approximately 272 nmol/d (120 microg/d) folate from food, along ...
Lewis R M - - 2001
To investigate the effects of maternal iron deficiency and anaemia on the placenta the composition and vascularization of the placental labyrinth was investigated in iron-restricted rats. Rats in the experimental groups were placed on iron-restricted diets either 1 or 2 weeks before mating and continued on these diets throughout gestation. ...
Velzing-Aarts F V - - 2001
Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to delivery, either as fish oil capsules ("fish-1": 336 mg LCPomega3, ...
McMullin M F - - 2001
Deficiency of folate during pregnancy is associated with megaloblastic anaemia. Lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 have been reported in mothers whose offspring had neural tube defects compared to unaffected controls. Increased methylmalonic acid levels are a sensitive indicator of mild vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels denote ...
McMahon M J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Combined deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X) is an uncommon challenge for the expectant gravida. CASE: A 34-year-old primigravida had congenital combined deficiency of factors II, VII, IX, and X that were incompletely sensitive to vitamin K. She had an altered form of vitamin K-dependent ...
Sabo A - - 2001
An international multicenter study entitled Collaborative Study on Drug Use in Pregnancy (DUP) was initiated in 1987 by the Mario Negri Institute (Milano) and co-sponsored by the WHO Regional Office for Europe (Copenhagen). The study covered the use of medicines during pregnancy, labour and postpartum period. The Novi Sad centre ...
Shah D - - 2001
The lack of a valid indicator precludes a true estimate of zinc deficiency in pregnancy in various populations. However, it is possible that mild to moderate deficiency (as assessed by available indicators) may be common in the developing world. Animal experiments indicate that zinc deficiency can result in adverse maternal ...
Soccio P S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase-deficient mitochondrial myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Physical stress can cause life-threatening risks related to rhabdomyolysis or respiratory compromise. CASE: A 21-year-old primigravida with cytochrome C oxidase-deficient mitochondrial myopathy who presented for obstetric care at 8 weeks' gestation complained of muscle fatigue and spasm after ...
Graves B W - - 2001
A review of current knowledge about iron metabolism during pregnancy and the evidence from various studies on the effects of iron supplementation in pregnancy on maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes suggest that the implicit goal of current recommendations regarding iron supplementation may be to achieve the highest hemoglobin concentration possible. ...
Lee K A - - 2001
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurosensory disorder that typically begins in the evening and often prevents a person from falling asleep. It has been associated with iron deficiency anemia and dopaminergic pathways and is often treated with iron infusion or dopamine agonists. The purpose of this secondary analysis of ...
Harthoorn-Lasthuizen E J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: It was investigated whether the iron status in newborns is negatively influenced by iron-deficient erythropoiesis of the mother during pregnancy. METHODS: The iron status is characterized by hemoglobin, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and serum ferritin values. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis of the mother is characterized by erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin values. Measurement of ...
Black R E - - 2001
Vitamins and minerals, referred to collectively as micronutrients, have important influences on the health of pregnant women and the growing fetus. Iron deficiency results in anemia which may increase the risk of death from hemorrhage during delivery, but its effects on fetal development and birth outcomes is still unclear. Folic ...
Seshadri S - - 2001
Micronutrient deficiency, whether clinical or subclinical, may affect growth, cognition and reproductive performance. In pregnant women moderate to severe deficiencies of iron, zinc and folic acid have been shown to increase risk of low birth weight, pregnancy complications and birth defects. Any attempt to introduce a micronutrient supplementation programme during ...
Nurdia D S - - 2001
A cohort study was carried out in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia to investigate prevalence of anemia and low iron stores during pregnancy in relation to intestinal helminth infection. 442 pregnant women were followed until 5-10 weeks postpartum, during the period of April 1996 - August 1998. Information on intestinal ...
Allen L H - - 2001
A negative association between anemia and duration of gestation and low birth weight has been reported in the majority of studies, although a causal link remains to be proven. This paper explores potential biological mechanisms that might explain how anemia, iron deficiency or both could cause low birth weight and ...
Rasmussen K - - 2001
An extensive literature review was conducted to identify whether iron deficiency, iron-deficiency anemia and anemia from any cause are causally related to low birth weight, preterm birth or perinatal mortality. Strong evidence exists for an association between maternal hemoglobin concentration and birth weight as well as between maternal hemoglobin concentration ...
Suh J R - - 2001
Folate catabolism has been assumed to result from the nonenzymatic oxidative degradation of labile folate cofactors. Increased rates of folate catabolism and simultaneous folate deficiency occur in several physiological states, including pregnancy, cancer, and when anticonvulsant drugs are used. These studies have introduced the possibility that folate catabolism may be ...
Cikot R J - - 2001
Evidence of the impact of maternal nutritional status on pregnancy outcome is increasing. However, reference values for vitamin and homocysteine concentrations in maternal blood during normal pregnancy are scarce, and are lacking for the preconceptional period and early pregnancy. Thus, in a longitudinal study we evaluated vitamin and homocysteine concentrations ...
Sweet D G - - 2001
AIMS: To determine effects of maternal iron depletion and smoking on iron status of term babies using serum transferrin receptors (STfR) and their ratio to ferritin (TfR-F index) in cord blood. METHODS: Iron, ferritin, STfR, and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured and TfR-F index calculated in 67 cord /maternal blood ...
Deka D - - 2001
Aplastic anaemia occurring during pregnancy is a rare event and is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is poorer when aplastic anaemia develops during pregnancy and many such patients have an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. We report two cases of aplastic anaemia associated with pregnancy. Both the ...
Aaseth J - - 2001
In the present study 67 non-anaemic women were randomly allocated to either 100 mg or 15 mg iron daily at about the 10. week of pregnancy. At about week 18, 30 and 36 of pregnancy, as well as 6 weeks after delivery, hemoglobin and the serum concentrations of ferritin, vitamin ...
Sifakis S - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) combined with parenteral iron, in the treatment of moderate and severe iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Twenty-six pregnant women, who had been ineffectively treated with iron supplementation alone for at least 8 weeks, were enrolled. ...
Matsuura T - - 2001
Factor XII (FXII) is an important protease that plays a major role in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Although congenital FXII deficiency is not associated with a clinical bleeding tendency, it can be identified on a routine coagulation test, such as a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin ...
Cuervo L G - - 2001
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia in pregnancy worldwide. Iron treatment can be given by mouth, intramuscular or intravenous injection. Alternatively, blood transfusions and recombinant erythropoietin are also used. To assess the effectiveness of different treatments for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy (defined as haemoglobin less than ...
Rondo P H - - 2000
The objectives of this case-control study were to compare the levels of folate in cord and maternal blood of 315 mothers who had intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) babies and 321 mothers who had appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) babies, to evaluate the correlation between cord and maternal folate and to assess the prevalence of ...
Campo M - - 2000
Parenteral nutrition support is provided in most instances for short intervals during pregnancy in conditions where oral/enteral intake is severely compromised. Few reports describe the use of parenteral nutrition from conception to delivery. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman suffering from a severe form of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction ...
Watanabe S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction in early pregnancy increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and might be diagnosed mistakenly as hyperemesis gravidrum. Prompt diagnosis and therapy is essential. CASE: A 29-year-old primigravida was admitted at 13 weeks' gestation with small bowel obstruction. After jejunotomy, total parenteral nutrition was given until ...
Christian P - - 2000
The contribution of nutritional interventions to the reduction in maternal morbidity rates in developing countries is not well known. We assessed the impact of weekly vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on the prevalence of pregnancy and postpartum illness symptoms among 15,832 Nepali women in a placebo-controlled, double-masked, cluster-randomized trial. There ...
Abraham E R - - 2000
The growth of populations is known to be influenced by dispersal, which has often been described as purely diffusive. In the open ocean, however, the tendrils and filaments of phytoplankton populations provide evidence for dispersal by stirring. Despite the apparent importance of horizontal stirring for plankton ecology, this process remains ...
Frenkel E P - - 2000
Classically, deficiency of folic acid (folate) or vitamin B12 (cobalamin) was recognized by the presence of a macrocytic anemia resulting from megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow. A markedly changing paradigm has identified both new mechanisms for altered folate and cobalamin status and new sequelae and clinical interrelationships that include ...
Torlesse H - - 2000
A longitudinal study was conducted in Sierra Leone to measure the impact of a single dose anthelminthic (400 mg albendazole) and daily iron-folate supplements (36 g iron and 5 mg folate) on haemoglobin (HG) concentration during pregnancy. After controlling for baseline Hb concentration and season, anthelmintic treatment reduced the decline ...
Udipi S A - - 2000
Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body ...
Biswas A B - - 2000
Adequate maternal vitamin A nutrition is essential for successful pregnancy outcome and estimation of serum retinol among pregnant women enables a precise and objective assessment of vitamin A status, during pregnancy, even in subclinical state. In order to evaluate vitamin A status during pregnancy, and its relationship with personal and ...
el-Mofty M M - - 2000
Chloramphenicol has been associated with the development of aplastic anaemia. As it is still widely used in Egypt, we studied its effect on 100 Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis) given a dose of chloramphenicol of 5 mg/40 g body weight for 12 weeks. We found it induced numerous, severe ultrastructural changes ...
Higgins J R - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of folate catabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant women and to derive the recommended dietary allowance for folate. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Rotunda Hospital, Dublin. WOMEN: Twenty-four healthy gravid women were studied once during each trimester and postpartum. Twenty-five nonpregnant controls were assessed before and ...
Faisel H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between major causes of maternal mortality and vitamin A, trying to determine if these associations are causal in nature, and to highlight possible biological pathways that may explain vitamin A effects. DESIGN: Literature review, observational studies and clinical trials. The strength of association was determined ...
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