Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1328
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Cuzon Verginia C - - 2008
Consumption of alcohol (ethanol) during pregnancy can lead to developmental defects in the offspring, the most devastating being the constellation of symptoms collectively referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In the brain, a hallmark of FAS is abnormal cerebral cortical morphology consistent with insult during corticogenesis. Here, we report ...
Smith George Davey - - 2008
The influence of factors acting during the intrauterine period on health outcomes of offspring is of considerable research and public health interest. There are, however, methodological challenges in establishing robust causal links, because exposures often act many decades before outcomes of interest, may act before it is evident that women ...
Peiris-John Roshini J - - 2008
Despite their widespread and longstanding use for the public good, organophosphate (OP) pesticides have led to many adverse effects on human health. Environmental exposure to OPs and adverse reproductive outcomes in men and women working on or living near farms are increasingly reported worldwide. The aim of the current review ...
Lenkowski Jenny R - - 2008
Exposure to anthropogenic chemicals during development can disrupt the morphogenesis of organ systems. Use of the herbicide atrazine has been debated in recent years because of its implicated, but poorly characterized, effects on vertebrates. Previous studies primarily examined the effects of atrazine exposure during metamorphosis or early developmental stages of ...
Littner Yoav Y Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University and Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. - - 2008
Specific fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium of newborns have been shown to correlate with maternal ethanol exposure. An animal model is needed to assess the validity of this biomarker. We hypothesized that the pregnant/fetal sheep is a feasible animal model for validating FAEE as a biomarker of prenatal ...
Abate Paula P Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra C.P. 5016, Córdoba, Argentina. - - 2008
Near-term fetuses of different mammalian species, including humans, exhibit functional sensory and learning capabilities. The neurobiological literature indicates that the unborn organism processes sensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid, retains this information for considerable amounts of time, and is also capable of associating such stimuli with biologically relevant events. ...
Rocha E Silva Ingrid Ramos - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is an association between fetal and/or placental weight and exposure to ambient levels of air pollution in mice. DESIGN: Chronic experiments on mice that were exposed to polluted vs. clean air. SETTING: Environmental exposure to atmospheric pollution. ANIMAL(S): Female Swiss mice (n = 70) were ...
Kvigne Valborg L - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of Northern Plains American Indian maternal grandmothers who had grandchildren with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or incomplete FAS are described to more effectively prevent fetal FAS and alcohol use during pregnancy. METHODS: Study 1 had 27 maternal grandmothers who had grandchildren with FAS and Study 2 had 18 ...
Gijsen Violette - - 2008
A recent study published from the University College London suggests that children of women who were light drinkers during pregnancy demonstrate better cognitive outcome at three years of age when compared to children of abstinent women based on data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Unfortunately, methodological pitfalls and limited ...
Al-Ardhi Fatma Mohammed Mahfoodh - - 2008
The benefits of fish consumption have been known to be the prevention of certain heart disease, neurological disorders and a very important role in fetal brain development. However there has been, in the past, certain doubts on whether fish should be classified as a beneficial meat source as part of ...
Huang Yi-Chen - - 2008
One seven-year-old aboriginal boy visited our outpatient department for survey of study difficulty. The physical examination revealed microcephaly, broad depressed nasal bridge, thin upper lip, smooth philtrum, epicanthal folds and clinodactyly. He also had mild mental retardation and abnormal findings on brain MRI. His mother had confirmed daily alcoholic consumption ...
Strandberg-Larsen Katrine - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregnancy. METHODS: During the ...
Nilsen Per - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate alcohol intake during pregnancy among women, to assess health cares providers' advice to the women and the relative importance of different factors on changes in the women's drinking. DESIGN: Questionnaire study. SETTING: Linkoping, Sweden. POPULATION: A total number of 1,533 women registered at a maternity health care ...
Yamamoto Yuko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In order to clarify the alcohol consumption status of pregnant women in Japan and the characteristics of pregnant women who abstained from alcohol after their pregnancy had been confirmed, a nationwide questionnaire-based study of alcohol consumption behavior was performed. We also examined the factors associated with alcohol consumption during ...
Savitz David A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Coffee and caffeine have been inconsistently found to be associated with increased risk of clinical miscarriage-a potentially important association given the high prevalence of exposure. METHODS: Women were recruited before or early in pregnancy and interviewed regarding sources of caffeine, including assessment of changes over the perinatal period. We ...
Patel Prakash K - - 2008
To study the profile of reported fetal death cases and describe the circumstances under which these deaths occurred. This is a retrospective case series study of 154 fetal deaths that occurred in the entire Dhahira region health institutions during a 5 year period (January 2000 and December 2004). The fetal ...
Bobo Janet Kay - - 2007
To prevent fetal alcohol syndrome, some social drinkers who may become pregnant need more than a brief caution, but they can be difficult to detect in clinical settings. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 754 women who completed up to four alcohol history interviews during their college-age years (18-21), ...
Górny RafaƂ L - - 2007
The effects of microwave radiation on viability of fungal and actinomycetal spores growing on agar (medium optimal for growth) as well as on wooden panel and drywall (common building construction/finishing materials) were studied. All materials were incubated at high (97-99%) and low (32-33%) relative humidity to mimic "wet" and "dry" ...
Campero Melina - - 2007
Biomarkers are widely used to assess pesticide stress, but their ecological relevance and exposure time dependent sensitivity is still heavily debated. We studied both aspects in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella, comparing the impact of low doses of atrazine, carbaryl, and endosulfan on two key biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] activity ...
Henderson Jane J National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, - - 2007
The effects of binge-drinking during pregnancy on the fetus and child have been an increasing concern for clinicians and policy-makers. This study reviews the available evidence from human observational studies. Systematic review of observational studies. Pregnant women or women who are trying to become pregnant. A computerised search strategy was ...
Unal Dilek - - 2008
Physcia semipinnata was exposed to UV-A (352nm) and visible light (210, 800 and 2000mW/cm2) for 30min, 1, 2, 24, and 48h to seek the alterations in the PSII photosynthetic quantum yield, in response to radiation. Chlorophyll a fluorescence did not influence exposure to light, 210, 800 and 2000mW/cm2. Significant alterations ...
Sugawara Norio - - 2008
Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and ...
Micklesfield L K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The influence of early life factors on the bone mineral density of children has been identified, however the contribution of these determinants may vary. AIM: The study investigated determinants of bone mineral content (BMC) in South African children of mixed ancestral origin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Early life data including ...
D'Onofrio Brian M - - 2007
CONTEXT: Existing research on the neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has not adequately accounted for genetic and environmental confounds. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between PAE and offspring externalizing problems in a large representative sample of families in the United States using measured covariates and a quasi-experimental design ...
Brent Robert L - - 2007
Over the past 50 years our laboratory has performed and published many studies in the fields of teratology, radiation biology and radiation embryology. The early work took place when I was a research employee at the University of Rochester Manhattan Project in 1944 and where I had my introduction to ...
Garcia-Bournissen Facundo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin is a known teratogen. Pregnancy prevention programs aimed at minimizing isotretinoin exposure in pregnancy have been implemented in North America with limited success. OBJECTIVE: To compare the management of fetal risk of isotretinoin in three countries, including information given to women, implementation of contraceptive methods, and pregnancy outcomes. ...
Baskin Laurence S - - 2007
Hypospadias is the second most common genital anomaly in children. The etiology of hypospadias remains unknown in the overwhelming majority of patients. Herein, I review the etiology of hypospadias and propose that hypospadias can be explained by a two-hit hypothesis: genetic susceptibility plus environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. The strategy ...
Rayburn Brittany B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate patterns of wine consumption among hazardous drinkers before and after pregnancy recognition. STUDY DESIGN: Using a standard alcohol survey, hazardous drinking was defined as either frequent or binge drinking with related consequences. Patients identified at our clinic during their first prenatal visit as being hazardous drinkers were ...
Li Yujuan Y Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, 305 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2007
In a maternal fetal rat model, we investigated the behavioral and neurotoxic effects of fetal exposure to isoflurane. Pregnant rats at gestational day 21 were anesthetized with 1.3% isoflurane for 6h. Apoptosis was quantified in the hippocampus and cortex at 2 and 18h after exposure in the fetal brain and ...
Delpisheh Ali - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of maternal CYP17 gene polymorphisms and prenatal alcohol consumption with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study in singleton livebirths was conducted at the Liverpool Women's Hospital between 2004 and 2005. Cases (n=90) were mothers with an IUGR baby and controls (n=180) those ...
Bretveld R - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Fertility problems are an increasing public health issue in industrialised countries. Exposure to exogenous agents with endocrine disrupting properties, such as some pesticides, are potential risk factors for subfertility. The aim of this study was to determine whether time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is prolonged in male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides ...
Abellan Rosario - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intermittent hypoxia exposure on direct and indirect methods used to evaluate recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) misuse. Sixteen male triathletes were randomly assigned to either the intermittent hypoxia exposure group (experimental group) or the control normoxic group (control group). The ...
Zsarnovszky A - - 2007
Environmental and plant oestrogens have been identified as compounds that when ingested, disrupt the physiological pathways of endogenous oestrogen actions and thus, act as agonists or antagonists of oestrogen. Although the risks of exposure to exogenous oestrogens (ExEs) are subject to scientific debate, the question of how ExE exposure affects ...
Ramadoss Jayanth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and autopsy studies reveal abnormal cerebellar development in children who had been exposed to alcohol prenatally, independent of the exposure period. Animal studies conducted utilizing the rat model similarly demonstrate a broad period of vulnerability, albeit the third trimester-equivalent of human brain development is ...
Atkinson Diane E - - 2007
Congenital abnormalities and impaired development in childhood are attributable to fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pregnancy registries set up to obtain information about the potential risks of fetal exposure to AEDs, in particular major congenital malformations (MCMs), suggest that valproate exposure increases the frequency of congenital malformations more than ...
Gao Yu - - 2007
Exposure to hazardous Hg can adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. However, few data are available on either Hg levels in neonates and their mothers or the impact of prenatal exposure to Hg on neonates' neurobehavioral development in the Chinese population. Therefore, this study examined Hg levels in neonates and their mothers ...
Jedrychowski Wieslaw - - 2007
Although the maternal fish consumption is supposed to have beneficial effects on development of infants, it may be harmful for child cognitive development since fish is a common source of methylmercury. Purpose of the study was to describe the usual pattern of fish consumption during pregnancy in Poland and explain ...
Paumen Miriam León - - 2008
During acute exposure, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) act mainly by narcosis, but during chronic exposure the same compounds may exert sublethal life cycle effects. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the chronic effects of sediment spiked PACs on the emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius. Three isomer ...
Suh Young-Ju - - 2007
We explored the effects of particulate matter <10 microm (PM(10)) exposure along with CYP1A1 polymorphisms of MspI (T6235C) and NcoI (Ile462Val) on reduced birth weight (BW). A prospective cohort study was done with women who delivered from 2001 to 2004 at Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. We compared the ...
Browne Marilyn L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The physiologic effects and common use of caffeine during pregnancy call for examination of maternal caffeine consumption and risk of birth defects. Epidemiologic studies have yielded mixed results, but such studies have grouped etiologically different defects and have not evaluated effect modification. METHODS: The large sample size and precise ...
Menegaux Florence - - 2007
We investigated the role of maternal alcohol and coffee drinking during pregnancy and that of parental smoking in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. A French, population-based, case-control study was conducted, comparing 472 [407 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 62 acute myeloblastic leukaemia] cases of childhood acute leukaemia (AL) and 567 ...
Humphreys Caitlin - - 2007
An 18-year-old patient of mine, currently under treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with methylphenidate, just found out that she is pregnant. What are the risks for the baby when the mother uses ADHD medications during pregnancy? Available evidence for amphetamines suggests no increased risk of malformations with use ...
Burd Larry L Department of Pediatrics, Univrsity of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA. - - 2007
Review of the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We conducted a search of the Medline and Pubmed databases to identify papers reporting the association. We then searched the reference lists of the papers and reference books for additional sources. We found 29 studies ...
Seip Katharine M KM Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. - - 2007
Prior studies using a dual-choice conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure revealed that postpartum female rats (dams) strongly prefer chambers associated with pups over those associated with subcutaneously administered cocaine almost exclusively during early but not late postpartum (Mattson et al. 2001). The present study examines whether early postpartum dams retain ...
Vijayavel K - - 2007
Perna viridis is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. Preliminary bioassay tests revealed that the lethal (LC(100)), median lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal (LC(0)) concentration of silver and chromium to P. viridis were 6.5, 4.0, 2.0 ...
Pineño Oskar O Dpto. de Psicología Experimental, Universidad de Sevilla, c/Camilo José Cela s/n, 41018 Seville, Spain. - - 2008
Protection from extinction of conditioned fear has been demonstrated when a conditioned inhibitor of fear is presented during extinction treatment. The present study assessed if similar results could be obtained during the analogous habituation of unconditioned fear. The neophobic response typically elicited by the presentation of a novel flavor was ...
Cooper William O - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of exposures to antidepressants during pregnancy in a large cohort of women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 105,335 pregnancies among women enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid from 1999-2003. Pregnancies were classified according to antidepressant exposures during ...
Chapman Kim - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This investigation examined the influence of parental substance use disorder (SUD) and mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy on neurobehavior disinhibition (ND) measured in 10- to 12-year-old children. The extent to which ND predicted SUD outcome 7 to 9 years later was also determined. METHODS: SUD was documented in each ...
Ramadoss Jayanth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The third trimester equivalent has been identified, both in rat and sheep models, as a period of cerebellar vulnerability to alcohol-mediated injury. We wished to determine whether alcohol exposure throughout gestation results in greater injury compared with exposure limited to the third trimester equivalent. While this question has previously ...
Kavanagh Yeo, Catherine R.
Despite the age old warnings against the use of alcohol during pregnancy, and the abundance of scientific research that links Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) with prenatal maternal alcohol ingestion, FAS/FAE remains one of the leading causes of birth defects and mental retardation. It is critical ...
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