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Martin Pauline L - - 2007
PROBLEM: The use of anti-TNF-alpha therapies during pregnancy and lactation on the development of the neonatal immune system has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether treatment of macaques with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (golimumab) during pregnancy and lactation would result in defects in ...
Boog Georges - - 2008
The diagnosis of chronic villitis of unknown etiology (CVUE), characterized by focal areas of inflammation with mononuclear cells and areas of fibrinoid necrosis in chorionic villi, can only be set-up after exclusion of a latent maternal-fetal transmission of infectious agents by sophisticated techniques such as polymerase chain reaction. Significant associations ...
Kocaman Ayşe Yavuz - - 2007
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is commonly used both in agriculture and domestic areas against a wide range of insects. The potential genotoxicity of a commercial formulation of acetamiprid (Mosetam 20 SP, containing 20% acetamiprid as the active ingredient) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes was examined in vitro by sister chromatid ...
Pramanik S S - - 2007
Specific immunity decreases markedly in pregnancy. This study was designed to determine whether the non-specific immunity mediated by neutrophils plays any role in coping with this immunosuppressed condition. The number of leukocytes and neutrophils, especially the number of young band neutrophils, increased gradually with the advancement of pregnancy. The phagocytic ...
Airas Laura - - 2007
We used microarray analysis to obtain insights into the immuno-regulatory mechanisms controlling pregnancy-associated MS disease activity. We studied expression levels of 5000 immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with relapsing-remitting MS during pregnancy and postpartum and in comparison to controls. In the microarray analysis, HLA-G, a non-classical ...
Rusterholz Corinne - - 2007
Human pregnancy is a metabolic and immune challenge for the mother who has to accommodate in her womb a semi-allogeneic fetus whose energy needs increase tremendously with gestation. Recent compelling research has suggested that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are a requisite for successful pregnancy. The placenta is an ...
Shakhar Keren - - 2007
The protective effect of having a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) at a younger age on women's lifetime risk of breast cancer is well known. Less appreciated is the increased risk seen in the years immediately following pregnancy. This adverse effect is more pronounced and more prolonged in women with later ...
Ostensen Monika - - 2007
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that is favorably influenced by pregnancy but relapses after delivery. A variety of circulating factors has been considered as candidates for inducing gestational improvement of RA; however, the factors/pathways responsible remain still elusive. This review discusses recent research on the effect of pregnancy ...
Santora Karen - - 2007
The incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are reduced during pregnancy. Estradiol-17beta and relaxin (RLX), hormones of pregnancy, are implicated in decreased immune responsiveness. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen and RLX, alone or in combination, on the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) ...
Bonney Elizabeth A EA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Given Building, Room C-244, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. - - 2007
Classical thinking suggests that the immune system undergoes activation on the basis of discrimination between 'self' and 'non-self'. Accordingly, the fetus activates the mother's immune system because the fetus is in part 'non-self'. Thus, successful pregnancy depends on constraint of maternal immunity. Preeclampsia is an outcome of lost constraint. Instead, ...
Jilani Nishat - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection leading to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and high mortality is a common feature in Indian women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. An altered status of hormones and immunity are observed during pregnancy but the actual cause of high mortality ...
Tsukahara Kazue - - 2007
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Changes in humidity are commonly known to influence the condition of the skin. Previous studies of the skin dealt with variations in relative humidity (RH) either through statistical analysis or by maintaining room humidity at a constant level; however, the range of humidity and the length of acclimation varied ...
Meyer Urs - - 2008
Prenatal exposure to infections represents a risk factor for the emergence of neuropsychiatric disorders in later life, including schizophrenia and autism. However, it remains essentially unknown whether this association is primarily attributable to prenatal and/or postnatal maternal effects on the offspring. Here, we addressed this issue by dissecting the relative ...
Raqib Rubhana - - 2007
The knowledge about consequences of marginal zinc (Zn) deficiency and Zn supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in the offspring is limited. The aim of this study was to examine whether effects of mild Zn deficiency and subsequent Zn supplementation during pregnancy persist after weaning and affect immune function of ...
Chaichian Shahla - - 2007
PROBLEM: Paternal leukocyte immunotherapy has been used as treatment for spontaneous recurrent miscarriage; however, controversies have raged against the factors influencing its success. METHODS: Five hundred and forty-nine women with three or more unexplained pregnancy losses were offered immunization. Two weeks after the second immunization, serum was tested for anti-paternal ...
Hansen P J - - 2007
Pregnancy results in a change in number and function of immune cells in utero that potentially affects fetal survival and uterine defense mechanisms postpartum. These changes are driven by local signals from the conceptus as well as from hormonal changes mediated by the placenta or maternal system. In sheep, for ...
Williams Lloyd - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis is rare during pregnancy and, if untreated, is associated with poor fetal outcome. Corticosteroids are a standard treatment for dermatomyositis in pregnancy, but they have adverse effects. Intravenous immune globulin is an effective therapy for this condition and may have few adverse effects. CASE: A young, white primigravida ...
Sukhikh G T - - 2007
We studied the effect of histocompatibility in married couples on the development and severity of gestosis. It was found that gestosis more often develops in women with two common HLA alleles of class II major histocompatibility complex with her husband. The greatest number of coincidences was detected in subgroups with ...
Muñoz P - - 2007
The humoral innate immune response of sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo against the myxozoan Enteromyxum leei was studied. Enteromyxosis was transmitted by cohabitation and a group of uninfected fish served as control. At 5, 12, 19, 26, 40 and 55 days post-exposure (p.e.), control and recipient fish were sampled to determine ...
Zenclussen Ana Claudia - - 2007
Pregnancy success remains a fascinating phenomenon to immunologists as it defies the immunological rules of rejection. Although it was previously thought that the maternal immune system does not see the fetus, it is now well documented that fetal cells reach the maternal body and encounter host immune cells. Natural tolerance ...
Biggioggero M - - 2007
The administration of immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy is often necessary in women with autoimmune diseases. Teratogenicity of immunosuppressives during pregnancy has been evaluated, only few data exist about the effects on immune systems. We therefore performed a pilot study on the influence of foetal exposure to immunosuppressives on immune function ...
Sipak-Szmigiel Olimpia - - 2007
It can be supposed that relation between HLA-G polymorphism and sHLA-G protein expression are associated with successful embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance. The aim of the study was the estimation specific differences in expression of sHLA-G and sHLA- class I antigens in women with reproductive failure in comparison with fertile ...
Ayatollahi M - - 2007
Successful outcomes in allopregnant women depend upon control of graft rejection mechanisms. An understanding of how the fetus escapes the maternal immune system may be relevant for the prevention of transplant rejection. It has been suggested that the same immunosuppressive cytokines contribute to successful pregnancy and transplantation. Recent reports suggest ...
Ramhorst Rosanna - - 2006
PROBLEM: Previous studies have demonstrated a requirement for RANTES (regulated on activated normal T-cell expressed, and secreted) at immune privileged sites; we have investigated the role of RANTES in the induction of maternal-fetal tolerance. METHOD OF STUDY: Endometrial and peripheral T lymphocytes were obtained from women with recurrent pregnancy losses ...
Prasad Mona R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the clinical outcomes of anti-D isoimmunization in a series of women who typed Rh positive or Rh weak positive. STUDY DESIGN: This was a review of The Ohio State University Medical Center Fetal Therapy Program Database. RESULTS: Of 1068 pregnancies affected ...
Geifman-Holtzman Ossie - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the reported diagnostic accuracy, the validity, and the current limitations of fetal Rh genotyping from peripheral maternal blood based on the existing English-written publications. STUDY DESIGN: A search of the English literature describing fetal RhD determination from maternal blood was conducted. ...
Moffett Ashley - - 2006
The traditional way to study the immunology of pregnancy follows the classical transplantation model, which views the fetus as an allograft. A more recent approach, which is the subject of this Review, focuses on the unique, local uterine immune response to the implanting placenta. This approach requires knowledge of placental ...
Zenclussen Ana Claudia - - 2006
Tolerance mechanisms are responsible for the survival of the fetus within the maternal uterus without being attacked by the cells of the maternal immune system despite their direct contact. Regulatory T cells (Treg) were claimed to be important players in the tolerance towards the fetus bearing alloantigens. Recent evidence confirmed ...
Hannafin Blaine - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether literature supports the use of Rh immune globulin in Rh-negative women with first trimester spontaneous abortions to prevent maternal sensitization to the fetal Rh antigen and subsequent fetal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966-2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE (1990 to ...
Line J E - - 2006
Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni among broiler chickens has been documented; however, the influence of RH on transmission rates is an important factor that has not been extensively studied. The purpose of our experiments was to determine the rate of C. jejuni colonization among groups of broilers raised in microbiological ...
Aagaard-Tillery Kjersti M - - 2006
Since Medawar's initial contemplations in 1953 on the mechanisms of immune evasion allowing for the survival of the allogeneic conceptus in an immunologically competent mother, physicians and immunologists alike have struggled to understand the immunological paradox of pregnancy. Ultimately, our attempts to define the immunology of normal pregnancy have broadened ...
Amoudruz Petra - - 2006
In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery ...
Østensen Monika - - 2006
Cytokines are important mediators involved in the successful outcome of pregnancy. The concept of pregnancy as biased toward a Th2 immune response states that Th1 type cytokines are associated with pregnancy failure and that Th2 cytokines are protective and counteract pregnancy-related disorders. Studies at the level of the maternal-fetal interface, ...
Doria Andrea - - 2006
Successful pregnancy depends on an adaptation of the maternal immune system that becomes tolerant to fetal antigens of paternal origin. The altered immune regulation induced by pregnancy occurs predominantly at the maternal-fetal interface, but it has also been observed in the maternal circulation. Th1/Th2 shift is one of the most ...
Cox S E - - 2006
Vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality in populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency and may also reduce maternal mortality. One possible explanation for this is that vitamin A deficiency is associated with altered immune function and cytokine dysregulation. Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may thus compound the pregnancy-associated bias ...
Harry G Jean - - 2006
Studies examining maternal infection as a risk factor for neurological disorders in the offspring have suggested that altered maternal immune status during pregnancy can be considered as an adverse event in prenatal development. Infection occurring in the mother during the gestational period has been implicated in multiple neurological effects. The ...
Mincheva-Nilsson Lucia - - 2006
Considering allograft rejection as a basic feature of the immune system, the mammalian pregnancy is an immunological paradox where the semi-allogeneic fetus is not rejected. How are the demands of pregnancy solved in the context of maternal immunity? Medawar's original proposal of maternal immune inertness during pregnancy should be revised ...
Higuchi Maria L - - 2006
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) antigens are encountered in complicated atheromas and may be implicated in the diversity of atherosclerotic lesions. Mycoplasma can downregulate the immune system, altering levels of inflammation, which may favor the proliferation of other co-infectious agents. In the present study we analyze whether initially ...
Faas M M - - 2006
PROBLEM: Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? METHOD OF STUDY: Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood ...
Ojeda-Uribe M - - 2006
Rituximab, a chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen, is part of current treatment of many B-cell malignancies and several autoimmune diseases. Very few cases of rituximab administration during pregnancy have been described. We report here the case of rituximab administration during the first trimester of pregnancy ...
Watson William J - - 2006
Limited information is published on the frequency of new maternal alloantibodies found in patients treated for isoimmunization. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of additional maternal red cell alloantibodies, found after the initiation of treatment for Rhesus (Rh) disease. A retrospective review of all patients treated ...
Meyer Urs U Laboratory of Behavioural Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, 8603, Schwerzenbach, - - 2006
Epidemiological studies have indicated that the risk of schizophrenia is enhanced by prenatal maternal infection with viral or bacterial pathogens. Recent experimentation in rodents has yielded additional support for a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and the emergence of psychosis-related abnormalities in brain and behaviour in later life. However, ...
Yip Leona - - 2006
Alterations to the immune status of the pregnant woman are necessary to allow mothers to tolerate genetically different fetal tissues during pregnancy. These alterations lead to impaired cell-mediated immunity with increased susceptibility to certain infections such as tuberculosis. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system also shows a relative bias toward ...
Tripathi P - - 2006
Recently, it has been suggested that non-classical antigens such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-E may interact with KIR receptors of NK cells which results into downregulation of immune response and helps in the maintenance of pregnancy. In the present study, we have investigated HLA-E polymorphism in normal fertile ...
Trowsdale John J Department of Pathology, Immunology Division, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, - - 2006
The evolutionary adaptation in mammals that allows implantation of their embryos in the mother's womb creates an immunological problem. Although it ensures optimal nourishment and protection of the fetus throughout its early development, intimate contact with the mother's uterine tissue makes the fetus a potential target for her immune system. ...
Willwerth Ben M BM Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2006
Maternal and perinatal environmental exposures, as well as inherited factors, may influence neonatal immune responses. To determine relations of maternal and perinatal exposures to antigen-specific cord blood lymphoproliferative responses. In 427 newborns from a Boston pregnancy/birth cohort, lymphoproliferative responses in cord blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with cockroach (Bla g ...
Yan W H - - 2006
Reproduction is an important biological phenomenon posing an immunological paradox because the semiallogeneic fetus survives by evading maternal immune recognition. The detailed mechanisms behind this maternal-fetal immunotolerance remain elusive. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a non-classical HLA class I antigen, initially identified as a molecule selectively expressed on extravillous cytotrophoblasts and ...
Orsi N M - - 2006
Cytokines are pleiotropic glycoproteins participating in many aspects of mammalian reproductive physiology. Although murine models have been established to study normal and pathological pregnancy, the small volume of retrievable sample has hampered investigations into the role of cytokines in these processes. These problems were overcome by using fluid-phase multiplex immunoassays ...
Jonsson Yvonne - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome. The immune system in preeclampsia is changed with an increased innate activity and there is a hypothesis of a shift towards Th1-type immunity. The aim of this study was to determine a spectrum of soluble immunological factors denoting different aspects of immune activation in ...
Wilczyński Jacek R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that trophoblasts and cancer are both immunogenic, they are able to escape from host immunosurveillance, and the precise mechanisms involved in this process are surprisingly similar in both situations. METHODS: A literature review of studies on immunological changes occurring during normal pregnancy and cancer was performed. ...
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