Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1291
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Rubegni Pietro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have tried to clarify how pregnancy influences the morphology of pigmented skin lesions (PSL). Our purpose was to objectively determine, by digital dermoscopy analysis (DDA), any dermoscopic changes of acquired melanocitic nevi during pregnancy and after 1 year from delivery. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy pregnant women and ...
Morris Melanie - - 2007
This study used the data from a retrospective cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy in a large UK sample, over more than 20 years of pregnancies. The main objective was to determine whether women in their second or subsequent pregnancy are more or less likely than ...
Solomon Laura J - - 2007
Postpartum relapse is common among women who stop smoking during pregnancy. We examined predictors of postpartum relapse in 87 women who quit smoking during pregnancy, 48% of whom relapsed by 6 months postpartum. We also explored the circumstances surrounding their first postpartum cigarette. Multivariate analyses revealed that having more friends/family ...
Pachlopnik Schmid Jana M - - 2007
Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with respiratory diseases in the offspring, possibly due to prenatal influences on the developing immune system. We investigated whether maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with cord blood leukocyte numbers, including precursor dendritic cells, adjusting for concomitant factors. In a prospective healthy birth cohort ...
Dukic Vanja M - - 2007
Studies of effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes frequently acquire both self-report and biological assays of maternal smoking. However, little attention has been paid to methods for combining information from both sources to enhance the precision of exposure measurement. This paper analyzes the relationship between the two commonly used measures ...
Williams Tanishia A TA Department of Neurology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2007
To test whether polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (GSTP1) act in the mother during pregnancy to contribute to the phenotype of autistic disorder (AD) in her fetus. Transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT) in case mothers and maternal grandparents. Autistic disorder may result from multiple genes and environmental factors acting ...
Dean T T The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight, UK. - - 2007
In 1998, the UK government issued precautionary advice that pregnant or breast-feeding women with a family history of atopy, may wish to avoid eating peanuts during pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to assess the compliance with this recommendation and investigate its impact upon peanut sensitization. A total of 858 ...
Stewart Frances - - 2007
Transfer of fatty acids from mother to fetus during pregnancy is a requirement for optimal fetal growth. We report a longitudinal study of full maternal erythrocyte fatty acid profile assessed at each trimester of pregnancy [mean 12.5 (range 8-14), 26.1 (24-28) and 35.5 (33-38) weeks' gestation] and in the post ...
Northstone K K Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2008
To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified ...
Ramlau-Hansen Cecilia Høst - - 2007
A few studies indicate that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal life decreases semen quality in adult life, but the results are inconsistent and retrospectively collected smoking data were used in most studies. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 of 5,109 sons were selected according to their ...
Uehara Ritei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The relation between the levels of dioxins in human breast milk and the smoking habits of the mothers is controversial. To clarify this relationship, we analyzed data from the human milk survey in Japan. METHODS: The human milk survey has been conducted in Japan since 1997. Healthy pregnant women ...
Korres Stavros - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Maternal tobacco smoking has negative effects on fetal growth. The influence of smoking during pregnancy on the developing cochlea has not been estimated, although smoking has been positively associated with hearing loss in adults. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternal smoking on transient ...
Jaddoe Vincent W V - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of maternal smoking in pregnancy with development of cholesterol levels from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured annually from 1975 to 1993 and in 2002 in 350 subjects aged 5-19 years at baseline who ...
Mohr Christine - - 2007
Animals turn away from the hemisphere with the more active dopamine (DA) system. For humans, a similar relationship has been assumed, albeit that side preferences obtained from different measures are inconsistent. Given the important role of DA on human behaviour and cognition, a stable human turning measure is of significant ...
Pavić Lugović Lenija - - 2007
The aim of study was to examine the importance of foetus body mass prepartal assessment in normal term pregnancy. The study comprised 254 pregnant women with single pregnancy, without congenital anomalies, residing in urban (Zagreb) and small towns (Samobor, Jastrebarsko). Higher birth mass was measured in male than in female ...
Okah Felix A - - 2007
This retrospective cohort study examines the relationship between changing pregnancy-smoking behaviors, from the first to the second pregnancy, on second-pregnancy rates of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Electronic birth records provided data on 5107 pregnant women who had two singleton births in Kansas City, MO, from 1994 to 2003. ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, as well as the association between both physical and psychological IPV and negative health behaviors, including smoking, other substance use, inadequate prenatal care utilization, and nutrition, in a rural ...
Angelier Frédéric - - 2007
Because endocrine mechanisms are thought to mediate behavioral responses to changes in the environment, examining these mechanisms is essential for understanding how long-lived seabirds adjust their foraging decisions to contrasting environmental conditions in order to maximize their fitness. In this context, the hormone corticosterone (CORT) deserves specific attention because of ...
Olsen S F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university ...
Figueras F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the biological factors affecting birthweight and to derive customized birthweight standards for a Spanish population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was created with all the singleton pregnancies delivered at term and free of pathology in our Institution. Birthweight was modeled by multiple linear regression from maternal (ethnic origin, ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2007
Human diseases in adulthood are increasingly associated with growth patterns in early life, implicating early-life nutrition as the underlying mechanism. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposed that early-life metabolic adaptations promote survival, with the developing organism responding to cues of environmental quality by selecting an appropriate trajectory of growth. Recently, some ...
Roza Sabine J - - 2007
Nicotine, as has been shown in animal studies, is a neuroteratogen, even in concentrations that do not cause growth retardation. In humans, there is only indirect evidence for negative influences of nicotine on brain development from studies on the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and behavioural and cognitive development ...
Harrison M J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The overall status in rheumatoid arthritis (OSRA) instrument is a simple summary of health status, including disease activity (OSRA-A) and damage (OSRA-D) scores. Despite evidence of the validity of the OSRA, uptake has been low. This study aimed to assess the responsiveness and re-examine the validity of the OSRA ...
Cowperthwaite B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal smoking on fetal spontaneous behavior and auditory processing. METHODS: 38 fetuses of smoking (n=18) and non-smoking (n=20) mothers, stratified by gestational age (<37, >or=37 weeks GA), were examined at least 1h following smoking. Observations included spontaneous fetal heart rate (FHR; 20 min) and ...
Collier Sarah A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the effect of modifiable risk factors on low birth weight and two of its sequelae-cerebral palsy and mental retardation. METHODS: The population attributable risk percent (PARP) was used as a measure of effect. A literature search was conducted to determine estimates of the percent of CP and ...
Dowling Terence - - 2007
The health of future generations, both physical and psychological, depends upon good parental and early environment, free particularly from malnutrition, toxins and undue stress. Education about these negative influences is urgent, especially to encourage childbearing women in a healthy diet and lifestyle. The detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in pregnancy ...
Bergsjø Per - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is causally related to birthweight, but we do not know whether fetal growth restriction is a continuous process or, if not, at what stage of pregnancy it affects weight gain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A random sample of para 1 and 2 mothers, drawn from the ...
Lynch Ann-Maree - - 2007
Maternal submaximal aerobic fitness (PWC170) was measured before, during, and after 12 weeks of swimming training during the second trimester of pregnancy in 23 sedentary women. For comparison, 11 women maintained their normal activities, but did not swim. Training sessions were 3 times per week for 40 min, producing heart ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2007
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants have recently been found to contaminate humans in the United States and other countries. U.S. human breast milk and blood levels of PBDEs are presently the highest in the world. U.S. cord blood samples tested positive for PBDEs, but until now there have ...
Kafkas Samet - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The effect of smoking on the activated protein C (APC) ratio in normal gestation was systematically investigated. The frequency of acquired APC resistance (APCR) in the smoking and non-smoking subjects with normal follow-up of pregnancy and the outcome observed in these two groups were documented. STUDY DESIGN: A total ...
Coleman Tim - - 2007
Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes significant fetal morbidity and is a public health problem, as 36% of women in the UK and 11% of those in the US smoke during pregnancy. Behavioural support for smoking cessation, provided outside of routine antenatal care, is effective for promoting smoking cessation by pregnant ...
Clausen H V - - 2007
The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of nitric oxide converting enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and endothelin-1 (Et-1) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental tissue, and to demonstrate a difference in staining intensity between heavy smokers and non-smokers. Term placentas from pregnancies from otherwise healthy women smoking 15 or more cigarettes ...
Cardy A H - - 2007
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a common developmental disorder of the foot, affecting between 1 and 4.5 per 1000 live births. The aetiology is not well elucidated. While both genetic and environmental factors are implicated, no specific genes have been identified and little is known about environmental risk factors. We ...
Coleman Tim - - 2007
Smoking in pregnancy remains a public health challenge. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective for smoking cessation in non-pregnant people, but because women metabolise nicotine and cotinine much faster in pregnancy, it is unclear whether this will be effective for smoking cessation in pregnancy. The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme ...
Langley Kate K Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. - - 2007
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types ...
Shaheen S O SO Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health Group, National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College, London, - - 2007
In mice, androgens downregulate Th2 cytokine responses, but whether androgen levels during pregnancy might influence the development of allergy in the offspring has not been studied. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnancies, we related maternal blood total testosterone ...
Dunstan J A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy. DESIGN: A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Perth, Western Australia, Australia. PATIENTS: 98 pregnant women received the supplementation ...
Luppi Patrizia - - 2007
During pregnancy, cigarette smoke exposure, a common environmental insult, is damaging to both mother and fetus and is associated with pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of injury is not understood. We hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy interferes with the normal physiological adaptation of the maternal immune system. We ...
Whyatt Robin M - - 2007
Residential insecticide use is widespread in the United States, but few data are available on the persistence and variability in levels in the indoor environment. The study aim was to assess within- and between-home variability in indoor-air insecticides over the final 2 months of pregnancy among a cohort of African-American ...
Zampino Maria Rosaria - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopic data of melanocytic nevi (MN) in pregnancy are very limited and related to small groups of women. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically analyzes dermoscopic parameters in a wide series of MN during and after pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty-six MN on the back of 47 women were studied. Dermoscopic parameters, total ...
Pratt Travis C - - 2006
A growing body of empirical literature has emerged examining the somewhat inconsistent relationship between maternal cigarette smoking (MCS) during pregnancy and children's subsequent antisocial behavior. To systematically assess what existing studies reveal regarding MCS as a criminogenic risk factor for offspring, the authors subjected this body of literature to a ...
Jensen T K - - 2006
Several studies have examined the effect of in utero exposure to smoking and fecundity among the offspring but the findings are contradictory. We therefore studied the waiting time to first pregnancy (TTP) and exposure to smoking in utero and childhood among Danish twins born between 1931 and 1952. Information about ...
Al Mamun Abdullah - - 2006
To examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the development of smoking behaviour patterns among young adult offspring. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a birth cohort of 7223 mothers and children enrolled in Brisbane, Australia, in 1981. The development of smoking behaviours ...
Leary Sam D SD Department of Community-Based Medicine, University of Bristol, 24, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United - - 2006
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with obesity in the offspring, but findings have been based mainly on BMI, which is derived from height and weight. This study examined the association between maternal and partner smoking during pregnancy and offspring total fat, truncal fat, and lean ...
Bø Kari - - 2007
The aims of the present study were to assess the number of women performing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy and to compare the background variables in those exercising and in those who did not. Four hundred and sixty-seven pregnant women (response rate 84%), mean age 31.5 years (range ...
Shankar Anoop - - 2007
Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a ...
Elsenbruch S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The goal was to study the effects of social support during pregnancy on maternal depressive symptoms, quality of life and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-six women were prospectively studied in the first trimester of pregnancy and following completion of the pregnancy. The sample was divided into quartiles yielding ...
Soares S R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has long been known to have an effect on female fertility. The existence of an ovarian factor is clear when one considers that the mean age of the menopause is lower and IVF cycle outcome is worse in heavy smokers. The hypothesis of a concomitant uterine effect ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine background and modifiable pregnancy health behavior factors predicting infant birthweight in an economically and educationally disadvantaged sample with low medical risk. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a family practice center in rural Appalachia. Participants: Over 220, predominantly Caucasian and lower ...
Brook David W - - 2006
This study's objective was to examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood aggressive behavior in African-American and Puerto Rican children, as well as the relationship between maternal unconventional behavior, low maternal affection, and offspring aggression. Participants consisted of African-American and Puerto Rican children (N = 203; mean ...
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