Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1294
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Cucó G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify dietary patterns in women who are planning immediate pregnancy in preconception, weeks 6, 10, 26 and 38 of pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum, and to describe how particular lifestyles, the body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic factors are associated to these patterns. DESIGN: Longitudinal study throughout the ...
Alati Rosa - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Asthma in early childhood has been associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental smoking soon after birth. However, less is known about these exposures and the development of asthma symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: Data were taken from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy, a large birth cohort study ...
Tower C - - 2006
In 2003, the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene was found to be associated with infants small for gestational age (SGA). The present study of 107 pregnancies affected by SGA infants and 101 normal pregnancies was designed to further investigate this association. Maternal or fetal AGT genotype or haplotype frequencies did not differ ...
Farkas Svetlana - - 2006
Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically ...
Kiernan Kathleen - - 2006
One of the dramatic recent changes in family life in Western nations has been the rise in non-marital childbearing. Much of this increase is attributable to the growth in cohabitation. But in some countries, notably the UK (and the USA) this is much less the case with significant proportions of ...
Farrell S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that associations between periodontal disease and systemic conditions may be because of the confounding effects of smoking. In addition, studies of this type rarely investigate the adverse pregnancy outcome of miscarriage. AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a relationship between periodontal ...
Britt David W - - 2006
The purpose was to examine the organizational impact of a state-wide high-risk pregnancy telemedical system, Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System (ANGELS), after the first year of its roll out. The focus is on several aspects of system organization, including the volume and diversity of patient-based telemedical consultations ...
Munafò M R - - 2006
We explored the influence of maternal smoking during late pregnancy on the likelihood of smoking among offspring in adolescence and adulthood, using birth cohort data collected in the United Kingdom as part of the 1958 National Child Development Study. Longitudinal analysis indicated that maternal smoking during late pregnancy was associated ...
Ichiba M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Humans are exposed to various carcinogens by smoking. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), one of the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, were measured as the environmental carcinogen exposure marker for humans. We evaluated urinary exposure markers for smoking cessation. METHOD: In this study, we measured cigarette smoke ...
Li LinYing - - 2006
Weather condition is one of the most important factors affecting spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants, especially for short-term air dispersion. Abnormal weather conditions might lead to higher or lower ambient air concentrations than they would be under normal weather conditions. Therefore, testing for normality of weather conditions during ...
Kutlu Türkan - - 2006
Previous studies on Cd-exposed pregnant animals have reported a Cd-Zn interaction that result in increased placental Cd levels and decreased placental Zn transport. In this study, placental Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn status in pregnant women exposed to Cd and Pb through cigarette smoke was investigated. Placental tissues obtained from ...
Man Li-Xing - - 2006
The U.S. Natality database from 2001 and 2002 was used to investigate the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of having a child with polydactyly, syndactyly, or adactyly. The records of 6,839,854 live births were examined to identify 5171 newborns with isolated polydactyly, syndactyly, or adactyly ...
Castrucci Brian C - - 2006
To describe the range of risk reduction behaviors among women who continue to smoke after learning of their pregnancy, including reduced tobacco use, eventual cessation, and sustained abstinence as well as the patient-reported smoking cessation-promoting behaviors of prenatal care providers. This research is part of a larger prospective, community-based study ...
Rasmussen Svein - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is well known that smoking and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) are associated with decreased fetal growth. It has been reported that in preeclampsia the fetal growth deficit attributable to smoking is higher, which has been contradicted in other studies. We therefore evaluated the effects on fetal growth of ...
Nielsen Ann - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of spontaneous ...
Clare Stuart - - 2006
Room temperature (RT) shims are used routinely in MRI to remove global and local B(0) field inhomogeneity introduced by the subject. Most clinical scanners use only second-order spherical harmonic terms, but with the increasing availability of very high field systems, third- and fourth-order terms are a serious consideration. However, choosing ...
Hobbs Charlotte A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the association between congenital heart defects (CHD), and maternal homocysteine, smoking, and the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma homocysteine concentrations, smoking status, and MTFHR 677 genotypes were determined in 275 white women who had pregnancies affected by CHDs and 118 white ...
O'Sullivan S M - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is an uncommon condition characterized by the occurrence of fracture(s) during late pregnancy or the puerperium. The aetiology is uncertain, and its management and natural history poorly defined. METHODS: We report a series of 11 women with PLO seen at our institution over the ...
Liu Jihong - - 2006
We examined the association between breastfeeding duration and maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy. Data from the 2000-2001 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System were used. Early weaning was defined as not breastfeeding at 10 weeks postpartum. At 10 weeks after pregnancy, 25.7% of mothers who initiated breastfeeding no ...
Ventegodt S?ren - - 2005
This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL) of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out ...
Strinić Tomislav - - 2005
The aim of this study was to describe anthropometric, clinical, socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of pregnant smokers in comparison to pregnant nonsmokers. During years 1999-2003, 1,435 pregnant smokers and 4,772 pregnant nonsmokers were interviewed after delivery with a questionnaire. They were recorded clinical, anthropometric and socio-demographic data, smoking status, ...
Jelen Karel - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aim is data detection and finding some load consequences generated by various mechanical or physiological changes in the interaction of the end segment of the body--the foot--and the environment. DESIGN: Shape instability of the foot caused by e.g. loading of the foot by long-term frequency loads--walking, by extreme ...
Gunderson Erica P - - 2005
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women are differentially affected by exogenous sex hormones depending on their apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotype. Because endogenous sex hormones markedly increase during pregnancy, we examined whether HDL-C declines after a first birth varied by apo E polymorphisms. In 1147 nulliparas ...
Langley K K Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. - - 2005
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder which affects between 3% and 5% of school aged children. Despite much research, little is known regarding the aetiology of the disorder. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a number of negative effects in offspring in ...
Yang Qiuying - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have found that maternal smoking decreases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), the difference of this effect between primiparous and multiparous women has not been well studied and the results of the exposure-response relationships between maternal smoking and PIH are inconsistent. No previous study has specifically ...
Delpisheh Ali - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking amongst pregnant adolescents is a preventable risk factor associated with low birthweight (<2,500 g), preterm birth (<37 weeks) and infant mortality. The aim of this study was to compare birth outcomes of adolescents who smoke during pregnancy with those who do not and to construct their birthweight-for-gestational-age ...
Lonsdorf Elizabeth V - - 2006
This paper explores the role of maternal influences on the acquisition of a tool-using task in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in order to build on and complement previous work done in captivity. Young chimpanzees show a long period of offspring dependency on mothers and it is during this period ...
Moazzez R - - 2005
Regurgitated acid entering the mouth in gastro-esophageal reflux disease can cause dental erosion. Chewing gum could induce increased swallowing frequency, thus improving the clearance rate of reflux within the esophagus. The null hypothesis of this study was that chewing gum does not have any effect on the clearance of reflux ...
Salvatore S - - 2005
The etiology of allergy is multifactorial, with many variables contributing to the final expression of atopic disease. Three breeding grounds are needed to develop allergic disease: the appropriate genetic background, contact with the allergen(s) and environmental factors. Timing and dosing of allergen(s) are of major importance. Contact with (dietary) allergens ...
Bernstein Ira M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking has been associated with a reduction in newborn birth weight. We sought to estimate how the pattern of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy influences newborn size. METHODS: One hundred sixty pregnant smoking women were enrolled in a prospective study. We collected data on maternal age, education, prepregnancy body ...
Carlsen Sven M - - 2005
AIM: To investigate whether maternal caffeine consumption is associated with increased maternal homocysteine (Hcy) levels in uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Ninety-two pregnant women were randomly selected, and maternal serum levels of folate, vitamin B(12), and Hcy at gestational weeks 17 and 33 were measured. Caffeine consumption was estimated from dietary records ...
Nekhayeva Ilona A - - 2005
The adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on fetal development are, in part, due to nicotine. These effects may be due to the actions of nicotine in fetal circulation or on placental functions. In pregnant rats, vaccination with a nicotine immunogen reduces the transfer of nicotine from the maternal to ...
Chow G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The medicinal benefits of Echinacea sp. plants in several disease conditions, including insect bites, respiratory ailments, and even cancer and AIDS, have been touted for decades. Echinacea sp.-based phytoceuticals are among the top selling herbals in the Western marketplace today. However, evidence is very scant concerning the effects of ...
Uncu Yesim - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate maternal and paternal smoking habits during pregnancy and determine their correlation with pregnancy complications and newborn status. METHODS: The study included 499 pregnant women who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Uludag University School of Medicine, over a period of one year. Women were ...
- - 2005
Smoking is one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment has been proven to increase quit rates. For pregnant women who are light to moderate smokers, a short counseling session ...
Kim Insook - - 2005
Nicotine is rapidly and extensively metabolized in humans and negatively impacts the developing fetus. The concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (hydroxycotinine), and norcotinine in pregnant smokers' oral fluid were evaluated to determine usefulness as biomarkers of cigarette smoking. Sixteen participants were divided into two groups: eight light smokers (LS) who ...
Chiolero Arnaud - - 2005
To study the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age birth weight (SGA) and preterm birth, and to quantify the population-attributable fractions for these outcomes in Switzerland. Data were gathered for all births in the Canton of Vaud (Switzerland) over a twelvemonth period in 1993-1994. ...
Karmaus Wilfried - - 2005
Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) has been shown to reduce the duration of breast feeding in two studies. In addition to duration, we examined whether DDE lowers the initiation of breast feeding. Between 1973 and 1991, the Michigan Department of Community Health conducted three surveys to assess polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDE ...
Okah Felix A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pregnancy-smoking rates have changed in last decade. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 67,395 pregnancies in Kansas City over 2 epochs, 1993-1997 and 1998-2002, using computer files of birth certificates. RESULTS: Overall pregnancy-smoking rates decreased from 18.1% (95% CI=17.7-18.5%) to 14.2% (13.8-14.5%). Among smokers, there was a ...
Denolle Thierry - - 2005
To determine values for home blood pressure (HBP) during pregnancy, nurses taught 45 healthy pregnant women to use a HBP method for 1 week before 15 weeks of gestation, between weeks 15 and 27, and after 28 weeks for the last 3 months of gestation. HBP values were significantly lower ...
Spencer Nick - - 2006
Smoking in pregnancy is a major determinant of low birthweight and a range of adverse infant health outcomes. There is a well-established social gradient in smoking in pregnancy in the US and northern Europe. Social gradients in health-related behaviours may result from longitudinal accumulation and cross-sectional clustering of social risk ...
Ussher Michael - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: During pregnancy, the uptake of smoking cessation courses is very low. We assessed perceived barriers to and benefits of attending a cessation course during pregnancy. METHODS: A decisional-balance questionnaire was devised, including 10 statements reflecting benefits of attending a cessation course and 10 statements of barriers to attendance. The ...
Breslau Naomi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking in pregnancy lowers birthweight. It is unclear, however, whether smoking during pregnancy lowers offspring IQ, and, if it does, whether it is through the smoking effect on fetal growth. METHOD: Representative samples of low birthweight (<2500 g) and normal birthweight children born in 1983-85 from inner-city and ...
Ejaz Sohail - - 2006
Embryonic movements (EM) are considered to be the first sign of life and cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been linked to affect EM. Exposure to sidestream smoke, produced from the emissions of a smoldering cigarette, may result in poor pregnancy outcome and increased risk of serious perinatal morbidity and mortality. ...
Herbert Rachel - - 2005
Clinical guidelines recommend that U.K. health professionals prescribe NRT in pregnancy. The present study was conducted to determine (a) general practitioners' confidence in their ability to deliver a range of smoking cessation interventions, including NRT, in pregnancy, (b) the frequency with which general practitioners recall prescribing NRT in pregnancy, and ...
Akar Yusuf - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of pregnancy on the long-term fluctuation of retinal sensitivity in healthy women. METHODS: Candidates for the study were healthy women who were likely to become pregnant. A complete ocular examination of both eyes was performed in 41 women, and 1 eye each was chosen at ...
Suzuki J - - 2005
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy affects the unborn fetus. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the smoking status of pregnant women before, during and after pregnancy in the Yamato and Ayase municipalities, Kanagawa, Japan; (2) the characteristics that differentiate successful spontaneous smoking quitters from continuous smokers during pregnancy; and (3) the ...
Bottorff Joan L - - 2005
The purpose of this research was to explore couple interactions related to tobacco use prior to pregnancy, as part of a larger grounded theory project focused on couple interactions related to tobacco use. Interviews with 28 women who quit or reduced smoking for pregnancy and their partners were conducted. Analysis ...
Bellieni C V - - 2005
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess whether bed rest during pregnancy is a risk factor for infantile colics. METHODS: In a previous paper a questionnaire was administered to 86 women (43 of whom had stayed in bed during pregnancy for a mean of 3.4+/-1.2 months, and 43 ...
Perera Frederica P - - 2005
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic pollutants released by the World Trade Center (WTC) fires and various urban combustion sources. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a representative member of the class of PAHs. PAH-DNA adducts, or BaP-DNA adducts as their proxy, provide a measure of chemical-specific genetic damage that has been associated ...
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