Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1314
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Villalbí Joan R - - 2007
Exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is an important risk factor for infant health. Recently the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has declined in our area. The objective of this study was to analyse the association between several social variables and the fetal exposure to smoking, as well as the association ...
Koopman Laura - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) are used to perform subgroup analyses and to study whether the analytical methods regarding subgroup analyses differ between IPDMA and conventional meta-analyses (CMA). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: IPDMA were identified with a comprehensive literature search, subsequently, CMA on similar research questions ...
Fernando Dinusha - - 2007
To measure exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in New Zealand bars before and after comprehensive smoke-free legislation enacted on 10 December 2004. Cotinine is the main specific metabolite of nicotine and a well-established biomarker for SHS exposure. We measured cotinine levels in saliva of non-smoking volunteers before and after a ...
Triche Elizabeth Westerlund EW Yale Women & Children's Center for Blood Disorders, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. - - 2007
Adverse pregnancy outcome from environmental factors may include congenital anomalies, increased risk for miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and still birth. Apart from adverse pregnancy outcome, there may be effects on the other reproductive functions, like menstrual disorders and infertility. Environmental factors which have been implicated in adverse pregnancy ...
Bor Serhat - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) during pregnancy are accepted as an innocent condition. The effect of heartburn during pregnancy on the initiation or progress of GERD is not known. We aimed to determine the predisposition effect of heartburn during pregnancy for presenting with GERD in the ...
Cameron E Leslie - - 2007
Although considerable anecdotal evidence suggests that pregnancy affects olfactory sensitivity, scientific evidence is limited and inconclusive. Whereas hedonic ratings are affected by pregnancy, odor identification is not. The aim of the current study was to examine odor perception in women across pregnancy and in the postpartum period. One hundred nonsmoking ...
Håberg Siri E - - 2007
Compelling evidence suggests a causal relation between parental smoking during and after pregnancy and adverse effects on respiratory health in the offspring. The authors' aim in this study was to disentangle the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking on early childhood respiratory health. Most parents who smoke during pregnancy continue ...
Lesage Mark G - - 2007
RATIONALE: Because of the adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy, understanding the factors that influence maternal smoking may help in developing better treatments to help women quit smoking during pregnancy. Animal models could be useful for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to begin the development ...
Toro Roberto - - 2008
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with long-term consequences on offspring behavior. We measured thickness of the cerebral cortex using magnetic resonance images obtained in 155 adolescents exposed in utero to maternal smoking and compared them with 159 non-exposed subjects matched by maternal education. Orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and parahippocampal cortices were ...
Delpisheh A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, and small for gestational ...
Jauniaux Eric - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the transfer pathways of folic acid inside the first-trimester gestational sac and to evaluate the impact of maternal smoking. STUDY DESIGN: Folate and cotinine levels were evaluated in maternal serum (n = 125) and coelomic fluid (n = 42), and immunostaining ...
Cornelius Marie D MD University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. - - 2007
We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, ...
Giglia R C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sociodemographic factors associated with cigarette smoking in women before, during and after pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 12-month longitudinal study. METHOD: All eligible mothers at two public maternity hospitals in Perth, Australia were asked to participate in a study of infant feeding. While in hospital, participating mothers ...
Strömland Kerstin - - 2007
Swedish patients with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum participated in a prospective multidisciplinary investigation. The aims of the study were to describe their systemic and functional defects, especially autism spectrum disorders, and to search for possible etiologic risk factors. Available medical records were studied and the mothers answered a questionnaire on ...
da Veiga Paula Veloso - - 2008
There is accumulated evidence of the existence of a deleterious effect of smoking on birth outcomes. Understanding the effect of smoking on pregnancy is a critical issue because of the public policy implications for dissuading maternal smoking. We explore this issue by using the propensity score method and compare that ...
Sellström Eva - - 2008
Socioeconomic factors in the neighbourhood are associated with smoking habits in various populations. We studied a 10-year cohort to determine whether women's smoking behaviour during pregnancy can similarly be determined by neighbourhood economic and ethnic factors. The cohort included 127,074 primiparous pregnant women in 592 Swedish neighbourhoods during the years ...
Julvez Jordi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Active maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with a higher risk of behavioural disorders in children, but a few cohort studies measuring smoking data prospectively have studied its specific effects on the cognitive abilities of pre-schoolers. METHOD: A birth cohort was set up in Menorca Island in 1997 ...
Köhler E - - 2007
Meconium samples collected from 115 neonates were analysed for nicotine, cotinine and trans -3-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify prenatal smoke exposure. The self-reported maternal smoking status during pregnancy was determined by means of a questionnaire and verified by measurements in urine prior to childbirth. ...
Peltier Morgan R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is decreased by smoking, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to determine whether this association is dependent on decreased fetal growth. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort study in the United States was performed consisting of nulliparous women who delivered a singleton ...
Everett Kevin D - - 2007
Men's health risk behaviors are rarely considered as a component of their partners' prenatal care. Men living with a pregnant partner completed telephone surveys at two time points, during pregnancy and postpartum, answering questions about tobacco and alcohol use behaviors and other sociodemographic variables. Men's smoking did not change significantly ...
Gatzke-Kopp Lisa M LM Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195-1525, USA. - - 2007
The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from mother to ...
Bulik Cynthia M CM Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7160, USA. - - 2007
We explored the course of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 41,157 pregnant women, enrolled at approximately 18 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. We collected ...
Mytton O T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of benzyl benzoate lotion (BBL) and permethrin, topical treatments for scabies, during pregnancy. DESIGN: A retrospective controlled cohort study. POPULATION: Refugee and migrant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) on the Thai-Burmese border between August 1993 and April 2006. METHODS: Women treated with either BBL (25%) ...
Rubegni Pietro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have tried to clarify how pregnancy influences the morphology of pigmented skin lesions (PSL). Our purpose was to objectively determine, by digital dermoscopy analysis (DDA), any dermoscopic changes of acquired melanocitic nevi during pregnancy and after 1 year from delivery. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy pregnant women and ...
Morris Melanie - - 2007
This study used the data from a retrospective cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy in a large UK sample, over more than 20 years of pregnancies. The main objective was to determine whether women in their second or subsequent pregnancy are more or less likely than ...
Solomon Laura J LJ Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0134, USA. - - 2007
Postpartum relapse is common among women who stop smoking during pregnancy. We examined predictors of postpartum relapse in 87 women who quit smoking during pregnancy, 48% of whom relapsed by 6 months postpartum. We also explored the circumstances surrounding their first postpartum cigarette. Multivariate analyses revealed that having more friends/family ...
Pachlopnik Schmid Jana M - - 2007
Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with respiratory diseases in the offspring, possibly due to prenatal influences on the developing immune system. We investigated whether maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with cord blood leukocyte numbers, including precursor dendritic cells, adjusting for concomitant factors. In a prospective healthy birth cohort ...
Dukic Vanja M - - 2007
Studies of effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes frequently acquire both self-report and biological assays of maternal smoking. However, little attention has been paid to methods for combining information from both sources to enhance the precision of exposure measurement. This paper analyzes the relationship between the two commonly used measures ...
Williams Tanishia A TA Department of Neurology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2007
To test whether polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (GSTP1) act in the mother during pregnancy to contribute to the phenotype of autistic disorder (AD) in her fetus. Transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT) in case mothers and maternal grandparents. Autistic disorder may result from multiple genes and environmental factors acting ...
Dean T T The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight, UK. - - 2007
In 1998, the UK government issued precautionary advice that pregnant or breast-feeding women with a family history of atopy, may wish to avoid eating peanuts during pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to assess the compliance with this recommendation and investigate its impact upon peanut sensitization. A total of 858 ...
Stewart Frances - - 2007
Transfer of fatty acids from mother to fetus during pregnancy is a requirement for optimal fetal growth. We report a longitudinal study of full maternal erythrocyte fatty acid profile assessed at each trimester of pregnancy [mean 12.5 (range 8-14), 26.1 (24-28) and 35.5 (33-38) weeks' gestation] and in the post ...
Northstone K K Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2008
To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified ...
Ramlau-Hansen Cecilia Høst - - 2007
A few studies indicate that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal life decreases semen quality in adult life, but the results are inconsistent and retrospectively collected smoking data were used in most studies. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 of 5,109 sons were selected according to their ...
Uehara Ritei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The relation between the levels of dioxins in human breast milk and the smoking habits of the mothers is controversial. To clarify this relationship, we analyzed data from the human milk survey in Japan. METHODS: The human milk survey has been conducted in Japan since 1997. Healthy pregnant women ...
Korres Stavros - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Maternal tobacco smoking has negative effects on fetal growth. The influence of smoking during pregnancy on the developing cochlea has not been estimated, although smoking has been positively associated with hearing loss in adults. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternal smoking on transient ...
Jaddoe Vincent W V - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of maternal smoking in pregnancy with development of cholesterol levels from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured annually from 1975 to 1993 and in 2002 in 350 subjects aged 5-19 years at baseline who ...
Mohr Christine - - 2007
Animals turn away from the hemisphere with the more active dopamine (DA) system. For humans, a similar relationship has been assumed, albeit that side preferences obtained from different measures are inconsistent. Given the important role of DA on human behaviour and cognition, a stable human turning measure is of significant ...
Pavić Lugović Lenija - - 2007
The aim of study was to examine the importance of foetus body mass prepartal assessment in normal term pregnancy. The study comprised 254 pregnant women with single pregnancy, without congenital anomalies, residing in urban (Zagreb) and small towns (Samobor, Jastrebarsko). Higher birth mass was measured in male than in female ...
Okah Felix A - - 2007
This retrospective cohort study examines the relationship between changing pregnancy-smoking behaviors, from the first to the second pregnancy, on second-pregnancy rates of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Electronic birth records provided data on 5107 pregnant women who had two singleton births in Kansas City, MO, from 1994 to 2003. ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, as well as the association between both physical and psychological IPV and negative health behaviors, including smoking, other substance use, inadequate prenatal care utilization, and nutrition, in a rural ...
Angelier Frédéric - - 2007
Because endocrine mechanisms are thought to mediate behavioral responses to changes in the environment, examining these mechanisms is essential for understanding how long-lived seabirds adjust their foraging decisions to contrasting environmental conditions in order to maximize their fitness. In this context, the hormone corticosterone (CORT) deserves specific attention because of ...
Olsen S F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university ...
Figueras F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the biological factors affecting birthweight and to derive customized birthweight standards for a Spanish population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was created with all the singleton pregnancies delivered at term and free of pathology in our Institution. Birthweight was modeled by multiple linear regression from maternal (ethnic origin, ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2007
Human diseases in adulthood are increasingly associated with growth patterns in early life, implicating early-life nutrition as the underlying mechanism. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposed that early-life metabolic adaptations promote survival, with the developing organism responding to cues of environmental quality by selecting an appropriate trajectory of growth. Recently, some ...
Roza Sabine J - - 2007
Nicotine, as has been shown in animal studies, is a neuroteratogen, even in concentrations that do not cause growth retardation. In humans, there is only indirect evidence for negative influences of nicotine on brain development from studies on the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and behavioural and cognitive development ...
Harrison M J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The overall status in rheumatoid arthritis (OSRA) instrument is a simple summary of health status, including disease activity (OSRA-A) and damage (OSRA-D) scores. Despite evidence of the validity of the OSRA, uptake has been low. This study aimed to assess the responsiveness and re-examine the validity of the OSRA ...
Cowperthwaite B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal smoking on fetal spontaneous behavior and auditory processing. METHODS: 38 fetuses of smoking (n=18) and non-smoking (n=20) mothers, stratified by gestational age (<37, >or=37 weeks GA), were examined at least 1h following smoking. Observations included spontaneous fetal heart rate (FHR; 20 min) and ...
Collier Sarah A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the effect of modifiable risk factors on low birth weight and two of its sequelae-cerebral palsy and mental retardation. METHODS: The population attributable risk percent (PARP) was used as a measure of effect. A literature search was conducted to determine estimates of the percent of CP and ...
Dowling Terence - - 2007
The health of future generations, both physical and psychological, depends upon good parental and early environment, free particularly from malnutrition, toxins and undue stress. Education about these negative influences is urgent, especially to encourage childbearing women in a healthy diet and lifestyle. The detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in pregnancy ...
Bergsjø Per - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is causally related to birthweight, but we do not know whether fetal growth restriction is a continuous process or, if not, at what stage of pregnancy it affects weight gain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A random sample of para 1 and 2 mothers, drawn from the ...
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