Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1430
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Weinberg Adriana - - 2009
HIV-infected pregnant women with undetectable plasma HIV RNA concentrations at delivery pose a minimal risk of vertical transmission. We studied the kinetics and the determinants of the virologic response to antiretroviral therapy in 117 consecutive pregnancies. Patients who initiated therapy during pregnancy had a VL decrease of 2 and 2.5 ...
Melekhin Vlada V - - 2009
Pregnancy has been associated with a decreased risk of HIV disease progression in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. The effect of timing of HAART initiation relative to pregnancy on maternal virologic, immunologic and clinical outcomes has not been assessed. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 1997-2005 among ...
De Paschale Massimo - - 2009
The fetal consequences of CMV infection make it one of the most serious infections contracted during pregnancy, but the scientific community is divided over the proposed implementation of preventive screening for anti-CMV antibodies. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of infection during pregnancy in ...
Di Mario Simona - - 2009
Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register ...
Tweyongyere Robert R Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. - - 2009
Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery. A nested ...
Schreiber Courtney A - - 2009
The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies contributes to the methodological challenges of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials. In this paper, the authors discuss the incidence of pregnancy, including chemical pregnancy, and how the different methods of pregnancy diagnosis could affect the statistical power and calculated outcomes of HIV prevention trials. ...
Sued O O Fundación Huèsped, Area de Investigaciones Clinicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. - - 2008
A 41-year-old pregnant woman with multiple virological failures started darunavir, enfuvirtide, zidovudine and lamivudine at week 28 of pregnancy. During week 38, the patient had a viral load <400 copies/mL and a CD4 count of 180 cells/mm(3) (13%). The child was found to be in good health, with negative HIV-polymerase ...
Keiser Olivia - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Virologic failure of HIV-positive patients is of special concern during pregnancy. We compared virologic failure and the frequency of treatment changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. METHODS: Using data on 372 pregnancies in 324 women we describe antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. Pregnant women ...
Salomon Jérôme - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies in spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients present unique clinical challenges. Because of the neurogenic bladder and the use of intermittent catheterization, chronic bacteriuria and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is common. During pregnancy the prevalence of UTI increases dramatically. Recurrent UTI requires multiple courses of antibiotics and increases the ...
van der Lugt Jasper - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy has reduced the prevalence HIV of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) dramatically. At present, the recommended first-line treatment for prevention of MTCT in developed countries is protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this review, we give an update on ...
Ceballos Ana - - 2008
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as described for women with an established infection is, in most cases, associated with the transmission of few maternal variants. This study analysed virus variability in four cases of maternal primary infection occurring during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding. Estimated time of ...
Swierzko Anna St - - 2009
Ficolins and one collectin, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), are the only factors known to activate the lectin pathway (LP) of complement. There is considerable circumstantial evidence that MBL insufficiency can increase susceptibility to various infections and influence the course of several non-infectious diseases complicated by infections. Much less information is available ...
Williams Shauna F - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to review pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among perinatally infected pregnant patients at our institution. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of maternal and neonatal records for all 10 perinatally infected adolescents between 1997 and 2007 was performed. Demographics, CD4 and viral load, antiretroviral treatment, ...
Nurutdinova Diana - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Data regarding use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in HIV-infected pregnant women are limited. OBJECTIVE: To identify adverse effects of tenofovir use during pregnancy in HIV-infected women and their infants. METHODS: In a retrospective case series, the charts of 127 pregnant HIV-infected women who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) ...
Poussin Mathilde A - - 2009
Listeria monocytogenes are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria that can infect macrophages as well as non-professional phagocytes. After entry in the host cell, the bacteria escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. In murine macrophages and in cell lines derived from these cells, escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome is ...
Marshall Beth C - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of pregnancy and exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV) among mothers contemplating a possible additional pregnancy and with a child less than 2 years of age in group day care. We performed a prospective observational study that included a demographic questionnaire and ...
Samsioe Annika - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Laboratory mice infected with Ljungan virus (LV) early in pregnancy suffer from perinatal death. Here we investigate the persistence of that effect through the outcome of consecutive pregnancies in LV-infected mice. STUDY DESIGN: CD-1 mice were infected while pregnant and their adult female offspring were followed in parallel with ...
Zaki M El Sayed Mel - - 2008
Anemia in pregnancy is a health problem in developing countries. Unexplained anemia constitutes about one-third of anemia. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the association of parvovirus B19 and herpes simplex virus in pregnant females with unexplained anemia. The study included 100 pregnant patients with anaemia. Nutritional ...
Pas An - - 2008
The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats ...
McCarthy Eoghan M - - 2008
Takayasu's arteritis is a rare but potentially life-threatening disorder which may present for the first time in pregnancy. Although the cause is unknown, a link with infection has been suggested. Basic clinical examination skills with particular attention to cardiovascular assessment may help to diagnose this condition at an earlier stage ...
Alatoom Adnan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Fascioliasis is a common zoonotic infection worldwide, although cases in the United States are uncommon, sporadic, and predominantly found in the immigrant population. The small number of cases identified in the United States may reflect the unfamiliarity of physicians with this infection. CASE: A 28-year-old Hispanic woman who frequently ...
Grieves Jessica L JL Southwest National Primate Research Center, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, 7620 NW Loop 410, San Antonio, TX 78227, - - 2008
Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been described in humans and experimental work has been conducted with mice, but not with non-human primates (NHPs). We conducted a retrospective study of female baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.) naturally seropositive or seronegative for T. cruzi with history of fetal loss, and we report ...
Barbeito Claudio - - 2008
Bovine genital tritrichomonosis is a venereal disease produced by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus. The disease is characterized by the repetition of oestrus and infertility due to embryonic or foetal death. Numerous experimental rodent models have been developed, but none of them has been applied in pregnant females. In this work, ...
Ferguson W - - 2008
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of ...
Harris Joanna - - 2008
Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental bacterium that is capable of causing infection (known as listeriosis) in vulnerable people who generally acquire the organism following the ingestion of contaminated foods. Pregnant women are a particular risk group, as listeriosis in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, ...
Giannoulis C - - 2008
Although toxoplasmosis is considered harmless for a non-pregnant woman, it is potentially harmful during pregnancy, especially at first trimester. The aim of this study is to increase our alertness and monitoring in case of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, given that when diagnosed it can be effectively treated.We present a case of ...
Faghri S - - 2008
Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease, characterised by brittle, sulfur deficient hair and multisystem abnormalities. A systematic literature review identified 112 patients ranging from 12 weeks to 47 years of age (median 6 years). In addition to hair abnormalities, common features reported were developmental delay/intellectual impairment (86%), short ...
Stumpf Paul G - - 2008
Infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worldwide problem and is no longer acquired only in a hospital setting. Community-associated MRSA is an emerging pathogen of increasing interest to both obstetricians and neonatologists, reported in all three trimesters of pregnancy and postpartum, and in neonatal intensive care units, ...
Lee Monica - - 2008
My pregnant patients often present with urinary tract infections. Are the medications commonly used for the management of urinary tract infections safe to use during pregnancy? Existing data indicate that exposure to penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, or phenazopyridine during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ...
Townsend C L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the changing demographic profile of diagnosed HIV-infected pregnant women over time and trends in pregnancy outcome, uptake of interventions and mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN: National surveillance study. SETTING: UK and Ireland. POPULATION: Diagnosed HIV-infected pregnant women, 1990-2006. METHODS: Active surveillance of obstetric and paediatric HIV conducted through the ...
López-Pérez I C - - 2008
The influence of Neospora caninum infection during pregnancy on the post-natal period has been poorly investigated. In a previous study, we suggested that infection with N. caninum during pregnancy could affect the normal post-natal development of the offspring. For this reason, in the present work we evaluated the influence of ...
Whitehead Nedra S - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to use maternal self-reported data to estimate the prevalence of urinary tract infections, placenta disorders, and preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) and to explore the association between these complications and race, ethnicity, and economic status. METHODS: We used data for the years 2000-2002 from the ...
Roustit Matthieu - - 2008
Highly active antiretroviral therapy is recommended for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The specific physiological background induced by pregnancy leads to significant changes in maternal pharmacokinetics, suggesting potential variability in plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals during gestation. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase ...
Kriebs Jan M - - 2008
Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are frequently asymptomatic or undiagnosed, but more than half the US population is seropositive for HSV, and about one-fifth are positive for HSV-2. These two factors contribute to the risk for sexual transmission and therefore to the risk of late-pregnancy acquisition of HSV. Most ...
Tan Peng Chiong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women. METHOD: A prospective cohort study was performed. Maternal and paired umbilical cord bloods were taken at delivery. A brief questionnaire on febrile illness and ...
Avgil Meytal - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common human viruses. To date, there is limited information regarding the influence of maternal EBV infection on pregnancy outcome. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the fetal safety of EBV infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated the rate of ...
Lewis James S JS - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Historically clinicians have preferred to use 'cidal' antifungal agents, particularly in critically ill patients. However, data to support the belief that the preferential use of a 'cidal' agent results in better patient outcomes has been lacking. OBJECTIVE: This review examined the in vitro definitions of fungicidal and fungistatic as ...
Hoffman Irving F - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect of receiving HIV-positive test results on intentions to have future children and on contraceptive use and to assess the association between pregnancy intentions and pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women in Malawi. METHODS: Women of unknown HIV status completed a questionnaire about pregnancy intentions and contraceptive ...
Zalel Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience in cases with sonographic signs of fetal infection and with maternal serological 'immunity' to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. METHODS: This was a bicenter study of six pregnant women referred for evaluation of suspected fetal infection. All cases had confirmed maternal serology for past exposure to CMV ...
Saharan Sunil - - 2008
HIV pandemic is one of the most serious health crises the world faces today. Approximately 5-10% of all cases of HIV are children. Majority of children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission either during pregnancy, delivery, or by breast-feeding. MTCT can be reduced to <2% by antiretroviral prophylaxis to women during ...
Brutus L - - 2008
The authors carried out a 1-year study of a population of pregnant women delivering at Bermejo hospital, South Bolivia. In this area, vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is negligible and women infect themselves during displacements in close endemic areas. The prevalence of T. cruzi in 508 pregnant women, diagnosed by ...
Trivedi M P - - 2008
We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed infective endocarditis further complicated by an intracranial mycotic aneurysm. She presented with massive intracranial haemorrhage in the third trimester of pregnancy. The disease process of infective endocarditis and peri-operative management of ruptured intracranial mycotic aneurysm during pregnancy are discussed.
Vincent Agnès - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the adjusted rates of surgical site infection (SSI) and urinary tract infection (UTI) after cesarean delivery decrease in maternity units that perform active healthcare-associated infection surveillance. DESIGN: Trend analysis by means of multiple logistic regression. SETTING: A total of 80 maternity units participating in the Mater ...
Stek Alice Marie - - 2008
With combination antiretroviral therapy, perinatal HIV transmission can be decreased to less than 1%. With this remarkable success, in areas with adequate resources, attention has now been turned to the safety of these medications for the mother and the fetus. This review will discuss relevant publications, from the past year, ...
Bryson Y J YJ David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1752, USA. - - 2008
Combination antiretroviral regimens including nelfinavir (NFV) are commonly used in pregnancy. We studied the safety, antiviral effect, and pharmacokinetics of NFV and its M8 metabolite with two dosing regimens in combination with zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV-infected pregnant women between 14 and 34 weeks gestation ...
Revello Maria Grazia - - 2008
To investigate whether invasive procedures performed in the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in maternal peripheral blood (HCMV DNAemia) represent a risk for iatrogenic transmission of HCMV infection to the fetus, 194 pregnant women undergoing prenatal diagnosis because of a primary HCMV infection and their 199 fetuses were investigated. ...
Keskin Nadi - - 2008
PREGNANCY AND TUBERCULOSIS (TB): To assess TB cases during pregnancy in a developing region retrospectively and to present two case reports. Since TB cases activated by HIV infection during pregnancy are well reported in the literature, we aimed to investigate the aggressiveness of pulmonary TB among pregnant women and to ...
Moore Andrea R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly common infectious complication of pregnancy. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy is hampered by many factors and thus often delayed, and that has the potential of increasing morbidity and mortality. CASE: This case involves a gravida with extrapulmonary TB, which was originally diagnosed ...
Gomutbutra Vorapin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The HIV infected pregnancy delivered at Nakornping Hospital was common. To reduce and prevent HIV infection in pregnancy and perinatal transmission, the understanding of characteristics of HIV pregnancy and neonatal infective outcome were needed for proper strategy and policy making. OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of HIV pregnancy and ...
Martí Marcelo A - - 2008
The capability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rest in latency in the infected organism appears to be related to the disposal of detoxification mechanisms, which converts the nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages during the initial growth infection stage into a nitrate anion. Such a reaction appears to be associated with ...
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