Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1293
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Weaver Kathryn - - 2008
Pregnancy smoking remains a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 10.2% of women smoke during pregnancy, placing their offspring at increased risk for adverse perinatal and childhood outcomes. However, little is known about contextual influences on pregnancy smoking. This study examines the intimate social context, broader social ...
Eades Sandra - - 2008
AIM: To explore the causal pathways leading to poor birth outcomes among a cohort of Aboriginal infants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews conducted 6-12 weeks post partum and links to the WA Midwives' Notification System. Two hundred and seventy-three Aboriginal infants and their ...
Abrevaya Jason - - 2008
We examined the trends and determinants of second-pregnancy smoking behavior among Michigan young-adult mothers who smoked during their first pregnancy (N = 14,731). Maternally linked Michigan birth certificate data (1989-2004) were used to identify first and second pregnancies for young-adult mothers. ZIP code data were merged with census data to ...
Burns Lucy - - 2008
Using a retrospective cross-sectional study design, we examined smoking patterns and associated neonatal outcomes in infants born to women with a diagnosis of a substance use disorder in pregnancy. Antenatal and birth admissions were linked to midwives data on pregnancy care, services, and outcomes over a 5-year period (1998-2002). Birth ...
Mendez Michelle A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite being associated with lower birth weight, maternal smoking in the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring overweight in several studies. To date, only one study has examined whether smoking in the first trimester only, which is not associated with birth weight, ...
Brion Marie-Jo A MJ Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PR, United Kingdom. - - 2008
Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: ...
Bullock Linda - - 2009
We tested the effect of nurse-delivered telephone individualized social support ("Baby BEEP") and eight mailed prenatal smoking cessation booklets singly and in combination (2 x 2 factorial design) on smoking cessation in low-income rural pregnant women (N = 695; 75% participation). Participants randomized to Baby BEEP groups (n = 345) ...
Martin Laurie T - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To use recent, national data to examine correlates of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy; quitting smoking during pregnancy; and relapsing by 24 months postpartum. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression models used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort and accounted for relevant socio-demographic, clinical, and contextual covariates. RESULTS: ...
Sonneborn Dean - - 2008
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were widely used for industrial purposes and consumer products, but because of their toxicity, production was banned by most industrialised countries in the late 1970s. In eastern Slovakia, they were produced until 1985. During 2002-04, a birth cohort of mothers (n = 1057) residing in two Slovak ...
Franchini Mario - - 2008
AIM: We investigated foetal exposure to cigarette smoke following maternal active and passive smoking at the end of the pregnancy in a cohort of mother-infant dyads after recent implementation of the Italian smoke-free legislation and information campaigns against smoking. METHODS: Study subjects were 979 mothers and their newborns attended at ...
Agostoni C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of maternal smoking on the status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in infants' whole-blood lipids. DESIGN: A case-control matched study planned on the basis of preliminary observations. SETTING: Maternity ward. Patients: A total of 159 healthy, term, breastfed infants with weight appropriate for gestational ...
Gillman Matthew W - - 2008
Several modifiable pre- and postnatal determinants of childhood overweight are known, but no one has examined how they influence risk of overweight in combination. We estimated the risk of overweight at age 3 years according to levels of maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, breastfeeding duration, and infant sleep ...
Baler Ruben D - - 2008
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable illness in the world today. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is a particularly insidious form because so many of its associated health effects befall the unborn child and produce behavioural outcomes that manifest themselves only years later. Among these are the associations between ...
Jedrychowski Wieslaw - - 2009
While the validity of self-reported smoking habits is generally judged as satisfactory, objective markers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure may be more useful in validating the causal links between prenatal SHS and health effects. The cohort study in Krakow provided an opportunity for comparative assessment of fetal exposure to SHS ...
Gürsoy Mervi - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pregnancy has been presented to increase susceptibility to gingival inflammation. It is unclear whether pregnancy gingivitis exposes or proceeds to periodontitis. We examined longitudinally the severity of periodontal changes during pregnancy and post-partum, and compared the findings with an age-matched group of non-pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ...
Mitsiakos George - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental researches have linked smoking to disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Several potential mechanisms are incriminated involving inflammation, fibrinogen synthesis and clotting factors. Based on the fact that the majority of tobacco components cross the placental barrier, the objective of our current study is to investigate the ...
Hawkins Summer Sherburne - - 2008
To compare health behaviours during pregnancy (smoking and alcohol consumption) and after birth (initiation and duration of breast feeding) between British/Irish white mothers and mothers from ethnic minority groups; and, in mothers from ethnic minority groups, to examine whether indicators of acculturation (generational status, language spoken at home, length of ...
Shapiro Eugene D - - 2008
Because the incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury (inflicted TBI) is low, even in populations at increased risk, very large samples are necessary to have adequate statistical power to conduct a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of a potential intervention to prevent inflicted TBI. This requirement for large samples, ...
Koren Gideon - - 2008
A large number of smoking women cannot quit their habit when they become pregnant. Preliminary evidence suggests an enhanced nicotine clearance rate in late pregnancy. To evaluate the change in nicotine metabolism in late pregnancy, we undertook a prospective cohort study of a large, diverse group of pregnant women recruited ...
Pickett K E KE Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Seebohm Rowntree Building, Area 3, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK. - - 2008
Smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with risk of problem behaviour in offspring. There is debate about whether this association reflects a teratological effect or is a marker for problematic maternal characteristics. We test these "competing" hypotheses by examining whether (1) exposure is associated with an early risk pathway ...
Glover Marewa - - 2008
AIM: This study examined New Zealand general practitioners' (GPs) and midwives' smoking cessation knowledge and support offered to pregnant women who smoke. METHOD: Postal survey of a random sample of 776 New Zealand GPs and midwives, undertaken between September and October 2006. RESULTS: Responses were received from 39% (147/376) GPs ...
Patten Christi A CA Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Charlton 6-273, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
This study examined the rate of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco [ST]) at three time points: during the 3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum among Alaska Native women residing in the Y-K Delta region of Western Alaska. A retrospective, non-randomized observational cohort design ...
Hensch Tilman - - 2008
Transcription factor AP-2beta may influence brain monoaminergic systems by regulating target genes. Several monoaminergic genes, including the serotonin transporter gene, have AP-2beta binding sites. Late auditory-evoked potentials (P1, N1/P2) and impulsiveness-related personality traits are correlated, and both are modulated by monoaminergic neurotransmission. The present study assesses the impact of two ...
Wood Lisa - - 2008
Despite active tobacco control efforts in Australia, smoking prevalence remains disproportionately high in pregnant Indigenous women. This study investigated the place of smoking in pregnancy and attitudes towards smoking within the broader context of Indigenous lives. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from 40 women, and ...
Cooper Amber R - - 2008
There are numerous health concerns regarding tobacco smoke. Yet, only recently have researchers extensively explored the association between tobacco smoke and a woman's inability to conceive. Whether exposure occurs in utero, during pregnancy, or throughout the reproductive years, it can affect all facets of fertility and lead to diminished ovarian ...
Coleman Tim - - 2008
In addition to the health risks that maternal tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy poses to women, this is a cause of substantial fetal morbidity and mortality. In pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoke exposure can arise because women either smoke or are passively exposed to environmental tobacco smoke as a consequence of ...
Cotter Trish - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: One aim of the anti-tobacco mass media campaigns in NSW is to increase the numbers of smokers calling the Quitline to seek assistance to quit. METHODS: Investigation of the relationship between the weight of television advertising (Target Audience Rating Points: TARPs) and number of calls to the Quitline. RESULTS: ...
Urato Adam C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cell-free DNA is a marker of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. We wished to determine if maternal smoking affects maternal and fetal serum cell-free DNA levels. METHODS: Case-control sets of stored second-trimester serum-screening samples from 27 smoking and 90 nonsmoking pregnant women were developed. Smoking status was confirmed by measuring ...
Jaddoe Vincent W V - - 2008
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between active and passive smoking in different periods of pregnancy and changing smoking habits during pregnancy, with low birthweight and preterm birth. The study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early fetal life ...
McLaren Emma - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to measure and analyse noise levels over a 24-h period on five general surgical wards. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Noise levels were measured on three wards with four bays of six beds each (wards A, B and C), one ward of side-rooms only (ward D) and ...
Liguori Antonio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy enhances the susceptibility to atherosclerosis in their offspring by oxidation-dependent mechanisms. The present study investigated whether maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level, which is an indicator of inflammation and cardiovascular risk, or smoking, which enhances oxidative stress, predict the in utero programming of atherosclerosis. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Miron Pierre - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of maternal smoking on first-trimester prenatal screening results for Down syndrome and trisomy 18. METHODS: Data on maternal smoking status, maternal age, gestational dating, levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in maternal blood and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) ...
Post Ann - - 2008
Retrospective reports of smoking in pregnancy are of importance for clinical or scientific purposes. Careful analyses of stability and accuracy of recalled behaviour are, therefore, needed. In 1998, the mothers of 2369 pre-teens born in Sweden retrospectively reported their smoking behaviour during the first trimester of the index pregnancy. We ...
Shi Min - - 2008
A spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and birth defects has been linked with maternal smoking during pregnancy. This article includes a review of studies investigating interactions between genetic variants and maternal smoking in contributing to birth defects using oral clefting as a model birth ...
Webbink Dinand - - 2008
This paper analyses the causal effect of teenage childbearing on smoking, drinking and body size using a sample of Australian twins and their relatives. Fixed effects estimates on samples of siblings, all twin pairs and identical twin pairs show that teenage mothers smoke more during their lives. Teen mothers tend ...
Kajiwara Natsuko - - 2008
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs ...
Pipkin F Broughton - - 2008
We studied phenotypic and clinical outcome data in an observational, multicenter cohort study of 1001 Western European white women and their singleton babies, with stringently defined moderate-to-severe preeclampsia. Ninety women admitted to being current smokers; 71 had stopped smoking before entry to the study. Across the categories of never-smoker, stopped, ...
Obel Carsten - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where smoking is not acceptable. This will ...
Shea Alison K - - 2008
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with several adverse developmental outcomes in the offspring. These include preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), as well as long-term behavioral and psychiatric disorders. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms for these ill-effects are not fully understood. ...
Kishi Reiko - - 2008
There is increasing evidence from epidemiological studies that genetic susceptibilities may modify the teratogenic effects of toxic chemicals. However, in contrast to tobacco smoke, few epidemiological studies have addressed environmental chemicals, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in regard to genetic susceptibility. Recent studies, including the Hokkaido ...
Triche E W - - 2008
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy continues to be a significant public health concern. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with low birth weight (<2500 g), fetal growth restriction, placental problems, pre-term delivery and spontaneous abortion. Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are twice as likely to give birth to low birth ...
Dickinson Kathryn C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Clubfoot is one of the most common major birth defects, with a prevalence of approximately 1 per 1,000 live births. The etiology of clubfoot is complex and not well understood, and yet, few epidemiologic studies of risk factors have been conducted. Maternal smoking has been suggested as a possible ...
Aliyu Muktar H - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of advanced maternal age and smoking in pregnancy on fetal survival have previously been reported. However, whether advanced maternal age modifies the relationship between smoking in pregnancy and intrapartum stillbirth remains unknown. We therefore set out to determine the impact of advanced maternal age (> or =35 ...
Esposito Emily R - - 2008
Maternal/fetal genetic constitution and environmental factors are vital to delivery of a healthy baby. In the United States (US), a low birth weight (LBW) baby is born every minute and a half. LBW, defined as weighing less than 5.5 lbs at birth, affects nearly 1 in 12 infants born in ...
Sasaki Seiko - - 2008
Maternal smoking during pregnancy can result in both pregnancy complications and reduced size of the fetus and neonate. Among women who smoke, genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke also is a likely causative factor in adverse pregnancy outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 460 pregnant women who delivered live ...
Bhalla R K - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence in adults of pharyngeal and laryngeal symptoms associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids. DESIGN: Prospective, observational and based on a structured, specifically designed postal questionnaire. SETTING: University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK. PARTICIPANTS: The questionnaire was distributed to 190 patients on the basis of current ...
Jang John - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. METHODS: Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through ...
Duijts Liesbeth - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and in the postnatal period with respiratory tract infections in young infants. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards. All data were assessed by questionnaires. Maternal smoking was ...
Sajid Khan Mohammad - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products ...
Wendland Eliana M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is a prevalent disease associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Smoking as been associated with glucose intolerance during pregnancy in some but not all studies. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review all epidemiological evidence to examine the association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and risk of developing ...
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