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Results 201 - 250 of 764
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Hunt Joan S - - 2006
Pregnancy in mammals featuring hemochorial placentation introduces a major conflict with the mother's immune system, which is dedicated to repelling invaders bearing foreign DNA and RNA. Numerous and highly sophisticated strategies for preventing mothers from rejecting their genetically different fetus(es) have now been identified. These involve production of novel soluble ...
Meyer Urs - - 2006
Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher incidence of mental disorders, including schizophrenia, in the offspring in later life. Our recent attempt to study this link between prenatal immunological challenge and subsequent psychopathology has led to the establishment of a mouse model demonstrating the emergence of multiple psychotic-like ...
Jeremiah Zaccheaus Awortu - - 2005
This prospective study was designed to provide the frequencies of the haemoglobin genotypes, ABO and Rh blood groups and their effects on the haematocrit values among pregnant women in Port Harcourt. One hundred and eighty (180) pregnant women at their first clinic attendance and in their first pregnancy (parity - ...
Petroff Margaret G - - 2005
Models of murine allogeneic pregnancy have established that maternal T cells recognize fetal alloantigens and are normally suppressed or deleted. While the precise cellular interactions and mechanisms involved in maternal lymphocyte tolerance are not yet clear, the identity of some of the critical factors are beginning to be uncovered. Signals ...
Björkstén Bengt - - 2005
Previous research into the causes of allergic diseases was mostly focussed on potential risk factors in the environment, with little success, however. Over the past 10 years, focus has therefore more been directed against protective factors that could enhance the development of tolerance to allergens which were previously encountered early ...
Tamási L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy frequently interferes with the course of bronchial asthma, and asthmatic pregnant women experience less successful pregnancies. T lymphocytes synthesizing IL-4 or IFN-gamma are important in allergic mechanisms of the airways as well as in materno-fetal immunity. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that pregnancy (a T helper-2 polarized state) of asthmatics ...
Prater M Renee - - 2006
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG motifs, characteristic of bacterial DNA, are currently being evaluated as vaccine adjuvants for inducing protective immunity. Recently, there is increasing pressure to vaccinate pregnant women against maternally transmitted diseases including AIDS and tetanus, as well as against potential bio-weapons such as anthrax. CpG vaccines are ...
Takizawa Toshihiro - - 2005
Placental transfer of IgG from maternal circulation to that of the fetus is crucial for fetal and newborn immunity. This process requires that IgG broach two cellular layers of the placenta. IgG transport across the first layer, the syncytiotrophoblast, is almost certainly mediated by the MHC-related FcR for IgG, FcRn. ...
Abrahams V M - - 2005
The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Toll-like receptors at the maternal-fetal interface and the capacity of trophoblast cells to initiate innate immune responses towards infection. The maternal-fetal interface represents an immunologically unique site that must promote tolerance to the allogenic fetus, whilst maintaining host defense ...
Warraich Rahat S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The impact and clinical relevance of pregnancy-related heart failure (HF) on humoral immunity are not known. Heart failure is often characterized by immunoglobulins (Ig) that differ in subclass profile with etiology. Subclass immunoglobulins differ in the biologic information they confer in disease. Therefore, given that progressive gestation is associated ...
Faas Marijke M - - 2005
In the present study, we evaluated whether lymphocyte cytokine production during human and rat pregnancy shifts toward T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine production. Therefore, blood samples were taken during the follicular and luteal phase and during pregnancy in rats and humans. Whole blood was ex vivo-stimulated with phorbol ...
Guleria Indira - - 2005
Fetal survival during gestation implies that tolerance mechanisms suppress the maternal immune response to paternally inherited alloantigens. Here we show that the inhibitory T cell costimulatory molecule, programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), has an important role in conferring fetomaternal tolerance in an allogeneic pregnancy model. Blockade of PDL1 signaling during ...
Moise Kenneth J - - 2005
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in pregnancy continues to occur despite the widespread use of both antenatal and postpartum Rhesus immune globulin (RhIG), due mainly to inadvertent omissions in administration as well as antenatal sensitization prior to RhIG given at 28 weeks' gestation. Additional instances are attributable to the lack ...
Meregalli Elisa - - 2005
When used in pregnancy, immunosuppressants can cross the placental barrier and enter foetal circulation, possibly affecting the immune system of the foetus. This study evaluated the immune function in eight children born by mothers with connective tissue diseases who received immunosuppressants (cyclosporine A or dexamethasone) during pregnancy and in six ...
Jonsson Yvonne - - 2005
It has been suggested that maladaptation of the maternal immune response during pregnancy might be a causal factor for preeclampsia. This study was designed to examine the systemic immune status at both the innate level and the adaptive level in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n=15) and normal pregnancies (n=15). Spontaneous ...
Meregalli, Elisa
When used in pregnancy, immunosuppressants can cross the placental barrier and enter foetal circulation, possibly affecting the immune system of the foetus. This study evaluated the immune function in eight children born by mothers with connective tissue diseases who received immunosuppressants (cyclosporine A or dexamethasone) during pregnancy and in six ...
Jelińska Anna - - 2005
The stability of cefuroxime axetil in BIORACEF tablets was studied by means of long term (298 K/60% RH), intermediate (303 K/65% RH), accelerated (313 K/75% RH) and stress stability tests. Changes in the concentration of cefuroxime axetil diastereoisomers A and B and their total was determined using the RP-HPLC method, ...
Kamali-Sarvestani Eskandar - - 2005
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the 20th week of gestation. There is increasing evidence to support an immunological mechanism for the occurrence of RPL. Defective production of T helper type 2 (Th2) and/or higher production of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines ...
Prescott S L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergy confers stronger allergy risk (than paternal allergy) suggesting that maternal patterns of immune response can directly influence immune development in offspring. Women prone to allergic immune responses to allergens may also have altered immune responses to other antigens including fetal antigens. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study examines relationships ...
Csaba G - - 2005
Female rats were treated with beta-endorphin on the 19th day of pregnancy. Serotonin content of immune cells (peritoneal lymphocytes, monocyte-macrophage-granulocyte group (mo-gran), mast cells, blood lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes, thymus lymphocytes) were studied in the mothers (P-generation four weeks after delivery), in the male offspring (F1) generation (at seven weeks), ...
Blois Sandra - - 2005
Our understanding why a woman's immune system does not reject her histoincompatible fetus is still very limited. Distinct insights into the mechanisms involved in pregnancy maintenance may help us to prevent pregnancy complications, e.g., miscarriages or pre-eclampsia. Immune integration and tolerance at the feto-maternal interface appear to be indispensable for ...
Suzuki Hiroshi - - 2005
The pathogenesis of congenital heart block (CHB) remains unclear. The occurrence rate of neonatal CHB is low, even in murine models of lupus erythematosus. The assessment of heart block in murine maternal lupus models by measuring atrioventricular conduction in neonatal offspring is potentially confounded by fetal wastage. We therefore sought ...
Sánchez-Ramón Silvia - - 2005
Pregnancy represents a physiological transitory state of immune tolerance to avoid the rejection of the foetus, and concomitantly of stabilisation of many autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Alterations in regulatory T-lymphocytes (T(Reg)) are known to be involved in organ-specific autoimmune disease pathophysiology. Our goal was to quantify CD4+ ...
Mor Gil - - 2005
In the early 1950s, Medawar recognized for the first time the unique immunology of the maternal/ fetal interface and its potential relevance for transplantation. In his original work, he described the fetal allograft analogy whereby the fetus may be viewed as a semi-allogeneic conceptus that has evaded rejection by the ...
Boyunağa Hakan - - 2005
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neopterin is a biochemical marker of activated cell-mediated immune response which increases in pathological conditions associated with cellular immune activation as well as in pregnancy where cellular immune response is predominant. The aim of this study was to determine the urinary neopterin level in each trimester of pregnancy and ...
Tometten Mareike - - 2005
Successful pregnancy outcome requires balanced networking of the immune and endocrine system. In addition, numerous sophisticated adaptive mechanisms promote invasion of fetal tissue and facilitate tolerance. This highly sensitive and vulnerable environment may be challenged from either the maternal or the fetal site. In this overview we collect evidence of ...
Markert Udo R - - 2005
Reproduction is indispensable to evolution and, thus, life. Nonetheless, it overcomes common rules known to established life. Immunology of reproduction, and especially the tolerance of two genetically distinct organisms and their fruitful symbiosis, is one of the most imposing paradox of life. Mechanisms, which are physiologically used for induction of ...
Gowri Vaidyanathan - - 2005
Pregnancy increases the risk of cerebrovascular accidents to approximately 13 times the expected rate. Most of the cerebrovascular accidents are due to cerebral venous thrombosis. Headache, seizures and focal neurological deficits are some of the symptoms of cerebral venous thrombosis. Headache can also be due to postural puncture, pre eclampsia ...
Elliott Alison M - - 2005
Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in ...
Paulesu Luana - - 2005
Cytokines are important regulators of materno-fetal immunotolerance in mammals. They act within an intricate network, in which the balance among different cytokines contributes to the success of reproductive processes. Despite numerous studies, however, the role of cytokines at the materno-fetal interface remains largely unknown. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine ...
Harkness Ursula F - - 2004
An Rh-negative woman is at risk for developing Rh isoimmunization upon exposure to RhD antigens from her Rh-positive baby through fetal-maternal hemorrhage. The incidence of Rh isoimmunization and fetal hemolytic disease has decreased substantially since Rh immune globulin was introduced in 1968. When RhD sensitization does occur, careful follow-up of ...
Giavedoni Luis D - - 2004
Baboons are very similar to humans in ontogeny, reproductive physiology, and placentation, and thus serve as an excellent nonhuman primate model for use in both normative and perturbation studies of pregnancy that cannot be performed on pregnant women. However, little is known about the changes induced by normal pregnancy in ...
Wang Zhengping - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The etiology of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a pregnancy-specific complication, remains not completely understood. Some alterations of immunity in ICP were reported, but the profile of immune alteration was far from clarified. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the changes of serum levels of neopterin, a ...
Zhu Xiao-Yong - - 2005
Intervention in B7 (CD80/CD86)/B7-ligand (CD28/CTLA-4) pathways is an effective way of preventing unwanted immune responses, such as allograft rejection. Pregnancy maintenance represents maternal tolerance to the fetal allograft, which is accompanied by a type 2 helper cell (Th2) bias at the maternal-fetal interface. Here, the costimulatory signal of CD86 was ...
Blanchard Ray - - 2004
Meta-analysis of aggregate data from 14 samples representing 10,143 male subjects shows that homosexuality in human males is predicted by higher numbers of older brothers, but not by higher numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The relation between number of older brothers and sexual orientation holds only ...
Di Lernia V - - 2004
Imiquimod, the first member of a new class of immune response modifiers, is approved for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. Recently, many clinical trials highlighted the potential of imiquimod as a treatment for other viral infections and cutaneous neoplasms. We report two cases of facial keratoacanthomas (KA) ...
Al-Shammri Suhali - - 2004
Pregnancy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is associated with a lower risk of progression and lower rate of exacerbation. These beneficial effects are reversed postpartum. Considering that the pathogenesis of MS appears to involve cell-mediated immune reactivity, and that pregnancy is accompanied by a depressed cell-mediated immunity, it has been ...
Arinola O G - - 2004
Leucocyte phagocytosis and level of circulating immune complexes (CICs) were measured in pregnant women at the three trimesters of pregnancy and in mothers 24-48 hours after child birth to evaluate the influence of pregnancy on leucocyte functions. The mothers were divided into gestation groups depending on the ages of their ...
Erlebacher Adrian - - 2004
We describe a murine model of early pregnancy failure induced by systemic activation of the CD40 immune costimulatory pathway. Although fetal loss involved an NK cell intermediate, it was not due to lymphocyte-mediated destruction of the fetus and placenta. Rather, pregnancy failure resulted from impaired progesterone synthesis by the corpus ...
Salmon Jane E - - 2004
Although the mechanisms of immune-mediated pregnancy loss are unknown, investigations are currently focused on mediators of immune activation and tissue injury at the maternal-fetal interface. A new study, however, demonstrates that systemic inflammatory mediators can induce pregnancy failure in a different way, by inhibiting ovarian hormone production, and identifies links ...
Winchester Robert - - 2004
The transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child during pregnancy is unlike other types of HIV-1 transmission because the child shares major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes with the mother during a time while the mother is induced to tolerate the paternally derived fetal MHC molecules, in part through natural killer ...
Chaouat Gerard - - 2004
We briefly review the history of concepts (some of which are still valid) which have lead to the present situation where pregnancy is viewed as being a Th2 phenomenon. We recall some of the early evidence which has been taken as supporting the general validity of this concept in murine ...
Rudolph M Isolde - - 2004
Birth is the result of complex, well-defined, and coordinated events, that are tightly regulated by endocrine, nervous, and immune responses, and take place primarily in the female reproductive tract. Various mechanisms and mediators involved in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, are highly conserved among different mammalian species and mast cells emerge ...
Cimaz R - - 2004
Many of the immunosuppressive drugs that are used during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal circulation, with a possible impact on the foetal immune system. We have evaluated the immune function of children born from mothers treated with immunosuppressants for connective tissue diseases. A total of ...
Kraft Peter - - 2004
Rh incompatibility disease (ie Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn) has been implicated as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we extend the maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility (MFG) test used in an earlier case-parent trio study that found significant evidence for an increased risk of schizophrenia in RHD MFG-incompatible ...
Makrigiannakis A - - 2004
The hypothalamic neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is produced by several tissues of the female reproductive system. It is also secreted at inflammatory sites and possesses potent pro-inflammatory properties influencing both innate and acquired immune processes. Uterine CRH participates in local immune early pregnancy phenomena, such as decidualization of endometrial strom ...
Tagawa Noriko - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Since dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) have been suggested to have immunoregulatory effects, changes in the levels of these substances during and after pregnancy might affect the maternal immune system. We examined serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEAS, and cytokine production during pregnancy and after delivery. METHODS: The ...
Pandey Manoj Kumar - - 2004
The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of paternal lymphocyte (PL) immunotherapy and its relation with the development of mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies (MLR-Bf) and the success of pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). A total of 124 women with unknown causes of abortions ...
Costeas Paul A - - 2004
Cytokines are critical immunoregulatory molecules, responsible for determining the nature of an immune response. It has been proposed that Th2/Th3 immune reactions support normal pregnancy, while Th1 immunity is considered detrimental to the fetus. Since cytokine production is partly under genetic control, it is possible that women suffering from a ...
Aluvihare Varuna R VR Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom. - - 2004
Pregnancy constitutes a major challenge to the maternal immune system, as it has to tolerate the persistence of paternal alloantigen. Although localized mechanisms contribute to fetal evasion from immune attack, maternal alloreactive lymphocytes persist. We demonstrate here an alloantigen-independent, systemic expansion of the maternal CD25+ T cell pool during pregnancy ...
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