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Results 351 - 400 of 764
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Bruni L - - 1999
Nuchal cystic hygroma (NCH) and non immune hydrops (NIH) were detected by ultrasound examinations in two sib male fetuses. Fetal and parental karyotypes were normal. The parents elected to terminate the two pregnancies. Post mortem examination showed no anomalies other than those detected by ultrasound. The family history shows consanguinity ...
Noia G - - 1999
This study aims at observing and comparing the antigen expression of some fetal T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations in Rh-isoimmunization, which determines anemic hypoxia in the fetus, and nonimmune fetal hydrops (NIFH) which, even if there are some etiological factors involved, causes hipoxic hypoxia in the fetus. Twelve fetuses were studied ...
Clark D A - - 1999
It has been suggested that studies of immunological aspects of reproduction have recently changed from the phenomenological (e.g., speculative/descriptive) to hard science (e.g., precise molecular description/ explanation). The significance of this development is explored by analysis of the contribution made by hard science that has led to a number of ...
Witkin S S - - 1999
Heat shock proteins are among the first proteins produced by the zygote after fertilization. In addition, the maternal decidua also expresses heat shock proteins during the early stages of pregnancy. Autoimmunity to heat shock proteins is not typically evident in healthy women of reproductive age. However, a chronic microbial infection, ...
Guller S - - 1999
It is now recognized that immunosuppressive factors synthesized by placenta may play a critical role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Over the last several years our group and others have formulated a hypothesis that trophoblast Fas ligand (FasL) plays an important role in maintaining fetal immune privilege in human pregnancy ...
Darke C - - 1999
The HLA-B41 specificity was first identified over 25 years ago and, although both serological and biochemical studies have suggested its subdivision, it is only recently that two HLA-B*41 alleles (B*4101 and B*4102) have been identified and sequenced. We designed three oligonucleotide primers, combined in two mixtures to define these alleles ...
Hahn A F - - 1998
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a defined clinical entity with a chronic progressive or chronic relapsing course, lasting months to years. It causes variable but often severe chronic disability. CIDP is considered an autoimmune disorder caused by both cellular and humoral immune processes. Various immunomodulatory therapies, i.e., IVIg, therapeutic ...
Davis D - - 1998
The state of pregnancy is an immunological enigma during which the body must prevent rejection of the antigenically foreign fetus while at the same time maintain sufficient maternal host defense mechanisms to combat infection. Although most studies on the immunology of pregnancy focus on immune suppression, several studies have shown ...
Karrison T G - - 1998
The Recurrent Miscarriage (REMIS) study is a double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of immunization with paternal leukocytes in the prevention of miscarriages in women who have had three or more unexplained pregnancy losses. Women entering the study are immunized with their husband's leukocytes or with ...
Kelemen K - - 1998
PROBLEM: Immunologic recognition of pregnancy is important for normal gestation. Successful pregnancy is characterized by a Th2 dominance, whereas there is a Th1 dominance in failed pregnancies. We assume that a signal given by the fertilized ovum induces a Th2 shift, necessary for a normal outcome. In vitro fertilization provides ...
Palfi M - - 1998
PROBLEM: The following questions were addressed: Is the placental transport of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgG1, and IgG3 diminished in pregnancies at risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn? Is the placental transport of IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 correlated with the hemoglobin concentration in the fetus and AutoAnalyzer (AA) quantitations of maternal ...
Kranen R W - - 1998
In this study we investigated the occurrence of hemorrhages in four groups of electrically stunned broilers, differing with respect to growth rate, age at slaughter, hemodynamic parameters, and ascites mortality. In addition, the effect of three thermal preslaughter conditions on hemorrhage occurrence in thigh and breast muscles was studied. Broilers ...
Aranha C - - 1998
Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)-like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women. Lymphocyte proliferation assay and 35S-methionine labeling were done ...
Kühnert M - - 1998
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy women were studied during pregnancy and postnatally, and were compared with lymphocytes from an age-matched non-pregnant control group. Compared with non-pregnant women, the total white cell count was significantly increased at all pregnancies and also post-partum. In pregnancy the absolute number and percentage of T ...
Vassiliadis S - - 1998
Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders. Microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, graft rejection have been correlated to over- or under-production of specific cytokines which are produced as responder molecules to the various immune stimuli. The sole naturally occurring immune reaction in the organism is developed ...
Defonge Mitchell - - 1997
THE FEMALE infant shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 was born at 345/7 weeks' gestation to a 31-year-old, gravida 4, para 1, mother. The 2 previous pregnancy losses were by early spontaneous miscarriage and by elective termination, respectively. This pregnancy was significant for the diagnosis of severe ...
Szereday L - - 1997
PROBLEM: In the presence of progesterone lymphocytes of pregnant women release a 34-kDa protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF mediates the immunomodulatory and anti-abortive effects of progesterone and its presence is related to the outcome of pregnancy. PIBF induces production of Th2 type cytokines by activated lymphocytes. The ...
Lee C S - - 1997
Intraepithelial lymphocytes are a constant feature of ruminant uterine epithelium. Light microscope quantitation on semithin sections of resin embedded perfused material from pregnant and non-pregnant cows shows that although the proportion of large granular lymphocytes to non-granular lymphocytes in interplacentomal areas increases during pregnancy, the total number of lymphocytes in ...
Katano K - - 1997
We determined clinically whether a killed streptococcal preparation (KSP), a biological response modifier, is as effective as paternal lymphocyte immunotherapy for unexplained recurrent pregnancy abortion (RSA) therapy. The success rate of adverse pregnancy in the study group of 23 RSA cases, who were administered low doses of KSP before and ...
Ekerfelt C - - 1997
PROBLEM: It has been proposed that immune responses in normal pregnancy are Th2-like, thereby protecting the fetus and placenta from being rejected. Some studies have shown Th2-deviated systemic responses to different antigens and mitogens. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the specific T cell cytokine responses directed toward ...
Denison F C - - 1997
The maintenance of a normal pregnancy is dependent on the delicate interaction between the endocrine and the immune systems. Cytokines are thought to play a key role in pregnancy by way of local modulation of the immune system at the level of peripheral leukocytes. This study examined the potential of ...
Raghupathy R - - 1997
Several years ago, the rather provocative question was raised: is successful pregnancy a T helper 2 (Th2) phenomenon? Implicit in this argument is the corollary that unsuccessful pregnancy is a Th1-type situation. Here, evidence from murine and human pregnancy is presented to show that, since Th1-type cytokines mediate pregnancy loss, ...
Bermas B L - - 1997
Maternal tolerance of the fetal hemiallograft suggests that immunomodulation occurs during gestation. Therefore, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) may represent a failure of the immune changes that maintain pregnancy. We hypothesized that fertile women but not women with RSA may lose their immune responses to recall antigens when pregnant. This phenomenon ...
Kadanali S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes are associated with a mild leukocytosis. However, we have observed a higher maternal leukocyte count after antenatal betamethasone therapy. We planned this study to evaluate the effects of antenatal betamethasone treatment on maternal leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte count. METHODS: Forty-six pregnant women ...
Schaff EA - - 1997
For women who require interruption of pregnancy, medications that can offer a safe alternative to surgery--for example, methotrexate (though interruption of pregnancy is not an approved indication) and mifepristone (formerly known as RU486 and currently pending approval by the Food and Drug Administration [FDA])--are being examined. As with any new ...
Nilsson L - - 1997
A temporary Th2 skewed immunity is essential for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is also a hallmark of atopic disease. We recorded the number of siblings to 3667 children in relation to maternal atopy. In all, 65% of the allergic and 56% of the non-allergic mothers had more than ...
Goodrum L A - - 1997
Pneumonia occurs in the pregnant population with a frequency equal to that in the general population. However, its course is often more virulent, and mortality rates from certain pathogens may be high. The pregnant woman is more susceptible to injury to the respiratory tract due to a number of factors. ...
Yoshida T - - 1997
The relationship between airborne concentration of beryllium in the working environment and workers' beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (Be-LTT) values was examined based on data obtained from a four-year survey (1992-1995) conducted at beryllium-copper alloy manufacturing factories. This study showed that the T cells of workers continuously exposed to beryllium of ...
Byeon S H - - 1997
Using an activated carbon felt (ACF, KF-1600), the applicability of an ACF passive sampler in monitoring organic vapors was evaluated. The evaluated results of the ACF passive sampler were compared with those of a 3 M (Model 3500) passive sampler. At low-humidity condition (8 +/- 3% RH), the sampling rates ...
Russell A S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the pregnancy induced remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear. We assessed the hypothesis that it reflects systemic physiologic changes in immune response during gestation. METHODS: We used in vitro whole blood culture systems stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide or phytohemagglutinin to assess cytokine secretion of cells ...
Nahmias A J - - 1997
This article conceptualizes the various balancing acts between the pregnant woman, the placenta, the fetus, and the infectious agents. Despite the very large number of infectious insults during pregnancy, the outcome of most interactions usually is a normal newborn. We have identified only one general immune defect of the fetus ...
Tanaka T - - 1997
Allogenic leukocyte immunization is a common treatment of unexplained recurrent abortions, whose immunological side effects have hardly been reported. In this study, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of unexplained recurrent/habitual aborters, who were treated by their husbands' leukocyte immunization, are reviewed. Seventy-seven patients were treated by their husbands' leukocyte immunization at ...
Gavinet M F - - 1997
A case of congenital toxoplasmic chorioretinitis was diagnosed (specific-immunoglobulin G [IgG] and -IgM comparative Western blot analysis) in a baby whose mother was immune during pregnancy. Maternal sera showed an increase in specific IgG and emergence of both IgM and IgA during pregnancy. The mother was probably reinfected through contact ...
Porter T F - - 1997
Although intrauterine fetal transfusion has improved dramatically perinatal outcome in Rh D alloimmunization, in some cases the fetus is affected before transfusion is possible. Immune globulin (IVIG) administration is being increasingly used to successfully treat a variety of immune-mediated diseases, such as pregnancies affected by platelet alloimmunization. Although only a ...
Goodman R E - - 1997
This paper considers human sexual orientation, specifically homosexuality and some paraphilias, to occur as a result of intrauterine development, itself a mathematically chaotic process. Parameter space, an example of state space in the phase diagram, has been used to illustrate different phenotypes. The crossing of a bifurcation boundary by the ...
Portmann C - - 1997
We analyzed the antecedents and outcomes of Rh(D) isoimmunization in a local population. Forty-two Rh(D) isoimmunized women attending Mater Mothers Hospital for antenatal care were identified through the Mater Hospital Blood Bank database; their records were reviewed for variables including sensitizing events, obstetric interventions and pregnancy outcomes. In this group, ...
Krulewitch C J - - 1997
An immune reaction initiated by paternal antigens may be necessary for healthy placental development, pregnancy maintenance and infant growth. An inadequate immune response may result in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We hypothesised that a change in paternity may interfere with the immune response and cause poor placentation with resultant IUGR. ...
Engelhardt H - - 1997
The immune system discriminates 'self' from 'non-self', and eliminates that which it determines to be non-self. Mammalian pregnancy appears to represent a failure of self-non-self discrimination, yet it is a highly successful reproductive strategy. We present evidence that the immune system of the female pig responds to the challenges of ...
Check J H - - 1997
PROBLEM: To determine if allogenic stimulation from leukocyte immunization (LI) can increase the production of an immunomodulatory protein called progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF) by CD8+ T-lymphocytes. METHODS: The study group consisted of 35 women, 29 who failed to conceive after repeated embryo transfers (ETs) and six with recurrent spontaneous ...
Witkin S S - - 1997
Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes and survive for long periods of time without causing symptoms. The immune response to infection clears the extracellular organisms but leads to development of a persistent intracellular infection. Repeated cycles of productive infection and persistence eventually induce tubal occlusion ...
Chrisomalis L - - 1996
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease predominantly of elderly men, was incidentally diagnosed in a young pregnant patient. She did not require any chemotherapy and had a normal pregnancy outcome. However, she had repeated episodes of respiratory tract infections and anemia that required multiple antibiotics and transfusions. The placenta showed increased ...
Marzi M - - 1996
Antigen- and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 50 pregnant women and 31 age- and sex-matched non-pregnant controls were analysed to determine whether changes in cytokine production occur during normal and pathologic human gestation. The pregnant women, consecutively enrolled during a 3-month period, were undergoing a ...
Imrie H J - - 1996
RBC-membrane CR1 has been assayed in pregnancy and at 48 h postpartum. It has been shown that RBC CR1 is reduced as pregnancy progress, reaching a nadir in the third trimester and that it returns to levels approaching normal within 48 h postpartum. Further, there is a reduced expression of ...
Graham E M - - 1996
Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage has been associated with numerous risk factors and can occur spontaneously. The risk is probably greater when a woman who is Rh negative has an ABO-compatible fetus. We report the case of a gravid, A-negative unsensitized patient who came to the hospital at term complaining of decreased ...
Xiao L - - 1996
The retroplacental compartment in which maternal blood is in direct and continuous contact with trophoblasts derived from the fetus seems to be the place where maternal and fetal cells regulate each others' activities. To assess the role of the retroplacental compartment in the immune regulation of pregnancy, 10 healthy pregnant ...
Holladay S D - - 1996
Recent studies indicate that immune development in humans and other species may be altered after perinatal exposure to immunotoxic environmental contaminants. However, limited information is available regarding appropriate tests that may adequately detect developmental immunotoxic compounds. Experiments in which pregnant laboratory rodents were exposed to a variety of immunotoxic environmental ...
von Schroeder H P - - 1996
The subject of this case report is a patient with elevated serum levels of titanium (77 parts/billion [ppb]; normal, 3.3 ppb) and vanadium (0.38 ppb; normal, 0.17 ppb) resulting from excessive wear of a metal-backed patellar component in a total knee arthroplasty. The patellar component was worn through both its ...
Jones A C - - 1996
Blood samples were obtained from fetuses and premature babies (n = 51) (15-34 weeks gestation) to determine at what stage the fetal immune system was able to produce a positive proliferative response to common allergens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with the mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and the allergens, ...
Rouse D J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of different strategies for managing the presumed susceptible varicella (chickenpox)-exposed gravida. METHODS: Three strategies were evaluated: 1) a do-nothing or observation strategy; 2) a testing strategy, in which immune status was assessed and varicella-zoster immune globulin was administered to those who tested nonimmune; ...
Saller D N DN - - 1996
The objective was to investigate whether non-immune hydrops in euploid pregnancies is associated with alterations in the second-trimester levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated oestriol (uE3), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Ten singleton cases of fetal non-immune hydrops were identified. The aetiology and timing of onset of the earliest ...
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