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Genc M R - - 2011
Preterm labour, premature prelabour rupture of membranes and low birth weight have all been associated with either specific maternal genital tract infections or an altered vaginal microflora during pregnancy. Factors that influence the variation in microbial-host interaction play an important role in individual susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The innate ...
Thornton Catherine A - - 2010
For 20 years, the hygiene hypothesis has dominated attempts to explain the increasing prevalence of allergic disease. A causal link between maternal innate immune response during pregnancy and disease protection in the offspring was recently demonstrated. Central to this was a systemically diffused signal that downregulated Toll-like receptor expression in ...
Menzies F M - - 2011
BACKGROUND Mast cells (MCs) are the classical mediators of allergy, however, their importance in the development of innate and adaptive immune responses is increasingly being recognized. Herein, the present MC literature is summarized, with particular focus on studies of MCs in the endometrium and myometrium, and their involvement in fertility, ...
Aguilar-Valles Argel - - 2011
Maternal infection during human pregnancy has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in the adult offspring. The stage of development and the maternal inflammatory response to infection, which undergoes quantitative and qualitative changes throughout gestation, are thought to determine critical windows of vulnerability for the developing brain. In order ...
Agachan Bedia - - 2010
Preeclampsia complicates 10% of pregnancies in developing countries. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal/neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It has been suggested that maladaptation of the maternal immune response during pregnancy might be a causal factor for preeclampsia. According to immune maladaptation hypothesis, preeclampsia is ...
Ott Troy L - - 2010
While there are few similarities between mechanisms for extending corpus luteum (CL) function during early pregnancy in ruminants and primates, there is increasing evidence that conceptus-immune crosstalk in ruminants and primates affects the function of circulating immune cells at the very earliest stages of pregnancy. Most notable are changes in ...
de Groot Christianne J M - - 2010
During an uncomplicated pregnancy the conceptus is a semiallogeneic entity in which rejection is prevented by suppression of the maternal immune system. We hypothesized that this suppression is disturbed in patients with preeclampsia and that a maternal immune response to fetal (foreign/paternal) antigens in the fetal-maternal interface may be responsible ...
Kraus Thomas A - - 2010
Pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system adapt to prevent rejection of the fetal semi-allograft. This immunologic adaptation may contribute to pregnancy-related alterations in disease susceptibility and severity of infections from viral pathogens such as influenza virus. As part of a larger study investigating the maternal systemic immune response during ...
Oz Helieh S HS Center for Oral Health Research, MN310 College of Dentistry and Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. - - 2011
Microbial products can act via stress-induced signaling cascades to link dysregulated endogenous microbiota to immune activation (e.g., macrophages) and pregnancy loss. Our previous studies demonstrated that mice deficient in the macrophage pattern recognition scavenger receptors, SR-A and CD36, are more susceptible to inflammatory complications including gut leakiness and experimental colitis. ...
Miko Eva - - 2010
During implantation, maternal immunoactivation and tolerance are not only limited to the decidua but are also observed in the periphery, predominantly affecting the innate immune system. Since unexplained female infertility, as well as recurrent spontaneous abortion and implantation failure, are thought to be associated with pathological maternal immunotolerance mechanisms, this ...
Noronha Leela E - - 2010
The horse has proven to be a distinctively informative species in the study of pregnancy immunology for several reasons. First, unique aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the equine conceptus facilitate approaches that are not possible in other model organisms, such as non-surgical recovery of early stage embryos and ...
Thornton Catherine A - - 2010
The conceptual framework for reproductive immunology was put in place over 50 years ago when the survival of the fetal semi-allograft within an immunocompetent mother was first considered. During this time, a number of paradigms have emerged and the mechanisms receiving current attention are those related to immune tolerance, such ...
van der Hoorn M L P - - 2010
Egg donation (ED) makes it possible for subfertile women to conceive. Pregnancies achieved using ED with unrelated donors are unique, since the entire fetal genome is allogeneic to the mother. The aims of this review were to evaluate the consequences of ED pregnancies and to place them in the special ...
Bayrak Ayse Oytun - - 2010
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare immune-mediated disorder of neuromuscular junctions. The knowledge of the effects of pregnancy on the course of patients with LEMS is limited. Here we describe a patient without a history of previous known illness who has complained of weakness during the last trimester of ...
Kahn Daniel A - - 2010
A fetus is inherently antigenic to its mother and yet is not rejected. The T regulatory (Treg) subset of CD4(+) T cells can limit immune responses and has been implicated in maternal tolerance of the fetus. Using virgin inbred mice undergoing a first syngenic pregnancy, in which only the male ...
Li Qi - - 2010
Maternal infection during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. We and others have reported white mater microstructure abnormalities in prefrontal-striato-temporal networks in these disorders. In addition we have shown that early rather than late maternal immune challenge in the mouse ...
Haeri Sina - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests a link between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and chronic stress in nonpregnant adults, possibly due to decreased cellular immune response. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of EBV seropositivity in a diverse cohort of pregnant women and whether maternal demographic characteristics were associated with EBV reactivation. ...
Petroff Margaret G MG Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. - - 2010
Placental and fetal growth and development are associated with chronic exposure of the maternal immune system to fetally derived, paternally inherited antigens. Because maternal lymphocytes are aware of fetal antigens, active tolerance mechanisms are required to ensure unperturbed progression of pregnancy and delivery of a healthy newborn. These mechanisms of ...
Zen Margherita - - 2010
During pregnancy the maternal immune system is modified in order to achieve immune tolerance toward paternal antigen expressed on foetal cells. These modifications, which occur both at the foeto-maternal interface and in the systemic circulation, are driven by oestrogens and progesterone whose blood concentrations increase during pregnancy. The cytokine profile ...
Caby F - - 2010
A 26-year-old woman was HIV-1 diagnosed at 11 weeks of pregnancy (CD4 = 7/mm(3), HIV-1 RNA = 108,000 copies/mL) with immunity against toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma IgG = 1800 UI/mL). A fetal death was diagnosed 7 weeks after starting HAART (CD4 = 185/mm(3), HIV-1 RNA = 391 copies/mL) with a positive Toxoplasma ...
Kwak-Kim Joanne - - 2010
During the implantation period, a significant portion of embryos are lost and eventually less than half of clinically established pregnancies end as full-term pregnancies without obstetrical complications. A significant portion of these pregnancy losses is associated with immune etiologies, including autoimmune and cellular immune abnormalities. Although an autoimmune etiology such ...
Tilburgs Tamara - - 2010
Self and non-self recognition is the key mechanism by which the immune system determines whether or not to mount an immune response. During pregnancy the maternal immune system must tolerate the persistence of non-self semi-allogeneic fetal cells in the maternal tissue. Although many mechanisms have been shown to contribute to ...
Koga Kaori - - 2010
Toll-like receptors (TLR) form the major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that are involved in innate immunity. Innate immune responses against microorganisms at the maternal-fetal interface may have a significant impact on the success of pregnancy, as intrauterine infections have been shown to be strongly associated with certain disorders ...
Mor Gil - - 2010
Placental immune response and its tropism for specific viruses and pathogens affect the outcome of the pregnant woman's susceptibility to and severity of certain infectious diseases. The generalization of pregnancy as a condition of immune suppression or increased risk is misleading and prevents the determination of adequate guidelines for treating ...
Christiansen Ole Bjarne - - 2010
Women pregnant with a male fetus often generate cellular and humoral immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY) antigens-however, the importance of these responses for pregnancy outcome is unclear. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the birth of a boy compared with a girl prior to a series of miscarriages significantly ...
Erlebacher Adrian - - 2010
How the fetal 'allograft' avoids rejection during pregnancy remains a major unresolved immunological paradox. Recent work has suggested that fetomaternal tolerance is in fact maintained by a number of redundant mechanisms, but their relative importance has remained poorly defined. In this paper, I discuss an emerging controversy regarding the ability ...
Sharma Surendra - - 2010
Taking a cue from the recent workshop 'Preeclampsia--a Pressing Problem' sponsored by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, this review article takes a fresh look at hypoxia and a dysfunctional immune system as the key contributors to the etiology of preeclampsia and the mechanisms involved therein. In ...
Thaxton Jessica E - - 2010
It is widely accepted that pregnancy constitutes a unique developmental event. Unprecedented intrauterine actions of angiogenesis, immunity, and neuroendocrine regulation are juxtaposed to mechanisms of senescence that enable fetal growth and protection. The suppressive and regulatory factors that facilitate healthy pregnancy are under investigation. In non-pregnant systems of infection and ...
Wang Xuan - - 2010
PROBLEM: Spontaneous breast cancer in Tientsin Albinao 2 (TA2) mice, like human pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC), often occurs in pregnancy and puerperium, especially in mice with high gravidity. We hypothesized that the dysfunction of cellular immunity caused by the increase of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) might be one of ...
Vlková Barbora - - 2010
Although preeclampsia represents a major threat for many pregnant women, the pathogenesis of this complication is far from being clear. Recent studies suggest that preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder. Auto-antibodies against angiotensin receptor might explain some of the pathologic findings associated with preeclampsia. However, the origin of the autoimmune reaction ...
D'Uva Maristella - - 2010
Emerging data seem to be available also on the role of active thromboprophylaxis with heparin and pregnancy outcome. In the last decades we found many data concerning the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). First studies which focused ...
Tilburgs T - - 2010
Maternal lymphocytes at the fetal-maternal interface play a key role in the immune acceptance of the allogeneic fetus. Most studies focus on decidual NK cells and their interaction with fetal trophoblasts, whereas limited data are available on the mechanisms of fetus specific immune recognition and immune regulation by decidual T ...
Parker Victoria J - - 2010
Stress profoundly compromises reproduction, particularly when experienced in early gestation. One outcome is pregnancy failure: although glucocorticoids have adverse effects it is not clear what their role in pregnancy failure is. However, secretion of vital hormones such as progesterone and prolactin are reduced and this unbalances the delicate and important ...
Paulesu Luana - - 2010
The story of cytokines in pregnancy began about 30 years ago, approximately in concomitance with the understanding that cytokines are autocrine-paracrine regulators of physiological processes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are predominant in the early and late events of gestation, e.g. pregnancy establishment and parturition, both of which have been described as inflammatory-like ...
Check J H - - 2010
PURPOSE: To present data suggesting that active immunization with lymphocyte immunotherapy is a treatment that has benefit in preventing miscarriage. METHODS: Lymphocyte immunotherapy is given to women with a history of recurrent miscarriage or failure to achieve a successful pregnancy, despite several previous embryo transfers. Active immunization was combined with ...
Vazquez Juan C - - 2010
Constipation, heartburn, and haemorrhoids are common gastrointestinal complaints during pregnancy. Constipation occurs in 11% to 38% of pregnant women. Although the exact prevalence of haemorrhoids during pregnancy is unknown, the condition is common, and the prevalence of symptomatic haemorrhoids in pregnant women is higher than in non-pregnant women. The incidence ...
D'Uva Maristella - - 2010
In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment ...
de Mestre Amanda - - 2010
Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, ...
Taglauer Elizabeth S ES Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, - - 2010
The genetic disparity between the mother and fetus has long enticed immunologists to search for mechanisms of maternal tolerance to fetal antigens. The study of antigen-specific tolerance in murine and human pregnancy has gained new momentum in recent years through the focus on antigen-presenting cells, uterine lymphatics and fetal antigen-specific ...
Stavrou Evi - - 2009
Management of immune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy can be a complex and challenging task and may be complicated by fetal-neonatal thrombocytopenia. Although fetal intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of immune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy, invasive studies designed to determine the fetal platelet count before delivery are associated with greater risk than ...
Schmatz M - - 2010
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in our patients who are of childbearing age, with pregnant patients of normal weight being in the minority. The pregnancy-related complications attributable to obesity affect not only the pregnant women, but also her fetus and potentially both mother and child for their lifetimes. Pregnancy is ...
Corrao Simona - - 2010
This article is about Hsp10 and its intracellular and extracellular forms focusing on the relationship of the latter with Early Pregnancy Factor and on their roles in cancer and immunity. Cellular physiology and survival are finely regulated and depend on the correct functioning of the entire set of proteins. Misfolded ...
Husebekk Anne - - 2009
The purpose of the review is to argue for and against introduction of HPA-1 typing of all pregnant women to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Several groups have done HPA-1 typing in cohorts of pregnant women. Results from a Norwegian study (>100,000 pregnancies) indicate that ...
Shou ZhangFei - - 2009
Elucidation of maternal-fetal tolerance mechanisms clarifies the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in transplant tolerance. This study aim to investigate the effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival. Flow cytometry techniques, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR), PCR, real-time PCR and skin transplantation were key methods. Treg increased significantly from ...
Prescott Susan L - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pregnancy is arguably the most critical period of developmental programming. Here, we particularly focus on the emerging paradigm that disease propensity is epigenetically determined by maternal exposures that have the capacity to activate or silence fetal genes through alterations in DNA and histone methylation, histone acetylation, and ...
Lyttle Brianna - - 2009
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential mediators of host immunity. TLR activation must be tightly regulated to prevent an exaggerated immune response from devastating the host. These studies assessed the expression of negative regulators (interleukin receptor-associated kinase [IRAK]-3, IRAK-1, Fas-associated protein with death domain) during pregnancy and in preterm birth (PTB). ...
Saito Erina - - 2009
As the fetus expresses paternal major histocompatibility complex molecules, viviparous vertebrates require sophisticated mechanisms to modulate maternal immunology to ensure successful pregnancy. We anticipated that ovarian cavity fluid (OCF) is likely to feature significantly in the modulation of ovarian cavity immunology. Consequently, we examined the effects of OCF upon leukocyte ...
Hunt Joan S - - 2009
In human pregnancies mothers and their embryo/fetuses are invariably genetically different. Thus, attenuation of the adaptive maternal immune response, which is programmed to reject 'foreign' entities, is required for pregnancy to be initiated and maintained. Unexpectedly, given the propensity of the immune system to dispose of non-self entities, at least ...
Sandberg Martina - - 2009
Type 2 T-helper cell (Th2)-skewed immunity is associated with successful pregnancy and the ability to easily direct immune responses to a Th2-polarised profile may be an evolutionary benefit. The Th2-like immunity associated with allergic disease might generate favourable effects for the maintenance of pregnancy, but could also promote development of ...
Niino Masaaki - - 2009
The disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is known to be ameliorated during pregnancy, and pregnancy is also found to be protective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Estrogen levels increase during pregnancy and basic researches have shown that estrogens have immunomodulatory effects on immune cells. ...
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