Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1330
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Guerrini Irene - - 2007
The "dyad: alcoholic mother and foetus" is a very complex entity in which several elements such as genes, metabolism, diet, drugs and social habits play a role at different stages in the development of the fetal brain damage. The literature on the effects of alcohol consumption on the developing brain ...
Gahagan Sheila - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal exposure to alcohol interferes with fetal development and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify current knowledge, diagnosis, prevention, and intervention practices related to fetal alcohol syndrome and related conditions by members of the American Academy ...
Alati Rosa - - 2006
CONTEXT: Little is known about the contribution of fetal alcohol exposure to the development of alcohol disorders in early adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent effect of maternal alcohol use during early vs late periods in pregnancy on the time of onset of alcohol disorders in offspring. DESIGN: Follow-up study ...
Garcia-Bournissen Facundo - - 2006
A pregnant patient consulted her physician after discovering that a diphenhydramine preparation (Benadryl elixir) she used for allergy symptoms during the first trimester of her pregnancy contained 15% alcohol. Should she be concerned about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in her baby? Most ethanol-containing medical preparations are safe during pregnancy. Adult ...
Adams T B - - 2007
This publication is the 11th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. The list ...
Littner Yoav - - 2007
Alcohol, one of the most frequently reported addictions, is a significant public health problem in the USA. Early identification is important and would aid in intervention for the pregnant woman who continues to drink and for the affected infant. To date, there isn't a definitive test which identifies either alcohol ...
Proctor Susan P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: During the Gulf War (GW), in early March 1991, a munitions dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq, was destroyed. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphate chemical warfare agents, sarin and cyclosarin. METHODS: Data collected in a study conducted between 1994 and 1996, before the Khamisiyah ...
Brent Robert L - - 2006
Health physicists and knowledgeable clinicians have the responsibility to counsel women of reproductive age about the reproductive risks of ionizing radiation exposure before conception or during pregnancy. It is important to realize that lay individuals have many misconceptions about the reproductive risks of ionizing radiation. Many patients who have already ...
Cheetham T Craig - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Preventing fetal exposure to isotretinoin is an important public health goal. Since approval of isotretinoin (1982), the Food and Drug Administration has implemented several unsuccessful risk management programs aimed at preventing fetal exposure. The Kaiser Permanente isotretinoin risk management program included electronic capture of all isotretinoin prescriptions and the ...
O'Callaghan Frances V - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A range of adverse birth outcomes is associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. AIM: To examine the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on children's intellectual ability, learning and attention at 14 years of age. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy ...
Mitsuhiro Sandro Sendin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use during the third trimester of pregnancy in a population of 1000 teenage women of a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil using hair analysis in order to avoid underestimation of data that could happen by the use of self-report questionnaires ...
Ostrea Enrique M EM - - 2006
Biomarkers of fetal exposure to alcohol are important to establish so that early detection and intervention can be made on these infants to prevent undesirable outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze long-chain fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium as potential biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure and ...
Hooiveld M - - 2006
To assess the risks of reproductive disorders and birth defects in offspring of male painters with exposure to organic solvents, and to determine the shape of the dose-response relationship. Random samples of painters and carpenters were drawn from workers affiliated with the Dutch Trade Union for Construction Workers, the Netherlands, ...
Hopenhayn Claudia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Arsenic is associated with numerous health effects. We investigated the association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and anemia during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort pregnancy study in two Chilean cities with contrasting drinking water arsenic levels: 40 microg/L versus <1 microg/L. This analysis included 810 women ...
Rimmer Claire - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder are known to occur among children delivered to women in Far North Queensland; to date, the problem has not been quantified or related directly to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. AIMS: To identify the characteristics of women who consume alcohol during ...
Vahter Marie E - - 2006
This study assessed the exposure of pregnant women to arsenic in Matlab, Bangladesh, an area with highly-elevated concentrations of arsenic in tubewells, by measuring concentrations of arsenic in urine. In a defined administrative area, all new pregnancies were identified by urine test in gestational week 6-8, and women were asked ...
Alvik Astrid - - 2006
AIM: To study alcohol use and smoking after delivery, and to relate this to breastfeeding. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire study, representative of pregnant women in Oslo. Ninety-two per cent agreed to join the study. Non-Norwegian speaking and/or immigrants from non-western countries were not invited. Questionnaires were answered at 17 (T1) ...
Tough Suzanne - - 2006
Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading cause of preventable mental retardation and developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol syndrome. Current medical guidelines recommend that no alcohol should be consumed over the period of conception and throughout pregnancy. Although the majority of women reduce alcohol consumption when they realize they are pregnant, ...
Strandberg-Larsen K K Centre for Alcohol Research, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2006
To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. Cohort study. The Danish National Birth Cohort. The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated information on binge drinking during ...
Meier C - - 2006
Pronucleotides represent a promising tool to improve the biological activity of nucleoside analogs in antiviral and cancer chemotherapy. The cycloSal-approach is one of several conceptually different pronucleotide systems. This approach can be applied to various nucleoside analogs. A salicyl alcohol as a cyclic bifunctional masking unit is used, and shown ...
Wang Shu-Li - - 2006
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, dioxins), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental endocrine disruptors that have half-lives of 7-10 years in the human body and have toxicities that probably include carcinogenesis. A high ratio of 4-hydroxyl estradiol (4-OH-E2) to 2-hydroxyl estradiol (2-OH-E2) has been suggested as a potential biomarker ...
Handmaker Nancy S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: More than 3 decades after Jones and Smith (1973) reported on the devastation caused by alcohol exposure on fetal development, the rates of heavy drinking during pregnancy remain relatively unchanged. Early identification of fetal alcohol exposure and maternal abstinence led to better infant outcomes. This study examined the utility ...
Ramadoss Jayanth - - 2006
Women who drink while pregnant are at a high risk of giving birth to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is also known to be deleterious to fetal bone growth in both humans and laboratory animals. However, nothing is known regarding the effect of maternal moderate ...
Burns Lucy - - 2006
BACKGROUND: To date, no population-level data have been published examining the obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women with an alcohol-related hospital admission during pregnancy compared with the general obstetric population. This information is critical to planning and implementing appropriate services. METHODS: Antenatal and delivery admissions to New South Wales (NSW) ...
Chun Jun-Yang - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Because very little information exists on the fetal safety of roxithromycin, we aimed to extend the knowledge on fetal outcome in pregnant women who were exposed to roxithromycin in early pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty pregnant women inadvertently exposed to roxithromycin during early pregnancy were identified and prospectively followed-up. For comparison, ...
Alvik Astrid - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy has proven to be higher when reported retrospectively during or after the pregnancy, compared with concurrent reports. In a longitudinal, population-based questionnaire study, we investigated whether these findings could be replicated. METHODS: A longitudinal, population-based questionnaire study. Among a representative half of pregnant women ...
Chang Grace G Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2006
The impact of a couple's knowledge about healthy pregnancy habits involving alcohol and substance use was assessed in the context of other factors previously identified to predict prenatal alcohol consumption in a sample of 254 pregnant women and their male partners. Couples were asked to assess independently a series of ...
Chiaffarino F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess if alcohol drinking is a risk factor for small for gestational age (SGA) birth. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were 555 women (mean age 31 years, range 16-43) who delivered SGA babies at the Clinica Luigi Mangiagalli and the Obstetric and Gynecology Clinic of the University of Verona. ...
Lauria Laura - - 2006
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of maternal work in greenhouses, as characterised by potentially high exposure to pesticides, on female fertility. Nine hundred and ten women active in 34 greenhouse flower growing enterprises in 1998-2000, with at least one pregnancy, and aged less than ...
Wang X - - 2006
Fetal development is a period sensitive to environmental influences such as maternal drug use. The most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women is marijuana. The present study investigated the effects of in utero marijuana exposure on expression levels of opioid-related genes in the human fetal forebrain in light of ...
Csaba György - - 2006
Lactating and lactating/pregnant rat dams consumed either 3% (vol/vol) ethanol (as the sole source of fluid) between the 1st and 21st days after delivery or 15% (vol/vol) ethanol for 24h on the 3rd day after delivery. Offspring of ethanol-consuming dams were compared with offspring of untreated control dams. In other ...
Rayburn William F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of beer consumption among hazardous drinkers in our pregnant patient population. METHODS: This prospective clinic-based cohort study involved women who were surveyed during their first prenatal visit. Hazardous drinking was identified on alcohol surveys as frequent or binge drinking ...
Arria Amelia M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine use is a continuing problem in several regions of the United States and yet few studies have focused on prenatal methamphetamine exposure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use-including methamphetamine-during pregnancy. METHODS: The sample consisted of ...
Yang San Nan - - 2006
Infants passively exposed to morphine or heroin through their addicted mothers usually develop characteristic withdrawal syndrome of morphine after birth. In such early life, the central nervous system exhibits significant plasticity and can be altered by various prenatal influences, including prenatal morphine exposure. Here we studied the effects of prenatal ...
Sarkar Moumita - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with an extensive range of indications and has become a common treatment option due to its convenient dosing regimen and therapeutic advantages. Human studies addressing gestational use of azithromycin have primarily focused on antibiotic efficacy rather than fetal safety. Our primary objective was to ...
Malet Laurent - - 2006
Alcohol consumption was evaluated in 1,027 pregnant women in the Auvergne region of central France. Only 53% declared total abstinence during pregnancy. 33% had 1-4 units on monthly occasion, while 13% drunk more frequently. One percent had 5 or more units per occasion. Despite the consensus recommending total abstinence during ...
Fiorentino Daniela - - 2006
In Italy, little is known about the problems related to alcohol drinking during pregnancy. In this paper, the Italian literature about this subject is briefly reviewed. This first Italian experience of a field study, aimed to the assessment of the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum ...
Hajipour L - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of a surgeon's hand following use of chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol gel as disinfectants. In this prospective, randomised trial, orthopaedic surgeons were allocated to one of two different hand-washing protocols using a randomisation table. The hand-washing protocol dictated ...
Alexopoulos Evangelos C - - 2006
Personal exposure to pollutants is influenced by various outdoor and indoor sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Athens citizens to toluene and xylene, excluding exposure from active smoking. Passive air samplers were used to monitor volunteers, their homes and various urban sites for one ...
Wetterneck Chad T - - 2006
Exposure and response prevention (ERP) was evaluated as treatment for three repetitive behaviors in an 11-year-old boy using a multiple baseline across behaviors design. The repetitive behaviors and associated self-reported distress were eliminated. At 3-month follow-up, the frequency for two of the three behaviors returned to baseline levels. This study ...
Alvik Astrid A Sogn Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ulleval University Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. - - 2006
Few population-based studies have estimated alcohol consumption and binge drinking before and during pregnancy. The study is a longitudinal questionnaire study. In Norway, virtually 100% attend an ultrasound screening at 17-18 weeks of pregnancy. In Oslo, a representative sample attending this between June 2000 and May 2001 were invited to ...
Csaba G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Different factors acting during pregnancy can cause non-morphological alterations of cells which are manifested later, in adulthood. We studied the effect of maternal alcohol consumption for one day in early pregnancy on the hormone content of immune cells in the adult rat. METHODS: Lactating dams were given 15% ethanol ...
Caprara Daniela L - - 2005
Measuring levels of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair has been a useful way to discriminate between adult heavy and nondrinkers. Extending the use of FAEE into neonatal hair to objectively identify children exposed to alcohol in utero may revolutionize current methods used to diagnose fetal alcohol spectrum disorder ...
Morley N J - - 2005
The effects of cadmium and zinc mixtures at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10,000 microg l(-1) on the life-span of decaudized cercarial bodies (cercariae that have shed their tails) of Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) was investigated. Cercariae were exposed to metal mixtures of equal and unequal concentrations, and a low-dose ...
Tager Ira B - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an oxidant, outdoor air pollutant. Chronic exposure has been associated with decreased lung function in children and adolescents. This study investigated the effects of long-term exposure to O3 on lung function in college freshmen. METHODS: We recruited University of California, Berkeley students (n=255) who were ...
Chambers Christina D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Due to changing cultural norms, Latinas of childbearing age residing in the U.S. may be at increasing risk of drinking harmful levels of alcohol during pregnancy, and may also be unaware of the risks for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders associated with this behavior. We assessed the prevalence of alcohol ...
Turan Akay Mehmet - - 2005
In this study, daily food and water consumption and body weights, histopathology of placenta, tenascin (TN), type IV collagen and EGF and its receptor immunolocalization in the placenta of albino rats treated with two doses of alcohol (1 and 5 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were determined. Alcohol was administered in three ...
Pichini Simona - - 2005
For the first time in Europe, the "Meconium Project" aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant. Between October 2002 and February 2004, 1151 (79%) dyads among the 1439 mother-infant dyads from ...
Bada Henrietta S - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors that would increase the likelihood of outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), preterm births and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: Secondary data analysis from a multi-center study. Risk factors for each outcome were derived from logistic regression models. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals, and ...
Moritz Karen M - - 2005
Fetal exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can occur naturally when maternal glucocorticoids are elevated in times of stress or when exogenous glucocorticoids are administered. Epidemiological studies and animal models have shown that, whereas short-term benefits may be associated with fetal glucocorticoid exposure, long-term deleterious effects may arise. This review ...
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