Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1331
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Grimstad H - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between a history of physical abuse and consumption of cigarettes and alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: In a case-control study, 83 women who delivered a low birthweight (<2500 g) infant (cases) and 92 women with a newborn with birthweight > or =2500 g (controls) were ...
Allebeck P - - 1998
Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome in the end of the 1960s, substantial evidence has accumulated on a number of adverse effects that alcohol consumption during pregnancy may have on the fetus. Long-term effects on child development has also been observed. Although the various types of effects are well ...
Zachman R D - - 1998
The mechanism of the fetal embryopathology resulting from ethanol ingestion during pregnancy is not established. This review summarizes recent research on the interaction of ethanol and vitamin A in models that explore if an interaction between these two compounds might potentially be the mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome. The rationale ...
Bailey B - - 1998
There is large variability in the rate and extent of fetal damage from cocaine in humans; however, the sources of such variability are not presently known. In order to study the relationship between maternal cocaine pharmacokinetics at the end of pregnancy and maternal or infant cocaine and benzoylecgonine hair concentrations ...
Akay M - - 1998
Fractal methods have been found to be useful in characterizing biomedical signals. The use of fractal estimation requires the estimation of parameter H, which is directly related to the fractal dimension D. Here, we propose a new approach which is a combination of the wavelet transform and fractal estimators to ...
Abel E L EL Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. - - 1998
Deborah Mathieu's proposal for state intervention in the lives of pregnant substance abusers in order to prevent serious harm to their future children sparked a lively debate in this journal. The present discussion characterizes the three main arguments offered against her proposal as (a) the "uncertainty principle"--the inability to predict ...
Golub M S - - 1998
Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, ...
Venables P H - - 1998
This study examined the effect of mothers' exposure to the 1957 A2/Singapore influenza virus in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy on the electrodermal activity of their 15-year-old offspring. The epidemic occurred during cold months of the year. The results show that maternal viral (and cold) exposure during ...
West J R - - 1998
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is commonly believed to be the leading known cause of mental retardation in the United States, although surveillance at state and national levels is problematic. The most serious consequence of fetal alcohol exposure is central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. While the facial features of FAS become ...
Woods J R - - 1998
Pregnancy is a dynamic process, and maternal as well as fetal risks from cocaine use in pregnancy may differ as pregnancy progresses. Three areas of biology offer opportunities for reevaluating cocaine's effects in pregnancy: (1) Maternal cardiovascular and neurologic responses to cocaine hydrochloride are enhanced when compared with responses in ...
Church M W - - 1998
The illicit use of cocaine has increased dramatically over the last 10-12 years. There has been a corresponding increase in cocaine abuse among obstetric patients and in the number of "cocaine babies." According to some estimates, these children make up more than half of the drug-associated births. This problem is ...
Richardson G A - - 1998
The current study examines the effect of prenatal cocaine use on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development at birth, 1, 3, and 7 years, controlling for other factors that affect child development. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy were more likely to be single and to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco ...
Driscoll C D - - 1998
Diglyme (Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, CAS No. 111-96-6) is a glycol ether which has been used in solvent formulations. To assess the potential developmental toxicity of this chemical, groups of pregnant Crl:CD BR rats were exposed to either 0 (control, room air only), 25, 100, or 400 ppm diglyme by ...
Robbins S J - - 1998
Sixty-one cocaine abuse patients provided self-reports of craving and urine samples 3 times a week. Within-subject analyses revealed several relationships between the measures. First, peak craving levels were higher for 2-3-day intervals during which cocaine use had occurred than for preceding or following abstinent intervals. Second, average craving ratings during ...
Myles T D - - 1998
We evaluated the outcome of pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membrane (PROM) in order to determine if tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug usage were associated with alterations in pregnancy or neonatal outcome. Comparisons in outcome were made with respect to tobacco, alcohol, and/or illicit drug usage. Comparisons were ...
Kamstrup O - - 1998
A summary is given of the biopersistence and pathology after inhalation by rats of two different Man-made Vitreous Fibres, MMVF21 (traditional stone wool) and MMVF34 (HT stone wool), and the results are discussed in relation to biopersistence measured after intra-tracheal instillation. The results are given from a short-term inhalation biopersistence ...
Larroque B - - 1998
Very high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are harmful for the central nervous system of the child and affect morphogenesis and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on development at preschool age in a longitudinal study. Pregnant women were ...
Plessinger M A - - 1998
Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced ...
Plessinger M A - - 1998
Cocaine continues to be abused during pregnancy, creating increased demands on the health care system. Epidemiology and basic science research have identified and confirmed risks of adverse maternal and fetal effects when cocaine is used during pregnancy. These effects of cocaine in pregnant women often are influenced by a number ...
Scher M S - - 1998
We investigated the effects of prenatal substance use on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Seventy-four children were tested at birth and 1 month of age with binocular flash VEPs and at 4, 8, and 18 months of age with binocular pattern VEPs. Regressions were run by trimester to assess the independent ...
Cook J L - - 1998
A common pattern of birth defects was reported in children born to alcoholic women over 20 years ago. Shortly thereafter the constellation of defects became known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and reports from around the world served to acknowledge the pervasiveness of the disorder. Simultaneously with the clinical reports, ...
Caan B - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The effect of caffeine consumption on fertility was examined prospectively in 210 women. METHODS: Women reported on caffeinated beverage consumption and pregnancy status monthly. Odds ratios for becoming pregnant were calculated for both high and moderate vs low consumption. RESULTS: No significant association was found for any of the ...
Eyler F D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, longitudinal project was designed to determine the effects of prenatal cocaine use on the pregnancy outcomes of women from a historically understudied rural public health population. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed over 2500 women prenatally, identified 154 cocaine users, and matched 154 controls on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and ...
Wilson L C - - 1998
We report on a 3-year-old boy with bilateral choanal atresia, hypoplastic nipples, and developmental delay who had been exposed to carbimazole in utero because of maternal Graves disease. His combination of abnormalities and facial appearance strongly resembles that of a previously reported child exposed to methimazole (which is the active ...
Heil S H - - 1998
All mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Milk production (i.e., lactation), which occurs in the mammary glands, is regulated by several hormones, most prominently prolactin and oxytocin. Studies in both humans and laboratory animals have demonstrated that maternal alcohol consumption before and during lactation can interfere with the functions ...
Martínez-Frías M L - - 1998
The adverse effect of therapeutic use of sex hormones during pregnancy inducing pseudohermaphroditism in female offspring has been well known since the early 1950s. Consequently there has been great concern about the potential effects on the offspring of women who use these agents during gestation. Some studies have reported an ...
Gabriel K - - 1998
During pregnancy, the hormonal systems of the mother and fetus are intricately interconnected to ensure normal fetal development. Accordingly, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can interfere with fetal development, not only directly, through adverse effects exerted by alcohol that crosses the placenta and enters the fetal bloodstream, but also indirectly, ...
Bagheri M M - - 1998
Alcohol is the most common identifiable teratogenic cause of mental retardation in North America. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a major public health problem, which is frequently under diagnosed by physicians. OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the maternal risk factors and neonatal characteristics of children with FAS. DESIGN: A retrospective ...
Polygenis D - - 1998
To determine whether there is an association between moderate alcohol consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy and increased risk of fetal malformations, we conducted a literature search using Medline (1966-present), PsycLit (1974-1995), and EMBASE (1988-1995). The following inclusion criteria were used to select the studies to be evaluated: 1) ...
Bunin G R - - 1998
Nine studies of childhood brain tumors and maternal diet during pregnancy have focused on foods related to the N-nitroso-compound(NOC) hypothesis. An association between frequent consumption of cured meat by pregnant women and increased risk is a consistent finding in most of the studies. The data on fruit and vegetable consumption ...
Katchen M A - - 1998
This study describes a comparison of worker exposure to total and inhalable dust, inorganic As, and borates using two types of particulate sampling assemblies as part of a comprehensive industrial hygiene evaluation in a borate mining and processing facility. Employees were segmented into similar exposure groups (SEG) based on work ...
Buck G M - - 1997
Sport fish from the Great Lakes are contaminated with halogenated organics, heavy metals, and pesticides, thus serving as a route of exposure for fish-consuming populations. These contaminants are recognized reproductive toxicants in animals; few human studies are available. The purpose of this study was to assess consumption of contaminated fish ...
Tímár L - - 1997
A series of 22 women who suffered from mushroom poisoning while pregnant have been identified among adults receiving treatment between 1960 and 1993 in a specialist clinic in Budapest, Hungary. In most cases, the poisonings were attributed to Amanita phalloides, verna, and related species. Of these, 20 went to term, ...
Sampson P D - - 1997
We critique published incidences for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and present new estimates of the incidence of FAS and the prevalence of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). We first review criteria necessary for valid estimation of FAS incidence. Estimates for three population-based studies that best meet these criteria are reported with ...
Lundsberg L S - - 1997
PURPOSE: Heavy drinking during pregnancy is an established risk factor for fetal alcohol syndrome and other adverse perinatal outcomes. However, there is still debate as to the effects of low-to-moderate drinking during pregnancy. METHODS: This prospective investigation was based on 2714 singleton live births at Yale-New Haven Hospital during 1988-1992. ...
Thonneau P - - 1997
The relationship between male occupational heat exposure and the time required to achieve a pregnancy [TTP] was studied in a retrospective survey of 402 fertile couples. The TTP for t he subgroups 'exposure t o heat' (median = 4 .0 months; mean 11.8; SD = 13.3) and 'professional driver >3 ...
Windham G C - - 1997
Maternal alcoholism is known to have adverse effects on reproduction and fetal development, but the effects of moderate consumption remain controversial. In a previous case-control study, we found a doubled risk of spontaneous abortion with an average consumption of seven or more drinks per week during the first trimester. To ...
Reynolds J D - - 1997
Ethanol-induced changes in fetal prostaglandin E (PGE) concentration may play a role in the toxic effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Using the novel technique of in utero microdialysis, the present study tested the hypothesis that acute ethanol exposure changes PGE concentration in the intact cerebral cortex of preterm (93 +/- ...
Chan L - - 1997
Pneumothorax is extremely rare during pregnancy. We describe two antepartum cases temporally associated with cocaine use with a review of the literature and discussion on treatment options. Case 1, a 39-year-old female, presented at 31.3 weeks' gestation with a right pneumothorax after smoking crack cocaine. The pneumothorax was refractory to ...
Elghany N A - - 1997
The effect of exposure to inorganic mercury on the pregnant woman and her foetus has received little attention. Transport of elemental inorganic mercury into foetal tissues has been reported, and prior studies indicate a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome. The effects of occupational exposure to inorganic mercury on pregnancy ...
Connors G J - - 1997
The relationship between the therapeutic alliance and treatment participation and drinking outcomes during and after treatment was evaluated among alcoholic outpatient and aftercare clients. In the outpatient sample, ratings of the working alliance, whether provided by the client or therapist, were significant predictors of treatment participation and drinking behavior during ...
Holmes L B - - 1997
During his career Bob Brent has been instrumental in developing the methodology to use in determining whether an exposure in pregnancy has a harmful effect on the fetus. Experience has also shown the importance of using this approach to determine when an exposure is not teratogenic. Unfortunately, the attendant debate, ...
Venables P H - - 1997
Data are in conflict concerning whether a mother's exposure to influenza in pregnancy gives rise to an increased probability that her offspring will develop schizophrenia. In Northern Hemisphere studies, exposure to influenza and cold tend to be confounded. The present study, carried out in Mauritius, examines the effect of maternal ...
Nakagawa K - - 1997
To optimize the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer patients who are pregnant, the following factors must be considered: the potential effects of the therapy on fetuses and neonates, the stage and prognosis of the mother's disease, and the possible risks to the patient of restricting cancer treatment. Malformations and mental ...
Rasheed A - - 1997
Fetal alcohol syndrome occurs in less than 10% of women who drink heavily during pregnancy. One potential mechanism for this intersubject variation is differences in placental alcohol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present at low concentrations in the placenta and is not inducible. CYP2E1 has not been found in human placentas ...
Rogers J M - - 1997
Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol (MeOH) by inhalation on gestation days (gd) 6-15 results in dose-related increases in fetal cleft palate, exencephaly, and skeletal defects. Here, critical periods for the developmental toxicity of MeOH were assessed in pregnant CD-1 mice exposed to 10,000 ppm MeOH or filtered air ...
van Engelen J G - - 1997
In order to study the effects of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) on the toxicokinetics of n-hexane and, in particular, the formation of 2,5-hexanedione from n-hexane in humans, volunteers were exposed to n-hexane (approx. 60 ppm, 2.4 microM in the inhaled air) with or without simultaneous inhalatory coexposure to MEK for ...
Yoshida M - - 1997
Ethanol (Et-OH), which is an inhibitor of catalase, reduces oxidation of mercury vapor (Hg0) into ionic mercury (Hg2+). Consequently, exposure of pregnant animals to Hg0 with pretreatment of Et-OH causes penetration of larger amount of Hg0 to the fetus. The fate of Hg0 in the fetus of pregnant guinea pigs, ...
Abel E L - - 1997
This review examines the relationship between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Although very high spontaneous abortion rates have been reported for alcoholic women, it is still uncertain if this is due to the direct effects of alcohol or the indirect effects of alcoholism-related disorders such as cirrhosis. ...
Low J A - - 1997
Evidence of a significant metabolic acidosis, an umbilical artery base deficit > 12 mmol/L, confirms that an asphyxial exposure has occurred. This is observed at delivery in approximately 2% of all pregnancies. Classification of the severity of the asphyxial exposure is difficult because the duration and nature of the exposure ...
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