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Selcen D - - 2000
Topical preparations of tretinoin are used for the treatment of various skin conditions and for rejuvenation of the skin. Published information on pregnancy outcome following maternal exposure to topical tretinoin is limited to three case reports. We report a case of a patient with anomalies involving the ear and central ...
Golden J - - 2000
This article examines the portrayal of pregnancy and alcohol in thirty-six national network evening news broadcasts (ABC, CBS, NBC). Early coverage focused on white, middle-class women, as scientific authorities and government officials warned against drinking during pregnancy. After 1987, however, women who drank during pregnancy were depicted as members of ...
Myers G J - - 2000
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that in high exposures can cause mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and seizures. The developing brain appears particularly sensitive to MeHg. Exposure levels in pregnant experimental animals that do not result in detectable signs or symptoms in the mother can adversely affect the offspring's development. ...
Goldberg A E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Season of birth is a putative etiological factor for several psychiatric illnesses. An excess of late winter and early spring births has been demonstrated repeatedly for schizophrenia, which has usually been interpreted as the result of prenatal or infant exposure to seasonally mediated "harmful effects," such as infectious diseases. ...
Sarkola T - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio of CDT to total transferrin, and hemoglobin-acetaldehyde adducts with mean cell volume (MCV) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the follow-up of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. METHODS: Forty-four pregnant drug and alcohol abusing female patients attending a special ...
Ryan B M - - 2000
Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz ...
Diekman S T - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge, attitudes, current clinical practices, and educational needs of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding patients' alcohol use during pregnancy. METHODS: A 20-item, self-administered questionnaire on patients' prenatal alcohol use was sent to 1000 active ACOG fellows. Responses were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS: Of the 60% of ...
Radzievsky A A - - 2000
Based on a hypothesis of neural system involvement in the initial absorption and further processing of the millimeter electromagnetic waves (MW) signal, we reproduced, quantitatively assessed and compared the analgesic effect of a single MW treatment, exposing areas of skin possessing different innervation densities. The cold water tail flick test ...
Liu J K - - 2000
Repeated prenatal exposure to cocaine is associated with attenuated respiratory and arousal responses in infants and piglets. As the normal development of these functions is influenced by medullary opioid systems, the present study explored the possible contribution of the opioid systems to the attenuation induced by cocaine. Methionine-enkephalin (met-enkephalin), an ...
Apostoli P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Whole blood and urinary manganese have been measured in occupational and environmental studies for the assessment of exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the airborne concentrations of manganese and these biological indicators. METHODS: Environmental and biological monitoring was performed in a group of ...
Mann F A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Trauma surgeons must balance the risk and benefits of diagnostic radiographic procedures on potentially pregnant patients and should know the range and likelihood of effects that radiation might have on pregnancy. METHODS: We present guidelines for assessing such radiation risks. Knowledge of a patient's pregnancy status and an estimate ...
Cornelius M D - - 2000
Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy have both been associated with a number of adverse effects on the growth, cognitive development, and behavior of the exposed child. Understanding the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure allows researchers to identify those characteristics that are uniquely related to tobacco and those that are ...
Westphal L L - - 2000
This paper examines prenatal drinking among American Indian/Alaska Native women using the 1988 Urban Indian Over-sample for the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined by demographic and behavioral variables. Although one out of every five American Indian/Alaska Native ...
Morse B A - - 2000
Prenatal providers are reluctant to discuss alcohol use in the clinical setting, even though heavy alcohol use is associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), sometimes known as alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Fourteen percent to 20% of pregnant women report drinking some alcohol during pregnancy. Approximately 0.2% ...
- - 2000
Thousands of pregnant patients and radiation workers are exposed to ionising radiation each year. Lack of knowledge is responsible for great anxiety and probably unnecessary termination of pregnancies. For many patients, the exposure is appropriate, while for others the exposure may be inappropriate, placing the unborn child at increased risk. ...
Gardella J R - - 2000
Couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss are often concerned that toxins within the environment have contributed to their reproductive difficulty. Questions posed by these couples to their health care providers are difficult to answer because scientifically accurate information regarding the reproductive impact of potential environmental toxins and other teratogens is not ...
Goldstein R B - - 2000
PURPOSE: Substance use by pregnant women is socially stigmatized and may be legally punishable. This societal condemnation raises concerns about underascertainment of prenatal substance exposure of offspring if mothers are asked specifically about their behavior during gestation, versus their life histories without reference to gestational dates. This study assessed agreement ...
Williams R J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) among Natives in northern Manitoba. A second objective was to determine if there are age or gender differences in level of knowledge. A third objective was to examine the relationship between knowledge about FAS and reported frequency of drug and alcohol ...
Chan D Q - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) describes the systemic and ocular anomalies resulting from the teratogenic effect of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. It is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the U.S. CASE REPORTS: Two case reports illustrate the characteristic findings in FAS. These include growth retardation, cognitive ...
Little Bertis B. - - 1999
The objective of the study was to analyze possible adverse effects of peripartum cocaine use on maternal and fetal outcomes. Informed consent was given by 720 (97%) of 740 women who delivered consecutively at a large urban public hospital to test an umbilical cord blood sample for the presence of ...
Floyd R L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Frequent alcohol use during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion and dysmorphologic changes in the developing organ systems of the embryo, including the heart, kidneys, and brain. However, few population-based studies are available that describe the prevalence of frequent drinking (6 or more drinks ...
Alm B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether alcohol and caffeine are independent risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses based on data from the Nordic epidemiological SIDS study, a case control study in which all parents of SIDS victims in the Nordic countries from 1 September 1992 to ...
Taskinen H K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether exposure to formaldehyde, organic solvents or other chemicals in the wood-processing industry affects the fertility of women. METHODS: For this purpose, a retrospective study on time to pregnancy was conducted among female wood workers who had given birth during 1985-1995. ...
Cornelius M D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study examines the effects of alcohol use during pregnancy on the growth and gestational age at birth of 413 offspring of adolescents. METHODS: Data were collected during 1990 to 1994. The adolescents were from a prenatal clinic in Pittsburgh, PA. They were interviewed at mid-pregnancy and at ...
Saillenfait A M - - 1999
The developmental toxicities of 4 methacrylates were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats after inhalation exposure for 6 h/day, during days 6 to 20 of gestation. The exposure concentrations were, for methacrylic acid, 0, 50, 100, 200, or 300 ppm; for ethyl methacrylate, 0, 600, 1200, 1800, or 2400 ppm; for n-butyl ...
Chang G - - 1999
The reservations expressed about the accuracy of patient self-reports of drinking may be heightened when obtaining information about prenatal alcohol consumption, which may be subject to fears of social or medical disapproval. Thus, clinicians may seek collateral reports to confirm patients' reports during this critical time. The purpose of this ...
McMartin K I - - 1999
One of my patients is a laboratory technician who routinely handles organic solvents. She has just learned that she is pregnant, and she depends very much on this job because her husband is unemployed. What is the risk to her unborn baby? Available epidemiologic data indicate your patient's fetus might ...
- - 1999
(1) Clomifene is teratogenic in animals. (2) Few data are available on human exposure in early pregnancy. A moderate increase in the risk of fetal malformations, especially skeletal defects, cannot be ruled out. (3) It is crucial to check that women are not pregnant before prescribing clomifene for them. (4) ...
Bennett A D - - 1999
Tobacco and alcohol are the substances most abused during pregnancy. Alcohol (ethanol) is the human teratogen that produces the most serious neurobehavioral effects on the fetus. Cocaine is associated with spontaneous abortions, premature labor, precipitous labor, stillbirths, meconium staining and abruptio placentae. Heroin use during pregnancy has been associated with ...
Landín M - - 1999
The scaleup of a pharmaceutical granulation in a series of planetary mixers with increasing bowl capacity between 5 and 200 liters has been studied by applying the classical dimensionless numbers of Power, Reynolds, and Froude to define the power consumption profile of each mixer as a function of the processing ...
Toppenberg K S - - 1999
Maternal illness during pregnancy is not uncommon and sometimes requires radiographic imaging for proper diagnosis and treatment. The patient and her physician may be concerned about potential harm to the fetus from radiation exposure. In reality, however, the risks to the developing fetus are quite small. The accepted cumulative dose ...
Bull L B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study among American Indian prenatal patients was conducted to validate a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) designed to (1) identify women who had consumed alcohol during pregnancy, (2) identify women who may be at risk of drinking during pregnancy, and (3) determine the quantity and frequency of alcohol and other ...
Dodic M - - 1999
For many years, both human and animal studies correlated changes in behaviour of the young offspring with the degree of maternal stress or glucocorticoid exposure of the foetus/neonate. In the past ten years there has been overwhelming epidemiological evidence to suggest that growth retardation in utero is a very important ...
Jones-Webb R - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: We sought to examine relationships between physician advice and use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy among 683 women in the upper Midwest. METHODS: Data on risk of substance use during pregnancy were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A higher proportion of women used tobacco (34%) than alcohol ...
Clementi M - - 1999
We report on a further case of congenital anomalies in a child exposed to methimazole during the first trimester of pregnancy (from first to seventh gestational week), and define a specific malformation pattern related to prenatal methimazole exposure and consisting of choanal and esophageal atresia, scalp defects, minor facial anomalies ...
Leech S L - - 1999
Attention and impulsivity of prenatally substance-exposed 6 year olds were assessed as part of a longitudinal study. Most of the women were light to moderate users of alcohol and marijuana who decreased their use after the first trimester of pregnancy. Tobacco was used by a majority of women and did ...
Bearer C F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol-related birth defects, all terms referring to the spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol, are a major public health burden. There is currently no laboratory test to identify newborns exposed to ethanol in utero. Meconium was ...
Hamilton T D - - 1999
Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial ...
Watanabe C - - 1999
Effect of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on the glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation in the fetal brain was examined. Pregnant ICR mice were injected with 3 mgHg/kg of MeHg on gestational day 12, 13 and 14 (G12-14). On the G14 or G17, the fetal brains were removed and ...
Stewart P - - 1999
The current study was designed to assess the pattern and concentration of prenatal PCB exposure in the newborns of women who consumed Great Lakes fish. We compared the pattern and concentration of umbilical cord blood PCBs of 145 women who reported never having consumed Great Lakes fish to 134 women ...
- - 1999
(1) Follow-up studies of approximately 1,000 women exposed to quinolones during pregnancy show no increase in the risk of malformations, miscarriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation or postnatal disorders, but there are not enough data to draw firm conclusions. (2) Teratogenic effects have been observed in animals treated with the oldest ...
Madu E C - - 1999
Even though uncommon in pregnancy, aortic dissection is a potentially catastrophic vascular complication, occurring mainly in the late stages of pregnancy. Vascular events, including aortic dissection are recognized complications of crack-cocaine use. The authors report a case of aortic dissection in early pregnancy related to crack-cocaine use. They believe that ...
Luderer U - - 1999
We sought to characterize calls received by a regional Poison Center concerning reproductive hazards and to assess the quality of the responses. Data was extracted for a 3 mo period from all calls regarding reproductive or in utero developmental effects. The Poison Center responses were evaluated based on completeness of ...
Mitchell J J - - 1999
Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in central nervous system deficits in infants ranging from fetal alcohol effects to fetal alcohol syndrome. Changes in cerebral metabolism causing ischemic in utero conditions can also result from ethanol (EtOH). Growth factors have been shown to ameliorate ischemic damage and EtOH-induced neurotoxicity. ...
Diav-Citrin O - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIM: Zopiclone, a cyclopyrrolone derivative, is a short-acting hypnotic. To date, no published data exist regarding human pregnancy experience with zopiclone. The purpose of this study was to compare pregnancy outcome following first-trimester exposure to zopiclone with that of a matched control group of women, who were counseled ...
Weisdorf T - - 1999
Alcohol and drug use in pregnancy is a significant concern. There is a paucity of treatment programs for substance-abusing pregnant women, especially if indigent. Furthermore, treatment retention is compromised when the drug of choice is crack-cocaine. This paper reports the results of a study comparing treatment retention of cocaine-abusing indigent ...
Jones K M - - 1999
We assessed the academic performance of a 14-year-old boy with insect phobia in the context of feared stimuli. The dependent measure was math calculation rate across three conditions that varied therapist statements about the presence of crickets and the actual presence of live crickets. Subsequent treatment consisted of graduated exposure ...
Biber K L - - 1998
Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the leading causes of birth defects in this country. Children exposed to alcohol in utero suffer from growth and mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and immune dysfunction. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that B lymphopoiesis is delayed in mice exposed to alcohol in utero. ...
- - 1998
Heavy maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy can cause permanent birth defects, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Although these alcohol-related defects are entirely preventable, the factors associated with maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy are complex and often resistant to change. In addition, not all women who drink heavily will ...
Grimstad H - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between a history of physical abuse and consumption of cigarettes and alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: In a case-control study, 83 women who delivered a low birthweight (<2500 g) infant (cases) and 92 women with a newborn with birthweight > or =2500 g (controls) were ...
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