Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1311
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Coleman Tim - - 2007
Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes significant fetal morbidity and is a public health problem, as 36% of women in the UK and 11% of those in the US smoke during pregnancy. Behavioural support for smoking cessation, provided outside of routine antenatal care, is effective for promoting smoking cessation by pregnant ...
Clausen H V - - 2007
The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of nitric oxide converting enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and endothelin-1 (Et-1) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental tissue, and to demonstrate a difference in staining intensity between heavy smokers and non-smokers. Term placentas from pregnancies from otherwise healthy women smoking 15 or more cigarettes ...
Cardy A H - - 2007
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a common developmental disorder of the foot, affecting between 1 and 4.5 per 1000 live births. The aetiology is not well elucidated. While both genetic and environmental factors are implicated, no specific genes have been identified and little is known about environmental risk factors. We ...
Coleman Tim - - 2007
Smoking in pregnancy remains a public health challenge. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective for smoking cessation in non-pregnant people, but because women metabolise nicotine and cotinine much faster in pregnancy, it is unclear whether this will be effective for smoking cessation in pregnancy. The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme ...
Langley Kate K Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. - - 2007
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types ...
Shaheen S O SO Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health Group, National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College, London, - - 2007
In mice, androgens downregulate Th2 cytokine responses, but whether androgen levels during pregnancy might influence the development of allergy in the offspring has not been studied. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnancies, we related maternal blood total testosterone ...
Dunstan J A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy. DESIGN: A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Perth, Western Australia, Australia. PATIENTS: 98 pregnant women received the supplementation ...
Luppi Patrizia - - 2007
During pregnancy, cigarette smoke exposure, a common environmental insult, is damaging to both mother and fetus and is associated with pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of injury is not understood. We hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy interferes with the normal physiological adaptation of the maternal immune system. We ...
Whyatt Robin M - - 2007
Residential insecticide use is widespread in the United States, but few data are available on the persistence and variability in levels in the indoor environment. The study aim was to assess within- and between-home variability in indoor-air insecticides over the final 2 months of pregnancy among a cohort of African-American ...
Zampino Maria Rosaria - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopic data of melanocytic nevi (MN) in pregnancy are very limited and related to small groups of women. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically analyzes dermoscopic parameters in a wide series of MN during and after pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty-six MN on the back of 47 women were studied. Dermoscopic parameters, total ...
Pratt Travis C - - 2006
A growing body of empirical literature has emerged examining the somewhat inconsistent relationship between maternal cigarette smoking (MCS) during pregnancy and children's subsequent antisocial behavior. To systematically assess what existing studies reveal regarding MCS as a criminogenic risk factor for offspring, the authors subjected this body of literature to a ...
Jensen T K - - 2006
Several studies have examined the effect of in utero exposure to smoking and fecundity among the offspring but the findings are contradictory. We therefore studied the waiting time to first pregnancy (TTP) and exposure to smoking in utero and childhood among Danish twins born between 1931 and 1952. Information about ...
Al Mamun Abdullah - - 2006
To examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the development of smoking behaviour patterns among young adult offspring. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a birth cohort of 7223 mothers and children enrolled in Brisbane, Australia, in 1981. The development of smoking behaviours ...
Leary Sam D SD Department of Community-Based Medicine, University of Bristol, 24, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United - - 2006
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with obesity in the offspring, but findings have been based mainly on BMI, which is derived from height and weight. This study examined the association between maternal and partner smoking during pregnancy and offspring total fat, truncal fat, and lean ...
Bø Kari - - 2007
The aims of the present study were to assess the number of women performing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy and to compare the background variables in those exercising and in those who did not. Four hundred and sixty-seven pregnant women (response rate 84%), mean age 31.5 years (range ...
Shankar Anoop - - 2007
Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a ...
Elsenbruch S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The goal was to study the effects of social support during pregnancy on maternal depressive symptoms, quality of life and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-six women were prospectively studied in the first trimester of pregnancy and following completion of the pregnancy. The sample was divided into quartiles yielding ...
Soares S R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has long been known to have an effect on female fertility. The existence of an ovarian factor is clear when one considers that the mean age of the menopause is lower and IVF cycle outcome is worse in heavy smokers. The hypothesis of a concomitant uterine effect ...
Bailey Beth A BA Department of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University, P.O. Box 70621, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA, - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to examine background and modifiable pregnancy health behavior factors predicting infant birthweight in an economically and educationally disadvantaged sample with low medical risk. PARTICIPANTS were recruited from a family practice center in rural Appalachia. Over 220, predominantly Caucasian and lower SES women with ...
Brook David W - - 2006
This study's objective was to examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood aggressive behavior in African-American and Puerto Rican children, as well as the relationship between maternal unconventional behavior, low maternal affection, and offspring aggression. Participants consisted of African-American and Puerto Rican children (N = 203; mean ...
Rice Frances F Department Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK. - - 2007
Events during pregnancy and labour may influence the future health and well-being of offspring. Many studies rely on maternal reports of pre and peri-natal factors. Both maternal and child characteristics may potentially influence the reliability and accuracy of maternal recall. However, this has not been previously examined. To examine agreement ...
Christensen Jakob - - 2006
We assessed the concentration of the oxcarbazepine metabolite 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD) in nine pregnancies among seven women before, during, and after pregnancy. The mean dose-corrected concentration of MHD was decreased during pregnancy (analysis of variance, p = 0.0016), being 72% (SD = 13%) in the first trimester, 74% (SD = 17%) ...
Suellentrop Katherine - - 2006
Certain modifiable maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy are associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and her infant (e.g., physical abuse, insufficient folic acid consumption, smoking during pregnancy, and improper infant sleep position). Information about these behaviors and experiences is needed to monitor trends in ...
Mc Millan H - - 2006
This was a questionnaire-based study of 151 postnatal women. We found 42% of women were smokers prior to pregnancy and only 37% of these women succeeded in quitting smoking during pregnancy. Success in quitting was significantly related to the number of cigarettes smoked (p<0.05). However, 71% of pregnant smokers were ...
Olafsdottir A S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction of smoking status and dietary intake during pregnancy and its relationship to maternal weight gain and birth size parameters. DESIGN: An observational prospective study. SETTING: Free-living conditions. POPULATION: Four hundred and eight healthy pregnant Icelandic women. METHODS: Maternal smoking status, lifestyle factors and dietary habits ...
Shushan Sagit - - 2006
Previous studies overestimated the incidence of pregnancy-associated rhinitis because it is a poorly defined clinical condition. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of this unique type of rhinitis using up-to-date strict criteria. This prospective study included 109 primigravida parturients who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire ...
Raatikainen Kaisa - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal risk profile and pregnancy outcome of women who continued to smoke, reduced smoking to less than five cigarettes per day or did not smoke during pregnancy. METHODS: We analyzed a population-based database of 26,414 singleton pregnancies from 1989 to 2001. Odds ratios (ORs) for adverse pregnancy ...
Radpour Ramin - - 2007
Hypospadias (a urethral orifice located along the ventral side of the penis) and cryptorchidism (failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sacs) are the 2 most common congenital malformations in males, affecting 0.3%-0.7% and 2%-4%, respectively, at birth. To study the association of CAG/GGN trinucleotide repeats in the ...
Taylor G Malcolm - - 2006
Maternal smoking during pregnancy inhibits fetal growth, and is a major cause of childhood and adult morbidity, including increased risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, the use of birthweight as a proxy for future smoking-related morbidity is hindered by its wide variability, suggesting a role for other birthweight-modifying factors. ...
Morgan Maria A - - 2006
To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' opinions of preconception care (PCC) and ascertain patient uptake for this service. A questionnaire was mailed to 1105 ACOG members in August 2004. There was a 60% response rate. Most physicians think PCC is important (87%) and almost always recommend it to women planning a pregnancy (94%); ...
Lambe Mats M Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2006
Smoking during pregnancy has been suggested to have long-term consequences for neuropsychologic development in the offspring, including behavioral problems, attention deficit disorders, and antisocial behavior. Also, findings from several studies indicate an association with impaired cognitive function in the children. In a population-based Swedish cohort study, we examined possible associations ...
Batty G David GD Medical Research Council, Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, United Kingdom. - - 2006
Numerous studies have reported that maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is related to lower IQ scores in the offspring. Confounding is a crucial issue in interpreting this association. In the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, IQ was ascertained serially during childhood using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the ...
Keyler D E - - 2006
Vaccination against nicotine to elicit the production of nicotine-specific antibodies is a potential treatment for tobacco addiction which reduces nicotine distribution from serum to brain. Vaccination of pregnant rats also reduces the distribution of maternally-administered nicotine to the fetal brain. Whether this is due to maternal antibody reducing the transfer ...
Clifford Tammy J - - 2006
Factors associated with full breastfeeding (FBF) at 1 week and at 6 months postpartum were examined in a cohort of 856 mother-infant dyads. Questionnaires were mailed at 4 time points over the first 6 months postpartum. At 1 week, 68% of infants were FBF; at 6 months, 23% were FBF. ...
Nakamoto Tsuyoshi - - 2006
Although smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for preterm delivery, the underlying mechanism by which smoking stimulates uterine contractions is still poorly understood. In the present study, we tried to clarify the effects of smoking on myometrial contractility induced by oxytocin (OT) using cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Myometrial ...
Zalacain Marta - - 2006
Up to 20% of pregnant women smoke and there is indirect evidence that certain tobacco-specific metabolites can cross the placental barrier and are genotoxic to the fetus. The presence of micronuclei results from chromosome damage and reflects the degree of underlying genetic instability. Fetal blood was obtained from the cord ...
Kyrklund-Blomberg Nina B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the impact of maternal smoking on arterial stiffness in utero, pulse wave characteristics in the fetal aorta were investigated. A prospective clinical study was made of 34 smoking and 34 non-smoking healthy volunteers with uncomplicated pregnancies at 31-40 weeks of gestation. METHODS: The mechanical properties ...
Lazaridis M - - 2006
Indoor/outdoor measurements have been performed in the Oslo metropolitan area during summer and winter periods (2002-2003) at two different residential houses. The objective of the measurement study was to characterize, physically and chemically, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants associated with actual human exposure in the selected places, and ...
St Leger Dowse M - - 2006
No human data, investigating the effects on the fetus of diving, have been published since 1989. We investigated any potential link between diving while pregnant and fetal abnormalities by evaluating field data from retrospective study No.1 (1990/2) and prospective study No.2 (1996/2000). Some 129 women reported 157 pregnancies over 1,465 ...
Thorup J - - 2006
PURPOSE: Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptorchidism, decreasing semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer. These changes seem to be interrelated, and may be symptoms of a common underlying entity with foundations in fetal life. We investigated the influence of maternal smoking on fertility status in ...
Lundin K B - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The human androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two polymorphisms of CAG and GGN repeats respectively. The GGN repeat function is still largely unknown and to date there are no in vivo data on this segment with respect to the general population. METHODS: We investigated the impact of CAG and ...
Salesse C - - 2006
Enzymatic starch granule hydrolysis is one of the most important reactions in many industrial processes. In this study, we investigated the capacity of sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) to monitor the amylolysis of a bimodal starch population: native wheat starch. Results demonstrated a correlation between fractogram changes and enzymatic hydrolysis. ...
Dornelas Ellen A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Rates of cigarette smoking are higher among women who receive obstetric care through publicly funded prenatal clinics. This study compared smoking outcomes for pregnant women (n=105) who were randomized to receive either usual care (standard cessation advice from the health care provider) or an intervention conducted in the prenatal ...
Wright K P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is widely believed to be associated with decreased fecundity in naturally conceiving populations; however, the effect of female smoking on pregnancy outcomes in patients undergoing IVF is unclear. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 389 consecutive patients undergoing first cycle IVF was performed. Outcomes of peak estradiol (E(2)) ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic, medical, and substance use factors associated with smoking continuation during pregnancy. METHODS: Data from 221 consecutive prenatal patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 67% who were pre-pregnancy smokers (n=148), 27% quit during pregnancy, whereas another 43% reduced by > 1/4 pack/day. Women who continued to smoke ...
Bolukbas Filiz F - - 2006
AIM: To define the risk factors in gallstone and sludge formation, and to investigate the incidence of gallstone and biliary sludge formation during pregnancy in a group of healthy pregnant women. METHODS: Sixty-nine healthy pregnant women in early gestation and 28 nulliparous healthy controls were enrolled. Gallbladder volumes, gallbladder ejection ...
Chainani-Wu Nita - - 2006
This study was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of pilocarpine, bethanechol and cevimeline in patients with xerostomia. In this open-label crossover assessment in 20 patients with xerostomia, a one- to two-week course of each medication with a one-week washout period was prescribed. Side effects, symptoms, whole ...
Rigotti Nancy A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Reducing tobacco use in pregnancy is a public health priority. Brief smoking counseling during prenatal care is effective but generates modest cessation rates. Telephone counseling is an effective smoking cessation method that could offer pregnant women convenient access to more intensive smoking cessation counseling. METHODS: The efficacy of proactive ...
Leary Sam S Unit of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Department of Community-Based Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TQ, - - 2006
The objective of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring height and its components. The analysis was based on 6,340 white singletons born in 1991-1992 and enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), who had maternal smoking data recorded ...
Rizwan S - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to high fetal testosterone (FT), and an increased risk in offspring for autism, ADHD, conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour and criminal outcomes. The ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D) is thought to be negatively related to FT concentration, and ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >