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Results 301 - 350 of 765
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Brantley Tammy Annette - - 2002
A Rh negative, pregnant female presented to a major medical center for possible Rh alloimmunization. This female had nine previous pregnancies, including three spontaneous abortions, four live births, and two fetal demises. Because of poor prenatal care, the immunization Rh immune globulin was administered to only the first two pregnancies. ...
DiMichele D M - - 2002
The North American Immune Tolerance Registry was initiated to study of immune tolerance (ITT) in Canada and the United States with respect to: 1) therapeutic regimens in use for haemophilia A (HA) and B (HB) inhibitor patients; 2) therapeutic outcomes; 3) potential predictors of successful outcome and 4) complications of ...
Koyama Shohei - - 2002
A rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) in a 65-year-old woman with intermittent dysphagia is reported. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed multiple pseudodiverticula, which had tiny flask-shaped outpouchings with a narrow neck extending outward from the upper to the lower thoracic esophageal wall. In particular, the occurrence of the ...
Tumbo-Oeri A G AG Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, - - 2001
In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy ...
Navarro H A - - 2001
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is known to alter immune function in the offspring and recent studies with animals indicate that prenatal nicotine exposure leads to lasting deficiencies in T-lymphocyte mitogenic responses, likely through excessive cholinergic stimulation during a critical stage of development. The current study was conducted to determine ...
Mellor A L - - 2001
The murine conceptus is protected from maternal immunity by cells expressing indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), which catabolizes tryptophan. Induction of lethal maternal anti-fetal immunity requires effective pharmacologic inhibition of IDO enzyme activity and the presence of maternal T cells, but not B cells and also depends on the degree of maternal-fetal ...
Steinborn A - - 2001
The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is an exclusively pregnancy-related illness involving multiple organs and severe forms may be complicated by HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome. Recently, it has been proposed that both normal pregnancy and preeclampsia are associated with a systemic activation of the nonspecific maternal immune ...
Robertson S A - - 2001
Successful pregnancy requires a state of maternal immune 'tolerance' to accommodate antigens expressed by the conceptus. Implantation failure and placental pathologies largely reflect insufficiencies in maternal immune adaptation, but progress in devising therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions is stalled because the mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of maternal ...
Hegde U C - - 2001
Murine pregnancy is characterized by transient thymic atrophy and splenomegally. Several laboratories are investigating the immunoregulatory mechanisms during pregnancy, and the majority of these studies are primarily focused on the immunological changes either in the uterus or the thymus and not much information is available on the immunological changes in ...
Raghupathy R - - 2001
Evidence from studies on murine and human pregnancy points to a strong association between maternal Th2-type immunity and successful pregnancy on the one hand and between Th1-type immune reactivity and pregnancy loss on the other. While there is a paucity of data from human pregnancy indicating that Th1-type immune effectors ...
Babbage S J - - 2001
Approximately one in 300 women experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the aetiology of which is unknown in at least 40% of cases. Previously, some studies have shown increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) and reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) by circulating blood lymphocytes isolated from ...
Bonafoux D - - 2001
[reaction in text] Desymmetrization of dimethylsilyloxyalkadiynes (1) by Rh-catalyzed intramolecular silylformylation affords 5-exo-(formylmethylene)oxasilacyclopentanes 2 in high yields. Novel sequential double silylformylation of 1a also provides desymmetrization, giving 3-(3-silyl-2-formylprop-2-enyl)-5-exo-(formylmethylene)oxasilacyclopentanes 4 in excellent yields. Reduction of 2a and 4 with NaBH(4) gives the corresponding 5-exo-(hydroxymethylmethylene)oxasilacyclopentanes 3a and 5, respectively.
Zenclussen A C - - 2001
PROBLEM: Asymmetric IgG antibodies (AAb) possess a mannose-rich oligosaccharide residue bound to one of the Fab regions, making them unable to activate immunoeffector mechanisms. The proportion of asymmetric antibodies is increased after prolonged immunization with particulate antigens like cellular spleen cells. During pregnancy, AAb were found in serum and bound ...
Wellinghausen N - - 2001
The trace element zinc is an essential micronutrient for the proper functioning of the immune system. Zinc deficiency leads to impaired function of the unspecific and specific immune response and consequently to an increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Immunological defects are not only seen in pronounced but ...
Chatterjee A - - 2001
Prepregnancy human and guinea pig cytomegalovirus immunity reduces rates of congenital infection in subsequent pregnancies. Inbred JY-9 strain guinea pigs were used to study the role of hyperimmune anti-glycoprotein B (gB) serum in modification of congenital infection in early pregnancy. Significantly shorter duration of primary maternal viremia and fewer pregnancy ...
Pfeiffer K A - - 2001
The causes for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remain unknown in a large proportion of the cases. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-E are expressed on invasive trophoblast cells, and are supposed to confer to materno-fetal tolerance. A total of 14 different nucleotide sequences have been described for HLA-G, including one ...
Rühlmann C - - 2001
Dextran infusions in humans lead to a reduction of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in the plasma compartment. The interaction of dextran with human LDL was investigated in vitro by static and dynamic light scattering. The experiments were performed with human LDL (apoB concentration 0.75 g l(-1)) and dextran (Mw = ...
Herz U - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Several studies have considered that the in utero environment plays an important role in the onset of the allergic phenotype. We assessed whether allergic sensitization and allergen exposure during pregnancy favor the postnatal onset of allergy in the neonate. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) before mating ...
Dixit V D - - 2001
The cross-talk between the endocrine and the immune systems mediated by a wide array of hormones, cytokines, and neuromodulators is heightened during disease, stress, and presumably, during pregnancy. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and nitric oxide (NO) are two immunomodulators that are also produced from lymphocytes and contribute to the immunomodulation. Thus, we ...
Maayan-Metzger A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate signs of haemolysis in babies of Rh-D negative mothers who underwent prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin during pregnancy. DESIGN: The following were evaluated in all babies of Rh-D negative mothers born within a three month period in our department: haemoglobin level, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, reticulocytes, ...
Hoshimoto K - - 2001
It is increasingly apparent that the Th1/Th2 cell ratio is decreased during pregnancy. In a previous study, we revealed that combined analysis of soluble CD26 and CD30 might be a potent surrogate tool for evaluating the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy. Therefore, in the present study, we elucidated whether the CD26 ...
Zhang B - - 2000
Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a secreted protein with immunosuppressive and growth factor properties. During pregnancy, it appears in maternal serum within 6-24 h of fertilization, is present for at least the first two-thirds of pregnancy in all species studied and is essential for embryonic survival. It is a homologue ...
Moran P - - 2000
Since the introduction of anti-Rhesus (Rh) D prophylaxis for RhD-negative women, other Rh and non-Rh red cell alloantibodies have become relatively more important and are now responsible for the greater proportion of haemolytic disease of the newborn. Anti-C and anti-E are the most commonly implicated non-D Rh antibodies in the ...
Savion S - - 2000
PROBLEM: The mechanisms mediating pregnancy loss are far from being understood, but it is believed that modulation of the maternal immune system, that is known to support pregnancy, might serve as a means for the treatment of habitual abortions. Thus, we examined the effect of the anti bacterial agent ciprofloxacin, ...
Schwartz K A - - 2000
Appropriate management of thrombocytopenia in the pregnant patient is important for the well-being of both mother and fetus. The healthy-appearing mother with mild thrombocytopenia may have either gestational benign thrombocytopenia, which does not produce fetal thrombocytopenia, or immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, which can produce fetal thrombocytopenia. These two types of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenias ...
al-Joudi F S - - 2000
This work was carried out in Ramadi, Iraq over the period 1993 to 1997. Of 487 rhesus (Rh)-negative mothers tested and followed up, 172 were primigravida, 1.7% of whom were Rh-isoimmunized. The frequency of isoimmunization increased with increasing number of pregnancies (4.9% for second pregnancies to 45.4% for fifth pregnancies). ...
Narita M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Recently, increasing attention has been paid to hormonal regulations of the immune system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, cord sera and the corresponding maternal sera were obtained at delivery. Sera from pregnant women were obtained at early, middle, and late stages of pregnancy. These sera were tested for ...
Bartha J L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lymphocyte subpopulations after a first pregnancy in women who had normal pregnancies and in those whose pregnancies terminated in spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty healthy, nonpregnant women in three groups were studied: 20 with a prior abortion, 20 with a prior normal pregnancy and 20 nulligravid. Peripheral ...
Zenclussen A C - - 2000
PROBLEM: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) could be interpreted as the cause for the incapacity of the mother to recognize paternal antigens to produce the desired protective response. The practise of alloimmunization was introduced in an attempt to induce in the mother the production of an alloimmune response; some authors proposed ...
Long M T - - 2000
IL-4 levels were modulated in mice to test the hypothesis that induction of a maternal type 1 response would decrease the frequency of congenital Neospora caninum transmission. This hypothesis tested the relationship between IL-4 and both innate and adaptive immunity utilizing two basic experimental designs. In the first, maternal IL-4 ...
Agrawal S - - 2000
Immunologically specific blocking factors (BF) are believed to play a protective role in the maintenance of pregnancy. We compared the levels of BF in normal pregnant women and in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and observed that the two groups differ significantly from one another. MLC inhibitory activity was ...
Hunt J S - - 2000
In species with hemochorial placentation, which includes humans, mice and rats, antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes which are responsible for acquired immunity are virtually absent from the maternal-fetal interface. In contrast, non-antigen specific natural killer cells and macrophages which provide innate immunity are abundant and highly specialized. Autocrine/paracrine factors such ...
Hanson L A - - 2000
A. The mother and the fetus. The mother's immune system reacts against the fetus and there is therefore a risk of destruction of or damage to the fetus. We are now beginning to understand some of the mechanisms that protect the fetus, but, when these are defective, intrauterine growth retardation ...
Lim K J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of maternal periimplantation endometrial T-helper-1 (TH-1) and T-helper-2 (TH-2) cytokines in the success or failure of human reproduction and their relation to the endocrine system and subsequent pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: Controlled, prospective study. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital with a university-based reproductive medicine clinic. PATIENT(S): ...
Porter T F - - 2000
Recurrent pregnancy loss is a vexing problem facing many couples. Some authorities have suggested that idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss is alloimmune in nature. Suggested mechanisms include the presence of cytotoxic antibodies, absence of maternal blocking antibodies, inappropriate sharing of human leukocyte antigens, and disturbances in natural killer cell function and ...
Tast A - - 2000
This study investigated the effects of a reduction in gonadotrophins, by means of differently timed active and passive gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunization at various stages, on the maintenance of early pregnancy in pigs. In the first experiment crossbred sows (n = 11) were immunized against GnRH using a commercial vaccine ...
Zaffaroni M - - 2000
The evolution of multiple sclerosis at the time of diagnosis remains unpredictable since a reliable prognostic marker is not yet available. Nevertheless, a series of useful prognostic indicators have been singled out from epidemiological studies. Young age at onset, female gender, relapsing/remitting course, and sensitive or visual disturbances as initial ...
Branch D W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin improves fetal survival among women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Despite treatment, however, these pregnancies are frequently complicated by preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and placental insufficiency, often with the result of preterm birth. Small case series suggest that intravenous immune globulin may reduce the rates ...
Anumba D O - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the enhanced forearm vascular activity of nitric oxide during pregnancy and preeclampsia is associated with altered smooth muscle sensitivity to nitric oxide or with stimulated nitric oxide release. STUDY DESIGN: Forearm blood flow responses to brachial artery infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (a nitric oxide ...
Warner J A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: It has become increasingly clear that the mechanisms by which an allergic immune response is generated are complex and may begin even before a baby is born. Genetic, environmental, nutritional, and immunologic factors acting during pregnancy all play a role in determining whether or not a baby is born ...
Coe C L - - 1999
The capacity of the neonate to respond to nonself antigens was evaluated in infant monkeys born after normal and disturbed pregnancies. Mixed lymphocyte cultures were used to test the infants' proliferative responses to mitomycin-treated stimulator cells, either from a genetically unrelated animal or from a virally transformed monkey cell line. ...
Prigoshin N - - 1999
Alloimmunization therapy using the partner's leukocytes has been reported to be effective in preventing the failure of pregnancy in patients who have suffered RSA of unknown cause. After alloimmunization, several investigators have reported the presence of blocking factors (BF) in women with successful pregnancies in in vitro assays of lymphocyte ...
Tayama E - - 1999
This study investigated whether the lymphocyte count is a useful indicator to assess surgical damage following extracorporeal bypass. In Study 1, to investigate the correlation between extracorporeal circulating time (ECCT) and lymphocyte counts, 40 elective CABG patients were studied retrospectively. The lymphocyte recovery ratio (LRR), which represented the actual lymphocyte ...
Smith J L - - 1999
The consequences of foodborne illness can be particularly devastating during pregnancy because both the woman and her fetus are at risk. Escalated production of progesterone during pregnancy leads to down-regulation of cellular (cell-mediated) immune functions. Many foodborne pathogens (and other pathogens) are intracellular pathogens, and infections caused by these pathogens ...
Baker J M - - 1999
Maternal immune recognition of the developing conceptus in equine pregnancy is characterized by the strongest and most consistent alloantibody response described in any species, a response directed almost exclusively against paternal MHC class I Ags. This work investigated the cellular immune response to paternal MHC Ags in pregnant and nonpregnant ...
Kim S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of estriol in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and other cell mediated autoimmune diseases. BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease that is a useful model for the study of immune responses in MS. Interestingly, both EAE ...
Matthiesen L - - 1999
PROBLEM: The question of whether there are differences in systemic immune reactivity in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy was addressed. METHOD OF STUDY: During the third trimester, blood samples were taken from 12 pregnant women with severe preeclampsia. Five of the preeclamptic pregnancies were analyzed separately because they were ...
Ober C - - 1999
The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in pregnancy and in human mate choice has been investigated in the Hutterites, an inbred population of European origins. High-resolution HLA haplotypes were defined by alleles at 16 loci in >1000 Hutterites. Prospective studies of pregnancy outcome previously demonstrated increased fetal loss ...
Burns D N - - 1999
Changes in CD4 + cell levels and other immune parameters have been reported to occur during pregnancy but the timing of these alterations and their relationship to changes in immune function have not been well characterized. In addition, the influence of sociodemographic, obstetric, and other covariates on these relationships is ...
King A - - 1999
The immunological relationship between the mammalian fetus and its mother during pregnancy has been considered similar to that between a transplanted allograft and its recipient ever since Medawar (1953) first proposed the concept of the 'fetus as an allograft' in the early 1950s. Based on this analogy, it has been ...
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