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Gilman Stephen E SE Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2008
There remains considerable debate regarding the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on children's growth and development. Evidence that exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with numerous adverse outcomes is contradicted by research suggesting that these associations are spurious. The authors investigated the relation between maternal smoking during ...
Bahmanyar Shahram - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The causes of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease are largely unknown, but this pediatric disease seems to result from interruption of the blood supply to the proximal femur and is considered a vascular disease. Because maternal smoking during pregnancy influences fetal development and is associated with cardiovascular diseases in offspring, we hypothesized ...
Fu Chaowei - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in new mothers living in urban Shanghai. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three communities of Shanghai from June 2005 to August 2006. A total of 950 new mothers with infants aged 5-8 ...
Darabaneanu S - - 2008
Increased negative amplitudes and lack of habituation of contingent negative variation (CNV) in migraine are well established and are supposed to reflect an altered cortical excitability level. Migraine attacks occur less during pregnancy but often relapse after delivery. We investigated the effect of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials and reaction ...
Adams Kathleen E - - 2008
Declines in prenatal smoking rates have changed the composition of maternal smokers while public policy during the 1990s has likely made it more difficult to reach them. Medicaid expansions during the 1980s/early 1990s insured more women some time during pregnancy, but the 1996 welfare reform unexpectedly reduced enrollment in Medicaid ...
Berg Carla J - - 2008
Women who quit smoking during pregnancy gain more weight than women who continue to smoke. Concern about weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation in the general population, but whether attitudes about weight are associated with failure to stop smoking during pregnancy or to maintain abstinence postpartum is unknown. ...
Gillum R F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Data from a national health survey were used to test the hypothesis of a negative association of smoking in pregnancy and three measures of religious participation and importance. METHODS: The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth included 2395 women aged 15 to 44 years with a history of at ...
Arbuckle Tye E - - 2008
An international workshop titled "Assessing Endocrine-Related Endpoints within the First Years of Life" was held 30 April-1 May 2007, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Representatives from a number of pregnancy cohort studies in North America and Europe presented options for measuring various endocrine-sensitive endpoints in early life and discussed issues related ...
Simard Julia F JF Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2008
Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with asthma, obesity, and decreased cognitive functioning in the offspring. To study the role of in utero smoking exposure in offsprings' adult health outcomes, it may be necessary to rely upon reports by the offspring themselves. We studied 34,949 mother-daughter pairs participating in the ...
Jeyabalan Arun - - 2008
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is paradoxically associated with a reduced risk of developing preeclampsia. Both smoking and preeclampsia are associated with alterations in circulating angiogenic factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and the angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental ...
Detmar Jacqui - - 2008
Maternal cigarette smoking is considered an important risk factor associated with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known constituents of cigarette smoke, and the effects of acute exposure to these chemicals at different gestational stages have been well established in a variety of laboratory animals. In ...
Pauly James R - - 2008
Abstract The adverse effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, approximately 25% of women of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. Women ...
Kayemba-Kay's Simon - - 2008
Low birth weight (BW), small head circumference, reduced length, increased preterm births and neuro-endocrine dysfunctions are among known consequences of smoking during pregnancy. Few studies have linked leptin to clinical features of growth restriction associated with maternal smoking and explored interaction with other determinants of size at birth, such as ...
Heil Sarah H - - 2008
AIMS: This study examined whether voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) contingent upon smoking abstinence during pregnancy is an effective method for decreasing maternal smoking during pregnancy and improving fetal growth. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-condition, parallel-groups, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a university-based research clinic. A total of 82 ...
Crawford Julie T - - 2008
Smoking cessation in pregnancy has been shown to reduce low birth weight, preterm birth, and infant morbidities. The effectiveness and safety profile of current cessation approaches in pregnancy are presented. The highest cessation rates are associated with counseling and behavioral interventions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and ...
Haskins Amy - - 2008
PURPOSE: Studies of smoking during pregnancy and preterm birth among Hispanic women are sparse. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking during pre-pregnancy, early pregnancy, and mid pregnancy on preterm birth among Hispanic women, the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. METHODS: We evaluated data ...
Kaneko Akiyo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and childbirth can act as strong factors motivating parents to spontaneously quit smoking. The aim of the present survey was to establish smoking cessation guidelines for this group. The objectives were to clarify the smoking status of parents before, during and after pregnancy, as well as the factors ...
Kong Grace W S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: While the prevalence of young female smokers is rising among the Hong Kong Chinese population, data on their smoking pattern during pregnancy are limited. AIMS: To investigate the smoking habit of Hong Kong Chinese women and their partners during pregnancy. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to 479 couples to ...
Weaver Kathryn - - 2008
Pregnancy smoking remains a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 10.2% of women smoke during pregnancy, placing their offspring at increased risk for adverse perinatal and childhood outcomes. However, little is known about contextual influences on pregnancy smoking. This study examines the intimate social context, broader social ...
Eades Sandra - - 2008
AIM: To explore the causal pathways leading to poor birth outcomes among a cohort of Aboriginal infants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews conducted 6-12 weeks post partum and links to the WA Midwives' Notification System. Two hundred and seventy-three Aboriginal infants and their ...
Abrevaya Jason - - 2008
We examined the trends and determinants of second-pregnancy smoking behavior among Michigan young-adult mothers who smoked during their first pregnancy (N = 14,731). Maternally linked Michigan birth certificate data (1989-2004) were used to identify first and second pregnancies for young-adult mothers. ZIP code data were merged with census data to ...
Burns Lucy - - 2008
Using a retrospective cross-sectional study design, we examined smoking patterns and associated neonatal outcomes in infants born to women with a diagnosis of a substance use disorder in pregnancy. Antenatal and birth admissions were linked to midwives data on pregnancy care, services, and outcomes over a 5-year period (1998-2002). Birth ...
Mendez Michelle A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite being associated with lower birth weight, maternal smoking in the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring overweight in several studies. To date, only one study has examined whether smoking in the first trimester only, which is not associated with birth weight, ...
Brion Marie-Jo A MJ Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PR, United Kingdom. - - 2008
Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: ...
Bullock Linda - - 2009
We tested the effect of nurse-delivered telephone individualized social support ("Baby BEEP") and eight mailed prenatal smoking cessation booklets singly and in combination (2 x 2 factorial design) on smoking cessation in low-income rural pregnant women (N = 695; 75% participation). Participants randomized to Baby BEEP groups (n = 345) ...
Martin Laurie T - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To use recent, national data to examine correlates of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy; quitting smoking during pregnancy; and relapsing by 24 months postpartum. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression models used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort and accounted for relevant socio-demographic, clinical, and contextual covariates. RESULTS: ...
Sonneborn Dean - - 2008
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were widely used for industrial purposes and consumer products, but because of their toxicity, production was banned by most industrialised countries in the late 1970s. In eastern Slovakia, they were produced until 1985. During 2002-04, a birth cohort of mothers (n = 1057) residing in two Slovak ...
Franchini Mario - - 2008
AIM: We investigated foetal exposure to cigarette smoke following maternal active and passive smoking at the end of the pregnancy in a cohort of mother-infant dyads after recent implementation of the Italian smoke-free legislation and information campaigns against smoking. METHODS: Study subjects were 979 mothers and their newborns attended at ...
Agostoni C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of maternal smoking on the status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in infants' whole-blood lipids. DESIGN: A case-control matched study planned on the basis of preliminary observations. SETTING: Maternity ward. Patients: A total of 159 healthy, term, breastfed infants with weight appropriate for gestational ...
Gillman Matthew W - - 2008
Several modifiable pre- and postnatal determinants of childhood overweight are known, but no one has examined how they influence risk of overweight in combination. We estimated the risk of overweight at age 3 years according to levels of maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, breastfeeding duration, and infant sleep ...
Baler Ruben D - - 2008
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable illness in the world today. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is a particularly insidious form because so many of its associated health effects befall the unborn child and produce behavioural outcomes that manifest themselves only years later. Among these are the associations between ...
Jedrychowski Wieslaw - - 2009
While the validity of self-reported smoking habits is generally judged as satisfactory, objective markers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure may be more useful in validating the causal links between prenatal SHS and health effects. The cohort study in Krakow provided an opportunity for comparative assessment of fetal exposure to SHS ...
Gürsoy Mervi - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pregnancy has been presented to increase susceptibility to gingival inflammation. It is unclear whether pregnancy gingivitis exposes or proceeds to periodontitis. We examined longitudinally the severity of periodontal changes during pregnancy and post-partum, and compared the findings with an age-matched group of non-pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ...
Mitsiakos George - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental researches have linked smoking to disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Several potential mechanisms are incriminated involving inflammation, fibrinogen synthesis and clotting factors. Based on the fact that the majority of tobacco components cross the placental barrier, the objective of our current study is to investigate the ...
Hawkins Summer Sherburne SS Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH. - - 2008
To compare health behaviours during pregnancy (smoking and alcohol consumption) and after birth (initiation and duration of breast feeding) between British/Irish white mothers and mothers from ethnic minority groups; and, in mothers from ethnic minority groups, to examine whether indicators of acculturation (generational status, language spoken at home, length of ...
Koren Gideon - - 2008
A large number of smoking women cannot quit their habit when they become pregnant. Preliminary evidence suggests an enhanced nicotine clearance rate in late pregnancy. To evaluate the change in nicotine metabolism in late pregnancy, we undertook a prospective cohort study of a large, diverse group of pregnant women recruited ...
Pickett K E KE Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Seebohm Rowntree Building, Area 3, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK. - - 2008
Smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with risk of problem behaviour in offspring. There is debate about whether this association reflects a teratological effect or is a marker for problematic maternal characteristics. We test these "competing" hypotheses by examining whether (1) exposure is associated with an early risk pathway ...
Shapiro Eugene D ED Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8064, USA. - - 2008
Because the incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury (inflicted TBI) is low, even in populations at increased risk, very large samples are necessary to have adequate statistical power to conduct a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of a potential intervention to prevent inflicted TBI. This requirement for large samples, ...
Glover Marewa - - 2008
AIM: This study examined New Zealand general practitioners' (GPs) and midwives' smoking cessation knowledge and support offered to pregnant women who smoke. METHOD: Postal survey of a random sample of 776 New Zealand GPs and midwives, undertaken between September and October 2006. RESULTS: Responses were received from 39% (147/376) GPs ...
Patten Christi A CA Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Charlton 6-273, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
This study examined the rate of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco [ST]) at three time points: during the 3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum among Alaska Native women residing in the Y-K Delta region of Western Alaska. A retrospective, non-randomized observational cohort design ...
Hensch Tilman - - 2008
Transcription factor AP-2beta may influence brain monoaminergic systems by regulating target genes. Several monoaminergic genes, including the serotonin transporter gene, have AP-2beta binding sites. Late auditory-evoked potentials (P1, N1/P2) and impulsiveness-related personality traits are correlated, and both are modulated by monoaminergic neurotransmission. The present study assesses the impact of two ...
Wood Lisa - - 2008
Despite active tobacco control efforts in Australia, smoking prevalence remains disproportionately high in pregnant Indigenous women. This study investigated the place of smoking in pregnancy and attitudes towards smoking within the broader context of Indigenous lives. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from 40 women, and ...
Cooper Amber R - - 2008
There are numerous health concerns regarding tobacco smoke. Yet, only recently have researchers extensively explored the association between tobacco smoke and a woman's inability to conceive. Whether exposure occurs in utero, during pregnancy, or throughout the reproductive years, it can affect all facets of fertility and lead to diminished ovarian ...
Coleman Tim - - 2008
In addition to the health risks that maternal tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy poses to women, this is a cause of substantial fetal morbidity and mortality. In pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoke exposure can arise because women either smoke or are passively exposed to environmental tobacco smoke as a consequence of ...
Cotter Trish - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: One aim of the anti-tobacco mass media campaigns in NSW is to increase the numbers of smokers calling the Quitline to seek assistance to quit. METHODS: Investigation of the relationship between the weight of television advertising (Target Audience Rating Points: TARPs) and number of calls to the Quitline. RESULTS: ...
Urato Adam C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cell-free DNA is a marker of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. We wished to determine if maternal smoking affects maternal and fetal serum cell-free DNA levels. METHODS: Case-control sets of stored second-trimester serum-screening samples from 27 smoking and 90 nonsmoking pregnant women were developed. Smoking status was confirmed by measuring ...
Jaddoe Vincent W V - - 2008
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between active and passive smoking in different periods of pregnancy and changing smoking habits during pregnancy, with low birthweight and preterm birth. The study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early fetal life ...
McLaren Emma - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to measure and analyse noise levels over a 24-h period on five general surgical wards. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Noise levels were measured on three wards with four bays of six beds each (wards A, B and C), one ward of side-rooms only (ward D) and ...
Liguori Antonio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy enhances the susceptibility to atherosclerosis in their offspring by oxidation-dependent mechanisms. The present study investigated whether maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level, which is an indicator of inflammation and cardiovascular risk, or smoking, which enhances oxidative stress, predict the in utero programming of atherosclerosis. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Miron Pierre - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of maternal smoking on first-trimester prenatal screening results for Down syndrome and trisomy 18. METHODS: Data on maternal smoking status, maternal age, gestational dating, levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in maternal blood and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) ...
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