Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 764
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Nasser T A - - 1996
This study investigated immunoregulatory differences as a result of anatomical changes in the fetomaternal interface. Thirty-one female subjects were recruited from a military tertiary-care facility. Ten subjects were non-pregnant while 21 were pregnant (nine normal and 12 ectopic gestations). Immune tests included one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures with and without maternal ...
Christiansen O B - - 1996
PROBLEM: If damage to the trophoblast mediated through autoimmune mechanisms is responsible for recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), maternal class II HLA antigens might be expected to be involved. We wanted to evaluate the impact of these antigens on pregnancy outcome in RSA women and their relatives. METHOD: HLA-DR and -DQ ...
Roberts R M - - 1996
Maternal recognition of pregnancy reflects the various ways in which the mother responds to the presence of a conceptus within her reproductive tract. A part of the biochemical information she senses may be irrelevant to pregnancy outcome, but some reflects the attempts by the conceptus to gain some measure of ...
Matthiesen L - - 1996
PROBLEM: In normal pregnancy the maternal immune system should be directed towards tolerance or suppression in order not to reject the partly foreign feto-placental unit. The aim of this investigation was to find hallmarks of systemic immunosuppression during normal pregnancy. METHODS: Five healthy primigravidae were examined during pregnancy and postpartum ...
Brennan P - - 1996
The postpartum period, particularly after the first pregnancy, represents a time of increased risk for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study was undertaken to investigate whether this increase in risk may be due to maternal exposure to fetally inherited paternal HLA-DR antigens that were either 1) similar ...
Fuchs D - - 1996
We analyzed plasma samples from 45 randomly selected healthy pregnant women and from 20 healthy nonpregnant female controls of corresponding age. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The kynurenine per tryptophan ratio was calculated to allow a more accurate estimate of tryptophan degradation. In ...
Szekeres-Bartho J - - 1995
PROBLEM: The immunological effects of progesterone are mediated by a protein, named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). The PIBF blocks NK activity in vitro and therefore prevents the abortive effect on high NK activity in mice. Increased NK activity has been suggested to play a role in pregnancy termination; thus ...
Hildén J O - - 1995
Blood samples from 24 Rh(D) immunized women were analyzed for antibody titers and quantification of anti-D. The HLA-DR and -DQ polymorphisms were identified as RFLP. In 11 women with titers 16-256 the HLA-DQB1 allele *0201 was found in 18%, i e as in a reference population. In 13 women with ...
Lorenz A - - 1995
Several models exist for the aetiology and therapy of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). They are based in part on the assumption that an increased materno-fetal histocompatibility results in an insufficient maternal immunological recognition of the fetus, and thus renders the maternal immune system unable to sustain the pregnancy. The involvement ...
Ober C - - 1995
The paradoxical observation that maternal-fetal incompatibility with respect to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes was not associated with spontaneous abortion, stillbirths or developmental abnormalities led to the hypothesis that fetuses with paternally-derived HLA that differ from maternal HLA may enjoy a selective advantage during pregnancy. If true, then couples who ...
Agrawal S - - 1995
The efficacy of immunotherapy in the prevention of habitual abortion remains controversial. It has been suggested that the benefits are predominantly due to psychological factors. We have evaluated the success of pregnancy outcome following immunotherapy with allogeneic lymphocytes, in relation to the subsequent development of anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies (APCA). It ...
Carp H J - - 1995
A prospective study was carried out on 153 couples with recurrent abortions who desired pregnancy. The object was to determine the incidence of raised luteinizing hormone (LH) levels; to compare the outcome of further pregnancies in habitually aborting women with and without raised circulating LH concentrations; and to assess whether ...
Rolfe B A - - 1995
PROBLEM: The immunomodulatory properties of early pregnancy factor (EPF) are mediated through induction of at least two lymphokines, designated EPF-S1 and EPF-S2 (previously estimated M(r) 15,000 and 55,000 respectively). The activity of the former is MHC-restricted while the latter is restricted to a locus (or loci) outside the MHC. The ...
Silver R K - - 1995
The incidence of antepartum Rh isoimmunization has been limited by third-trimester Rh immune globulin (RhIg) administration. Prophylactic failures are uncommon but can occur if sensitization takes place prior to the 28th week of gestation. We report a case of midtrimester Rh sensitization in an anticardiolipin antibody-positive primipara coincident with the ...
Buhr R J - - 1995
Four incubation trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation RH on hatchability, allantoic fluid volume, and embryo weight. In Trial 1, White Leghorn eggs were incubated at a RH of 55 or 69% and a dry bulb temperature of 37.8 C and hatchability was determined. In Trial 2, ...
Agrawal S - - 1995
The defective recognition of foetal alloantigens by the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent pregnancy failure and may be prevented by boosting the maternal immune response with paternal or third party leucocyte immunization. The mechanism by which this process achieves success is not known. Clinical trials on recurrent spontaneous ...
Gill T J TJ - - 1995
PROBLEM: The reason for the postnatal maturation of the immune response in humans was explored from the anthropological standpoint in order to gain some insight into how development in modern humans evolved and how it might have affected the immune system. METHOD: The estimation of the length of gestation in ...
Tsushima R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to gain insight into the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). METHOD: Immune reactivity against paternal MHC class-II antigens was determined in 18 women with IUGR pregnancies and 18 normal pregnant women, employing one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). RESULTS: One-way MLR between the ...
Yamaguchi K - - 1995
The circulating IgA class immune complex (IgA-IC) and its charge distribution, at the appearance of macroscopic hematuria and after tonsillectomy in patients with IgA nephropathy, were investigated in the present study. 3.5% polyethylene glycol precipitate (3.5% PEG-IgA) was used for IgA-IC detection and isoelectric focusing for its charge distribution. The ...
Witkin S S - - 1995
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections of the female genital tract, although frequently asymptomatic, are a major cause of fallopian-tube occlusion and infertility. Early stage pregnancy loss may also be due to an unsuspected and undetected CT infection. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that this organism can persist in ...
Sagot P - - 1995
Using the "Polymerase Chain Reaction-Sequence Specific Oligoprobes" (PCR-SSOp) technique, we studied the HLA-DPB locus in both partners of 59 couples with a history of three spontaneous abortions, and of 38 control couples in order to determine the role of this centromeric region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the ...
Nelson M - - 1994
Rh(D)- and K-negative women who have become severely isoimmunized by pregnancy are at risk of fetal loss or damage in subsequent pregnancies. A flow cytometric method is described whereby the presence of Rh(D) or K antigen on fetal erythrocytes may be determined using chorion villus samples taken during the first ...
Orvieto R - - 1994
The signs and symptoms of preeclampsia become apparent at a relatively late stage in pregnancy (third trimester). However, the disorder results from abnormal interaction between fetal and maternal tissue much earlier in pregnancy (first trimester). For this reason, numerous methods have been proposed for the early detection of preeclampsia with ...
Clarke A G - - 1994
This article discusses the dramatic events that accompany thymic involution during pregnancy, and traces the possible immune, neural and endocrine interactions that may occur. Ann Clarke and Marion Kendall present accumulating evidence that activity, not inactivity, is a feature of the thymus at this time. Whilst the cortex shrinks, the ...
Cifuentes L O - - 1994
Seeking a relationship between blood groups and successful pregnancy, Linn's group carried out an analysis using the medical records of 11,659 women. They found a significantly higher frequency of bleeding during pregnancy among Rh(+) women, when compared with Rh(-) women. However, they concluded that this relationship is not important because ...
Linder N - - 1994
During the summer of 1988, an outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus 1 occurred in Israel, during which a national mass immunization campaign with oral poliovirus was undertaken. This prospective study was undertaken to assess the effect of maternal oral poliovirus immunization during the third trimester of pregnancy on neonatal ...
Barriga C - - 1994
Many immunological parameters are depressed during pregnancy. For this reason, an evaluation was made of the phagocytic activity, representing non-specific immunity, of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from pregnant women. The cells were isolated from heparinized venous human blood of pregnant women of 10 or more weeks' gestation and non-pregnant women (controls), 20-30 ...
Vassiliadis S - - 1994
Type II interferon is known to induce a plethora of gene expression involved in the humoral and cellular immunity. One of the multiple sites of action of gamma-IFN is the fetoplacental unit, where its role has not yet been clearly defined. We have previously shown in vitro that gamma-IFN may ...
Johnstone F D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in early pregnancy using a methodologically appropriate study design that addresses previous sources of bias. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy women without risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reviewed when less than 9 weeks pregnant (median 51 days, range 44-61) and again at ...
Tangri S - - 1994
Observations on maternal recognition of the fetus and the demonstration of the effects of cytokines on reproductive events led to the "immunotrophism" model, which suggests that maternal immune recognition of fetally-derived Ags results in the release of cytokines that promote the growth of the placenta; any disturbance in this balance ...
Carp H J - - 1994
PROBLEM: It is unclear how paternal leukocyte immunization prevents pregnancy loss. We investigated whether immunization affects early pregnancy, and whether it increases the rate of implantation and early embryonic development at the time of implantation. METHOD: Three groups of women with possible implantation failure were immunized: (1) recurrent biochemical pregnancies ...
Murthy K K - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of betamethasone (0.2 mg/kg per day) on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by maternal, fetal, and neonatal rat splenic lymphocytes. STUDY DESIGN: Betamethasone was injected intramuscularly on days 19 and 20 of gestation to timed-pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley). Fetuses were delivered ...
Mead P B - - 1994
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the ability of history taking alone, compared with pregnancy testing, to identify early pregnancies among potential female measles vaccinees.Methods: As part of an institution-wide measles immunization program, 326 female health care workers (HCWs) who denied being pregnant underwent a urine pregnancy test prior ...
Aboul-Dahab O M - - 1994
The percentage of gingival tissue and peripheral T, T Subsets and B lymphocytes were assessed in ten pregnant women during the first, second and third trimesters. Clinically the gingival index (GI) was found to be higher during pregnancy than in the control group. The percentage of the T3, T4 and ...
Marinoni E - - 1994
Pregnancy is associated with modifications in the maternal immune system that may be involved in the absence of rejection of the fetoplacental graft characterized by the presence of paternal antigens. This active and specific tolerance towards the fetoplacental unit seems to be compromised in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). To evaluate whether ...
Alp H - - 1994
An association between pregnancy and a depression in cellular immunity has long been known, but the reason for this is far from clear. To investigate the possible role of Langerhans cells (LC) in immunosuppression during pregnancy, we examined the epidermal LC morphology of pregnant guinea pigs ultrastructurally. An altered morphology ...
Malinowski A - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to assess whether any changes occur in the cellular immunity in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. T lymphocyte subpopulations and the lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens (PHA, Con A, PWM) in the fetal calf serum were examined in normal pregnant and pre-eclamptic primiparas in the ...
Vernacchio L - - 1993
We used a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate tetanus immunity in 232 pregnant Peruvian women. One hundred forty-two (61.2%) had protective antitoxin titers (> or = 0.01 IU/mL). Protective titers correlated positively with the number of toxoid doses reported during the current pregnancy. A majority of women reporting ...
Ruffing N A - - 1993
Antibody production was evaluated in 62 recipients of blastomere-aggregation sheep-goat embryos, including 23 multiparous ewes, 21 multiparous does, 16 primiparous does, and 2 virgin does. The reactivity of sera collected weekly after the embryo transfer surgery was compared to that of sera collected prior to the embryo transfer by means ...
Tangri S - - 1993
It is clear that the immune system and the reproductive system interact with and influence each other and that the immune system can have positive and negative regulatory effects on the outcome of pregnancy. The discovery of murine models of immunologically mediated spontaneous fetal resorptions has proved to be very ...
Aoki K - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent abortion. STUDY DESIGN: We immunized 106 primary recurrent aborters, twice at around 5 and 7 weeks of gestation, with intradermal injection of approximately 100 to 200 million x-irradiated (50 Gy) paternal ...
Nelson J L - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis frequently remits during pregnancy, for unknown reasons. Since an immune response to paternally inherited fetal HLA can occur during normal pregnancy and since rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder with a known HLA class II antigen association, we tested the hypothesis that maternal-fetal disparity in HLA alloantigens ...
Gottvall T - - 1993
Screening protocols for alloimmunization during pregnancy usually make a difference between primi- and multigravidae as well as between Rh(D) negative and Rh(D) positive pregnant women. We have evaluated a new screening program including antibody tests at 25 and 35 gestational weeks only, for all, and regardless of Rh(D) group. During ...
Purandare A S - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To test couples with three or more consecutive recurrent miscarriages for suitability of the mother for immunization with paternal lymphocytes. SETTING: Regional transfusion centre, patients referred by local obstetricians. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Women treated were from 103 couples with > or = 3 consecutive recurrent miscarriages and no more ...
Manyonda I T - - 1993
Anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequencies (CTLpF) were determined by limiting dilution analysis (LDA) in the peripheral blood of eight primigravid and seven multiparous women during the three trimesters of pregnancy. In five of these women the responses to cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) and paternal lymphocytes were also determined at ...
Wegmann T G - - 1993
Pregnant females are susceptible to intracellular pathogens and are biased towards humoral rather than cell-mediated immunity. Since TH1 cytokines compromise pregnancy and TH2 cytokines are produced at the maternal-fetal interface, we hypothesize that these TH2 cytokines inhibit TH1 responses, improving fetal survival but impairing responses against some pathogens.
Dudley D J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the lymphokine production by splenocytes and decidual lymphocytes would be altered because of changes in immunoregulation during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Splenocytes and decidual lymphocytes were isolated from syngeneic and allogeneic pregnant mice at different times of gestation. The lymphocytes (10(7) cells/ml) were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, ...
Stern J J - - 1993
Normal mammalian pregnancy is confronted with a great number of self (autoimmune) and foreign (alloimmune) antigens that modulate the immune system of the mother. When maternal immune response is affected, recurrent pregnancy loss can result. Recurrent pregnancy loss affects 2% to 5% of reproducing couples. Half of these failures can ...
Gatenby P A - - 1993
PROBLEM: It remains unclear whether maternal immunization with paternal lymphocytes prior to conception improves the reproductive outcome in women with recurrent abortion in whom all secondary causes have been excluded. METHOD: A double-blind placebo controlled trial was instituted in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, comparing immunization with 400 million ...
Takakuwa K - - 1993
PROBLEM: Is an additional immunotherapy necessary or not for patients who have obtained successful results after initial immunotherapy? METHODS: The successive pregnancy outcome was analyzed in 22 patients out of 29 unexplained recurrent aborters who had undergone immunotherapy with their husband's lymphocytes according to our previously reported protocol (Takakuwa et ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >