Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1304
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Bagheri M M - - 1998
Alcohol is the most common identifiable teratogenic cause of mental retardation in North America. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a major public health problem, which is frequently under diagnosed by physicians. OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the maternal risk factors and neonatal characteristics of children with FAS. DESIGN: A retrospective ...
Polygenis D - - 1998
To determine whether there is an association between moderate alcohol consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy and increased risk of fetal malformations, we conducted a literature search using Medline (1966-present), PsycLit (1974-1995), and EMBASE (1988-1995). The following inclusion criteria were used to select the studies to be evaluated: 1) ...
Bunin G R - - 1998
Nine studies of childhood brain tumors and maternal diet during pregnancy have focused on foods related to the N-nitroso-compound(NOC) hypothesis. An association between frequent consumption of cured meat by pregnant women and increased risk is a consistent finding in most of the studies. The data on fruit and vegetable consumption ...
Katchen M A - - 1998
This study describes a comparison of worker exposure to total and inhalable dust, inorganic As, and borates using two types of particulate sampling assemblies as part of a comprehensive industrial hygiene evaluation in a borate mining and processing facility. Employees were segmented into similar exposure groups (SEG) based on work ...
Buck G M - - 1997
Sport fish from the Great Lakes are contaminated with halogenated organics, heavy metals, and pesticides, thus serving as a route of exposure for fish-consuming populations. These contaminants are recognized reproductive toxicants in animals; few human studies are available. The purpose of this study was to assess consumption of contaminated fish ...
Tímár L - - 1997
A series of 22 women who suffered from mushroom poisoning while pregnant have been identified among adults receiving treatment between 1960 and 1993 in a specialist clinic in Budapest, Hungary. In most cases, the poisonings were attributed to Amanita phalloides, verna, and related species. Of these, 20 went to term, ...
Sampson P D - - 1997
We critique published incidences for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and present new estimates of the incidence of FAS and the prevalence of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). We first review criteria necessary for valid estimation of FAS incidence. Estimates for three population-based studies that best meet these criteria are reported with ...
Lundsberg L S - - 1997
PURPOSE: Heavy drinking during pregnancy is an established risk factor for fetal alcohol syndrome and other adverse perinatal outcomes. However, there is still debate as to the effects of low-to-moderate drinking during pregnancy. METHODS: This prospective investigation was based on 2714 singleton live births at Yale-New Haven Hospital during 1988-1992. ...
Thonneau P - - 1997
The relationship between male occupational heat exposure and the time required to achieve a pregnancy [TTP] was studied in a retrospective survey of 402 fertile couples. The TTP for t he subgroups 'exposure t o heat' (median = 4 .0 months; mean 11.8; SD = 13.3) and 'professional driver >3 ...
Windham G C - - 1997
Maternal alcoholism is known to have adverse effects on reproduction and fetal development, but the effects of moderate consumption remain controversial. In a previous case-control study, we found a doubled risk of spontaneous abortion with an average consumption of seven or more drinks per week during the first trimester. To ...
Reynolds J D - - 1997
Ethanol-induced changes in fetal prostaglandin E (PGE) concentration may play a role in the toxic effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Using the novel technique of in utero microdialysis, the present study tested the hypothesis that acute ethanol exposure changes PGE concentration in the intact cerebral cortex of preterm (93 +/- ...
Chan L - - 1997
Pneumothorax is extremely rare during pregnancy. We describe two antepartum cases temporally associated with cocaine use with a review of the literature and discussion on treatment options. Case 1, a 39-year-old female, presented at 31.3 weeks' gestation with a right pneumothorax after smoking crack cocaine. The pneumothorax was refractory to ...
Elghany N A - - 1997
The effect of exposure to inorganic mercury on the pregnant woman and her foetus has received little attention. Transport of elemental inorganic mercury into foetal tissues has been reported, and prior studies indicate a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome. The effects of occupational exposure to inorganic mercury on pregnancy ...
Connors G J - - 1997
The relationship between the therapeutic alliance and treatment participation and drinking outcomes during and after treatment was evaluated among alcoholic outpatient and aftercare clients. In the outpatient sample, ratings of the working alliance, whether provided by the client or therapist, were significant predictors of treatment participation and drinking behavior during ...
Holmes L B - - 1997
During his career Bob Brent has been instrumental in developing the methodology to use in determining whether an exposure in pregnancy has a harmful effect on the fetus. Experience has also shown the importance of using this approach to determine when an exposure is not teratogenic. Unfortunately, the attendant debate, ...
Venables P H - - 1997
Data are in conflict concerning whether a mother's exposure to influenza in pregnancy gives rise to an increased probability that her offspring will develop schizophrenia. In Northern Hemisphere studies, exposure to influenza and cold tend to be confounded. The present study, carried out in Mauritius, examines the effect of maternal ...
Nakagawa K - - 1997
To optimize the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer patients who are pregnant, the following factors must be considered: the potential effects of the therapy on fetuses and neonates, the stage and prognosis of the mother's disease, and the possible risks to the patient of restricting cancer treatment. Malformations and mental ...
Rasheed A - - 1997
Fetal alcohol syndrome occurs in less than 10% of women who drink heavily during pregnancy. One potential mechanism for this intersubject variation is differences in placental alcohol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present at low concentrations in the placenta and is not inducible. CYP2E1 has not been found in human placentas ...
Rogers J M - - 1997
Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol (MeOH) by inhalation on gestation days (gd) 6-15 results in dose-related increases in fetal cleft palate, exencephaly, and skeletal defects. Here, critical periods for the developmental toxicity of MeOH were assessed in pregnant CD-1 mice exposed to 10,000 ppm MeOH or filtered air ...
van Engelen J G - - 1997
In order to study the effects of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) on the toxicokinetics of n-hexane and, in particular, the formation of 2,5-hexanedione from n-hexane in humans, volunteers were exposed to n-hexane (approx. 60 ppm, 2.4 microM in the inhaled air) with or without simultaneous inhalatory coexposure to MEK for ...
Yoshida M - - 1997
Ethanol (Et-OH), which is an inhibitor of catalase, reduces oxidation of mercury vapor (Hg0) into ionic mercury (Hg2+). Consequently, exposure of pregnant animals to Hg0 with pretreatment of Et-OH causes penetration of larger amount of Hg0 to the fetus. The fate of Hg0 in the fetus of pregnant guinea pigs, ...
Abel E L - - 1997
This review examines the relationship between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Although very high spontaneous abortion rates have been reported for alcoholic women, it is still uncertain if this is due to the direct effects of alcohol or the indirect effects of alcoholism-related disorders such as cirrhosis. ...
Low J A - - 1997
Evidence of a significant metabolic acidosis, an umbilical artery base deficit > 12 mmol/L, confirms that an asphyxial exposure has occurred. This is observed at delivery in approximately 2% of all pregnancies. Classification of the severity of the asphyxial exposure is difficult because the duration and nature of the exposure ...
Konovalov H V - - 1997
Brain development has been studied in 44 embryos (gestational age: 5-12 weeks) and three fetuses (gestational age: 14 weeks) obtained from mothers who used alcohol during pregnancy, and compared with a control group comprising 16 cases of comparable ages. In 34 cases out of 47 in the alcohol group (75.5%), ...
Borges G - - 1997
In 1988, the General Directorate of Epidemiology and the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry conducted the first National Addiction Survey (ENA), providing regional and national data on alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. The ENA providing a subsample of women who have been pregnant at some time in their lives. There were ...
van Muiswinkel W J - - 1997
Personal exposure to solvents was studied among hairdressers in 28 salons in two regions during two seasons in The Netherlands. Ethanol was used as a marker for solvent exposure. Auxiliary data, such as salon and work characteristics, meteorological conditions and information on the presence of control measures, were collected during ...
Church M W - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Cocaine-associated morbidities in pregnant women (e.g., abruptio placentae, hypertension, seizures) occur mostly during the final stages of gestation. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cocaine's toxicity and blood levels varied as a function of "critical periods" of exposure during gestation. STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate mortality rates, ...
- - 1997
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are effective antihypertensive drugs, but use of ACEIs during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with a pattern of defects known as ACEI fetopathy. The predominant feature of the fetopathy is renal tubular dysplasia. Other associated conditions include hypocalvaria, intrauterine growth retardation ...
Kaufman M H - - 1997
Much information has emerged over the years concerning the teratogenicity of acute and chronic alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Both alcohol and its primary metabolite, acetaldehyde, are teratogenic. Exposure during pregnancy may lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and this is said to occur in a substantial proportion of infants born ...
Gilliam D M - - 1997
An animal model was used to see if maternal genetic factors contribute to ethanol-induced fetal malformations. Susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and resistant Short-Sleep (SS) mice were used in a reciprocal cross-breeding design. This design produced four fetal genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and SSSS liters and hybrid B6SS and SSB6 litters. Dams were ...
Rhainds M - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking (active and passive exposure) and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cord blood lead levels. In 1990, a survey was conducted in two hospitals in Québec City, Québec, Canada, a white-collar agglomeration. The sample included 430 mothers and ...
Wilkins-Haug L - - 1997
Extrapolating from animal data, at the level at which well-controlled occupational exposure to toluene vapor is encountered, in utero exposure does not pose a significant fetal risk. However, following chronic and excessive industrial accidents or intentional abuse, toluene exposure several orders of magnitude greater exists, and at these levels in ...
Abel E L - - 1997
One of the most frequently cited examples of ancient prescience concerning the potential dangers of drinking during pregnancy is the story of Samson in the Biblical Book of Judges. The present article examines the relevant passages from this and other related Biblical texts for indications that the ancient Hebrews were ...
Schmidt L G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is widely accepted in screening (male) population samples for heavy alcohol consumption, but its role in relapse detection is not convincingly established. The authors therefore compared the diagnostic value of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin with the commonly used gamma-glutamyltransferase in identifying relapsed alcoholics during outpatient aftercare. ...
Cloud S J - - 1997
The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) utilizes a population-based survey of Oklahoma women with a recent live birth to examine the rates of alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy. Nearly one-half of Oklahoma women report using alcohol during the three months before pregnancy and one in thirteen women consume ...
Auroux M - - 1997
Major malformations correspond to pathology during the first 2 months of gestation. Thereafter, histological and biochemical abnormalities can result from different negative maternal incidents and, without obvious malformations, change the phenotype of the conceptus. These abnormalities lead to essentially functional disorders often compatible with life and to more or less ...
Reinhardt F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Carbon disulphide (CS2) is highly neurotoxic. There is ample evidence of damage to the peripheral and central nervous system. The air concentration at which such adverse effects can first be observed is presently a subject of controversy. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of CS2-exposed workers from the viscose industry ...
Maalouf E F - - 1997
We report a case of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita secondary to fetal hypokinesia in a 41-week gestation infant following antenatal central nervous system injury. The mother's pregnancy was complicated by an episode of attempted self harm, with an overdose of co-proxamol at 22 weeks of gestational age, and by the use ...
Cornelius M D - - 1997
Data were collected on the drinking behavior of 415 pregnant adolescents from 1990 to 1994. The relationships between knowledge and attitudes about drinking and drinking behavior were examined. Knowledge about drinking was not related to average daily volume of alcohol before or during pregnancy. Those with specific knowledge about fetal ...
Whitty J E - - 1997
Regular, heavy alcohol intake results in transferrin that is deficient in carbohydrate moieties. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been used as a biologic marker of heavy alcohol exposure in nonpregnant humans. There have been no reports of CDT levels in pregnancy. Our objective was to determine maternal and cord blood levels ...
Gagnaire F - - 1996
The question of whether or not toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea-pig is accompanied by neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was addressed. Two modes of exposure were studied; (1) acute exposures where animals were exposed to 3 ppm TDI for 1 h and experiments were carried ...
Strömland K - - 1996
The offspring of nine women who had abused alcohol and drugs during pregnancy were studied. Of the 30 children, 10 had fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or fetal alcohol effects (FAE). Ophthalmological impairments associated with FAS--impaired vision, optic nerve hypoplasia, cataract, increased tortuosity of retinal vessels--were common. The severity of teratogenic ...
Owens D A - - 1996
Elevated road fatality rates at night involve multiple variables, each of which contributes to an unknown degree. In order to determine the relative contributions of reduced visibility and drivers' consumption of alcohol, we performed two quasi-experiments analyzing data recorded by the U.S. Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1980 through 1990. ...
Jones H E - - 1996
The effects of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) on physical and behavioral development were examined in CD-1 mice prenatally exposed under two regimens. In the first study, pregnant mice were exposed to either 2,000 ppm TCE or filtered air for 17 hrs. during gestational days (GD) 12-17. A third group remained untreated. The ...
Hodgson J C - - 1996
The aim of the work was to determine the effect of exposing ovine bronchoalveolar macrophages (BAM) in vivo to Pasteurella haemolytica and/or Bordetella parapertussis on the subsequent uptake and killing of P. haemolytica by these cells in vitro. Exposure in vivo to P. haemolytica did not affect the uptake of ...
Friedler G - - 1996
Experimental and epidemiologic investigations document the adverse consequences of an array of paternal exposures on the development of subsequent offspring. Male-mediated abnormalities have been reported after exposure to therapeutic and recreational drugs, to chemicals in the workplace and environment and to ionizing radiation. The impact on progeny outcome includes: an ...
Manson J M - - 1996
Pregnancy outcomes in women with inadvertent exposure to lovastatin and simvastatin during pregnancy have been examined based on reports submitted to the manufacturer as part of worldwide postmarketing surveillance. There were 134 reports of exposure during pregnancy in which pregnancy outcome was known. Among prospectively followed pregnancies with known outcome, ...
Schaefer C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study potential teratogenic effects of quinolone exposure during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. Subjects are pregnant women who contacted a teratology information center for risk information on quinolone treatment. A total of 549 pregnancies was collected by the European Network of Teratology Information Services between 1986 and ...
Richardson G A - - 1996
The offspring of 28 women who reported light to moderate cocaine use during pregnancy were compared with those of 523 women who reported no cocaine use during pregnancy and none for the year prior to pregnancy. Subjects were participants in two prospective, longitudinal studies of prenatal substance use. Women were ...
Ratcliffe H E - - 1996
The ubiquitous nature of mercury in the environment, its global atmospheric cycling, and its toxicity to humans at levels that are uncomfortably close to exposures experienced by a proportion of the population are some of the current concerns associated with this pollutant. The purpose of this review is to critically ...
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