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Results 251 - 300 of 765
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Aluvihare Varuna R VR Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom. - - 2004
Pregnancy constitutes a major challenge to the maternal immune system, as it has to tolerate the persistence of paternal alloantigen. Although localized mechanisms contribute to fetal evasion from immune attack, maternal alloreactive lymphocytes persist. We demonstrate here an alloantigen-independent, systemic expansion of the maternal CD25+ T cell pool during pregnancy ...
González Delia Almeida - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that collagen induced arthritis benefits more from allogeneic pregnancy than syngeneic pregnancy. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in female B10.RIII (H-2r) mice by injecting bovine type II collagen. Female mice were subsequently paired, one group with q-haplotype males (B10.Q) and the other with r-haplotype males (B10.RIII). ...
Ragusa A - - 2004
One of the most interesting functions of the placenta is the regulation of the maternal immune response such that the fetal semi-allograft is tolerated during pregnancy. Trophoblasts are presumed to be essential to this phenomenon because they lie at the maternal-fetal interface, where they are in direct contact with cells ...
Bubanovic I - - 2004
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is serious health problem affecting 2-5% of reproducing couples worldwide. It has long been suspected that nearly 80% of the unexplained RSAs are due to immunologic causes. Although the major tissue confronting the mother's immune system is the placental villous trophoblast, the immunological risk to the ...
Peltier Morgan R - - 2003
During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface ...
Pandey Manoj Kumar - - 2004
Most women with alloimmune cause of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) includes increased sharing of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that may prohibit the mother from making anti-paternal cyto-toxic antibodies (APCA), anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) and mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies (MLR-Bf). Overactivity of T helper-1 (Th-1) cytokines and natural killer (NK) cells ...
Ueda Yoko - - 2003
CD11c(+) peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), and CD123(bright) plasmacytoid cells (PDC), are two human dendritic cell (DC) populations. In the present study, the percentages of MDC [lin(-)/HLA-DR(+)/CD123(-)/CD11c(+)] and PDC [lin(-)/HLA-DR(+)/CD123(bright)] in a peripheral blood (PB) sample obtained from women at the time of delivery and in their umbilical cord ...
Mao Dailing - - 2003
Factors involved in pregnancy failure due to abnormal fetomaternal tolerance are poorly understood. Here we describe distinct defects in placenta formation and subsequent pregnancy loss solely dependent on the activation of the complement alternative pathway and the effector mechanisms provided by the maternal C3. Surprisingly, this effect is independent of ...
Golos Thaddeus G - - 2003
Placental contributions to the establishment of maternal-fetal immune tolerance, and placental influences on maturation and vascular development of the endometrium in the human have been difficult to explore directly. Although significant differences exist in organization and relevant gene expression between human and nonprimate placentas, the nonhuman primate has substantial potential ...
Kruse C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytes from pregnant women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) may be characterized by a T-helper type 1-dominated cytokine production and a higher proliferative response to microbial recall antigens compared with normal pregnant women. METHODS: Serial blood samples were taken from 14 women with RM (at least three previous consecutive ...
Michel Marc - - 2003
This pilot study assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous anti-D in eight Rh(D)-positive women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The median pretreatment platelet count was 28 x 109/l. The patients received one to seven anti-D infusions at a mean dose of ...
Billington W David - - 2003
This article is a tribute to the late Sir Peter Brian Medawar for his pivotal contribution in 1953 to the establishment of the field of Reproductive Immunology, with a brief and selective assessment of the progress made during the ensuing 50 years towards elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the ...
White Christine A - - 2004
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory and immune-deviating cytokine expressed in the endometrium and placenta. IL-10 null mutant (IL-10-/-) mice have been employed to examine the role of IL-10 in regulating immune events in early pregnancy and its significance in implantation and pregnancy success. The inflammatory response elicited in endometrial tissue ...
Patel Radhika N - - 2003
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has many known aetiologies. However, using current diagnostic testing, a large fraction of recurrent pregnancy losses remain unexplained. Many of these may have immune underpinnings. HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class I product whose fairly restricted expression at the maternal-fetal interface suggests a role in successful ...
Fung Kee Fung Karen - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To provide guidelines on use of anti-D prophylaxis to optimize prevention of rhesus (Rh) alloimmunization in Canadian women. OUTCOMES: Decreased incidence of Rh alloimmunization and minimized practice variation with regards to immunoprophylaxis strategies. EVIDENCE: The Cochrane Library and MEDLINE were searched for English-language articles from 1968 to 2001, relating ...
Chiquet C - - 2003
PURPOSE: As pregnancy is liable to modify immune response, the authors explored the immune functions of a pregnant patient with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) to ascertain whether pregnancy may promote the onset of infection. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA ...
Gurevich Pavel - - 2003
PROBLEM: We analyzed the presence and distribution of components of the secretory immune system (SIS) in human fetal membranes (amnion, yolk sac, chorion) and decidua from the first trimester of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens from 17 embryos (4-8 weeks of pregnancy) and nine fetuses (9-12 weeks) were divided into ...
Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven A L - - 2003
Immune responses play an important role in various reproductive processes, including ovulation, menstruation and parturition. Clearly, during pregnancy, when the mother must accept a semi-allogeneic fetus, immune responses also play a very important role. This was first recognized by Medawar in 1953, when the concept of the fetal allograft was ...
Voskuhl R R - - 2003
It is well established in multiple sclerosis (MS) that the frequency of relapses decreases in late pregnancy, but increases in the post-partum period. This protective effect is probably due to hormonal and immune response changes induced by pregnancy. Oestrogens may be responsible, at least in part, for this protective effect. ...
Dayama A - - 2003
CD4 and CD8 counts are widely used prognostic markers to assess the degree of immune impairment in HIV seropositive individuals and to monitor anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Pregnancy is considered as a physiologically immunocompromised state, hence alterations in T lymphocyte subsets may occur during pregnancy. There is a need to establish ...
Thellin Olivier - - 2003
Interactions between the conceptus and the mother are bi-directional: the feto-placental tissues need nutrition and a suitable environment in homeostatic condition whereas the mother influenced by the placental factors adapts her metabolism and immune system. Many different mechanisms acting locally or at distance ensure tolerance of the semi-allogeneic graft by ...
Jabara Sami - - 2003
The prophylactic use of Rh immune globulin has been a medical success, protecting women who could be at risk from exposure to the Rh(D) antigen. Thus, it is not surprising that Rh(D) immunoprophylaxis has been extended from women with term pregnancies to all women with miscarriages, abortions, and ectopic pregnancies. ...
Pandey Manoj Kumar - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is known that during normal pregnancy and after immunotherapy blocking antibodies are developed, these antibodies inhibit mixed lymphocyte reaction and are also anti-mitogenic in nature. Mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies are specific to the husband's lymphocytes. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the ...
Bonney E A - - 2003
The mechanisms underlying maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus are not completely understood. The maternal immune system's response to the male antigen, H-Y is an example of the conflicting evidence that both supports and refutes the idea that the immune system in pregnant females is fundamentally different from that in ...
McCracken Sharon A - - 2003
Modulations of maternal immune cell function are critical for successful growth and development of an antigenically distinct fetus. It has been proposed that pregnancy is associated both with suppression of the adaptive immune system and a generalised maternal inflammatory response with changes in immune function resembling those associated with septicemia, ...
Caucheteux Stéphane M - - 2003
The intricate mechanisms regulating fetomaternal interactions are still largely uncharacterized. Recent papers have revealed a major role for the innate immune system during abortion. Different experimental conditions-deletion of a complement regulator, injection of anti-phospholipid antibodies into mothers, or allo-recognition of fetuses in the presence of an IDO inhibitor-all lead to ...
Girardi Guillermina - - 2003
In the United States, between 1 and 3% of women suffer recurrent miscarriages; 50-70% of all conceptions fail. Although in the majority of affected women the cause of recurrent miscarriages is unknown, an immune mechanism involving the inappropriate and subsequently injurious recognition of the conceptus by the mother's immune system ...
Muñoz-Valle J F - - 2003
During the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several immune and neuroendocrine changes associated with pregnancy may exert positive (amelioration) or negative (exacerbation) effects on the clinical outcome. In order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these responses, we performed a prospective longitudinal study in ...
Gurevich Pavel - - 2003
In our previous studies, we described the development of the secretory (mucosal) immune system (SIS) in human fetuses in the second trimester of pregnancy. In the present study, we examined the presence and distribution of components of this system in human embryos and early fetuses in the first trimester. An ...
Redzić Amira - - 2002
Lethal and sublethal genetical factors, including Rh factor, represent endogenous risk factors of the pregnancy outcome. These factors are most frequently inherited in recessive way and they often lead to the negative outcome of pregnancies. They represent pregnancy (a prirori) risk of various degrees. Inheritance of Rh system blood groups ...
Legler Tobias J - - 2002
Real-time PCR methods for the detection of RHD and the C, c, and E allele of RHCE were applied for the prediction of fetal Rh phenotype using maternal plasma. In one of 36 samples investigated the DNA extraction failed. When we tested the remaining 35 samples for Rh antigens which ...
Luppi Patrizia - - 2002
Pregnancy is characterized by the presence of generalized leukocyte activation. We used flow cytometry to investigate changes in phenotype and intracellular cytokines of circulating granulocytes, monocytes, and T lymphocytes of pregnant women during gestation. We report that peripheral circulation of pregnancy is characterized by an increased percentage of granulocytes and ...
Coussons-Read Mary E - - 2002
This study assessed the impact of high altitude residence during pregnancy on parameters of maternal immune and endocrine system function. Urinary catecholamines, and serum cytokines, estriol, and cortisol were assessed during pregnancy in women living at moderate or high altitude. Women residing at high altitude exhibited elevated levels of proinflammatory ...
Jablonowska Barbara - - 2002
PROBLEM: To investigate circulating lymphocyte subsets in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in relation to pregnancy outcome and to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). METHOD OF STUDY: Forty-one women with a history of unexplained RSA were examined during first trimester of pregnancy before IVIG or placebo treatment and after ...
Zenclussen Ana C - - 2002
PROBLEM: It has been postulated that a T helper (Th)1 response is associated with pregnancy failure, whereas a Th2 response contributes to pregnancy maintenance. However, this Thl/Th2 dichotomy has recently been hypothesized to be an oversimplification. To prove this novel hypothesis, we investigated the levels of the Th1-inducer cytokine interleukin ...
Parra A - - 2002
A genetic predisposition (theory 1) to preeclampsia in a woman with or without risk factors, may lead to an immune maladaptation to pregnancy (theory 2) (Th1 type of immune response predominance over Th2). In turn, they may contribute to an early defective 'switch' (quantitatively or out of timing) with a ...
Gleicher Norbert - - 2002
PROBLEM: The concept of immunologically induced reproductive failure has remained very controversial. Especially the question whether abnormal immune function can cause infertility has recently been subject to strong disagreement. This opinion piece is an attempt to reconcile difference of opinion by integrating clinical data from the human experience with well-established ...
Melkild I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The immune status and allergen exposure of the mother may influence the immune response in the offspring after birth. This relationship may be important both for allergen avoidance strategies and, alternatively, for allergy prophylaxis by allergen exposure of the mother. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to ...
Bates M D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Successful pregnancy may depend on a Th2-type cytokine response, whilst, conversely, a poor pregnancy outcome may be associated with an increase in Th1 cytokines and a concomitant decrease in Th2 cytokines. This prospective study was designed to elucidate whether a failure of the cytokine shift pre-dated miscarriage and was ...
Rezaei Abbas - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The measurement of various cytokines may provide different tools for evaluation of the immune system. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta in this phenomenon, and detection of Th1 cytokines in women with RSA. MATERIAL/METHODS: The control group ...
Chmait Ramen H - - 2002
Minimally invasive methods have been used successfully to diagnose and treat maternal red blood cell alloimmunization. We present a case of a dizygotic twin pregnancy discordant for the Rh allele. Serial Doppler ultrasonography helped to diagnose the fetus that was at-risk for anemia caused by Rh alloimmunization and to direct ...
Darmochwal-Kolarz Dorota - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate the alterations in the phenotype of lymphocytes of women with unexplained pregnancy failures in comparison with healthy women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen women with unexplained habitual miscarriages and 18 healthy, fertile women with the history of successful pregnancies were included in ...
Marques S - - 2002
Capsaicin is the main pungent and irritating component of hot peppers (species Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens). Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies evaluating capsaicin effects are sparse and contradictory. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity of capsaicin (10-200 microM) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay ...
Ostensen Monika - - 2002
A variety of hormonal and immunological alterations are induced by pregnancy in order to protect the semi-allogeneic fetus from rejection. Systemic effects of altered immunoregulation induced by pregnancy influence the activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Pregnancy induces improvement or even remission of disease activity in 75% ...
Inoue Tomoaki - - 2002
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a cytostatic anti-tumor drug which is known to have immunosuppressive activities. To assess the immunotoxic effects of 5-FU on fetal thymocyte populations and immune functions after birth, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were orally administered vehicle or 17 mg/kg/day of 5-FU during gestational days (GD) from 6 to 14. ...
Wang Z C - - 2002
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common disorder during early gestation. Recent evidence suggests that T helper 1 (Th1)-type immunity is associated with unsuccessful pregnancy especially in women with RPL of otherwise unknown etiology, while Th2-type immunity is associated with pregnancy success. Interleukin (IL)-1 may influence Th1/Th2 immune responsiveness and ...
Kruse Andrea - - 2002
One of the most fascinating immunologic questions is how the genetically distinct fetus is able to survive and develop within the mother without provoking an immune rejection response. The pregnant uterus undergoes rapid morphological and functional changes, and these changes may influence the nature of local immune responses at the ...
Entrican G - - 2002
The immunological mechanisms that govern the success of pregnancy in outbred mammals are complex. During placental formation the invasion of fetal cells into maternal tissue must be controlled to prevent damage to the mother. Equally, maternal recognition of pregnancy must be such that allorejection of the fetus does not occur. ...
Maccarrone M - - 2002
Anandamide (N -arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) is a major endocannabinoid, shown to impair mouse pregnancy and embryo development and to induce apoptosis in blastocysts. Here, we review the roles of AEA, of the AEA-binding cannabinoid (CB) receptors, of the selective AEA membrane transporter (AMT), and of the AEA-hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide ...
Devereux G - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The environmental factors responsible for recent increases in the prevalence of asthma and atopic disease have been assumed to act after birth. Their possible effects on fetal immune development in utero have not been investigated systematically, although sensitization to allergens may occur before birth. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study determined ...
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