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McMartin K I - - 1999
One of my patients is a laboratory technician who routinely handles organic solvents. She has just learned that she is pregnant, and she depends very much on this job because her husband is unemployed. What is the risk to her unborn baby? Available epidemiologic data indicate your patient's fetus might ...
- - 1999
(1) Clomifene is teratogenic in animals. (2) Few data are available on human exposure in early pregnancy. A moderate increase in the risk of fetal malformations, especially skeletal defects, cannot be ruled out. (3) It is crucial to check that women are not pregnant before prescribing clomifene for them. (4) ...
Bennett A D - - 1999
Tobacco and alcohol are the substances most abused during pregnancy. Alcohol (ethanol) is the human teratogen that produces the most serious neurobehavioral effects on the fetus. Cocaine is associated with spontaneous abortions, premature labor, precipitous labor, stillbirths, meconium staining and abruptio placentae. Heroin use during pregnancy has been associated with ...
Landín M - - 1999
The scaleup of a pharmaceutical granulation in a series of planetary mixers with increasing bowl capacity between 5 and 200 liters has been studied by applying the classical dimensionless numbers of Power, Reynolds, and Froude to define the power consumption profile of each mixer as a function of the processing ...
Toppenberg K S - - 1999
Maternal illness during pregnancy is not uncommon and sometimes requires radiographic imaging for proper diagnosis and treatment. The patient and her physician may be concerned about potential harm to the fetus from radiation exposure. In reality, however, the risks to the developing fetus are quite small. The accepted cumulative dose ...
Bull L B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study among American Indian prenatal patients was conducted to validate a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) designed to (1) identify women who had consumed alcohol during pregnancy, (2) identify women who may be at risk of drinking during pregnancy, and (3) determine the quantity and frequency of alcohol and other ...
Dodic M - - 1999
For many years, both human and animal studies correlated changes in behaviour of the young offspring with the degree of maternal stress or glucocorticoid exposure of the foetus/neonate. In the past ten years there has been overwhelming epidemiological evidence to suggest that growth retardation in utero is a very important ...
Jones-Webb R - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: We sought to examine relationships between physician advice and use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy among 683 women in the upper Midwest. METHODS: Data on risk of substance use during pregnancy were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A higher proportion of women used tobacco (34%) than alcohol ...
Clementi M - - 1999
We report on a further case of congenital anomalies in a child exposed to methimazole during the first trimester of pregnancy (from first to seventh gestational week), and define a specific malformation pattern related to prenatal methimazole exposure and consisting of choanal and esophageal atresia, scalp defects, minor facial anomalies ...
Leech S L - - 1999
Attention and impulsivity of prenatally substance-exposed 6 year olds were assessed as part of a longitudinal study. Most of the women were light to moderate users of alcohol and marijuana who decreased their use after the first trimester of pregnancy. Tobacco was used by a majority of women and did ...
Bearer C F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol-related birth defects, all terms referring to the spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol, are a major public health burden. There is currently no laboratory test to identify newborns exposed to ethanol in utero. Meconium was ...
Hamilton T D - - 1999
Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial ...
Watanabe C - - 1999
Effect of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on the glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation in the fetal brain was examined. Pregnant ICR mice were injected with 3 mgHg/kg of MeHg on gestational day 12, 13 and 14 (G12-14). On the G14 or G17, the fetal brains were removed and ...
Stewart P - - 1999
The current study was designed to assess the pattern and concentration of prenatal PCB exposure in the newborns of women who consumed Great Lakes fish. We compared the pattern and concentration of umbilical cord blood PCBs of 145 women who reported never having consumed Great Lakes fish to 134 women ...
- - 1999
(1) Follow-up studies of approximately 1,000 women exposed to quinolones during pregnancy show no increase in the risk of malformations, miscarriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation or postnatal disorders, but there are not enough data to draw firm conclusions. (2) Teratogenic effects have been observed in animals treated with the oldest ...
Madu E C - - 1999
Even though uncommon in pregnancy, aortic dissection is a potentially catastrophic vascular complication, occurring mainly in the late stages of pregnancy. Vascular events, including aortic dissection are recognized complications of crack-cocaine use. The authors report a case of aortic dissection in early pregnancy related to crack-cocaine use. They believe that ...
Luderer U - - 1999
We sought to characterize calls received by a regional Poison Center concerning reproductive hazards and to assess the quality of the responses. Data was extracted for a 3 mo period from all calls regarding reproductive or in utero developmental effects. The Poison Center responses were evaluated based on completeness of ...
Mitchell J J - - 1999
Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in central nervous system deficits in infants ranging from fetal alcohol effects to fetal alcohol syndrome. Changes in cerebral metabolism causing ischemic in utero conditions can also result from ethanol (EtOH). Growth factors have been shown to ameliorate ischemic damage and EtOH-induced neurotoxicity. ...
Diav-Citrin O - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIM: Zopiclone, a cyclopyrrolone derivative, is a short-acting hypnotic. To date, no published data exist regarding human pregnancy experience with zopiclone. The purpose of this study was to compare pregnancy outcome following first-trimester exposure to zopiclone with that of a matched control group of women, who were counseled ...
Weisdorf T - - 1999
Alcohol and drug use in pregnancy is a significant concern. There is a paucity of treatment programs for substance-abusing pregnant women, especially if indigent. Furthermore, treatment retention is compromised when the drug of choice is crack-cocaine. This paper reports the results of a study comparing treatment retention of cocaine-abusing indigent ...
Jones K M - - 1999
We assessed the academic performance of a 14-year-old boy with insect phobia in the context of feared stimuli. The dependent measure was math calculation rate across three conditions that varied therapist statements about the presence of crickets and the actual presence of live crickets. Subsequent treatment consisted of graduated exposure ...
Biber K L - - 1998
Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the leading causes of birth defects in this country. Children exposed to alcohol in utero suffer from growth and mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and immune dysfunction. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that B lymphopoiesis is delayed in mice exposed to alcohol in utero. ...
- - 1998
Heavy maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy can cause permanent birth defects, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Although these alcohol-related defects are entirely preventable, the factors associated with maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy are complex and often resistant to change. In addition, not all women who drink heavily will ...
Grimstad H - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between a history of physical abuse and consumption of cigarettes and alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: In a case-control study, 83 women who delivered a low birthweight (<2500 g) infant (cases) and 92 women with a newborn with birthweight > or =2500 g (controls) were ...
Allebeck P - - 1998
Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome in the end of the 1960s, substantial evidence has accumulated on a number of adverse effects that alcohol consumption during pregnancy may have on the fetus. Long-term effects on child development has also been observed. Although the various types of effects are well ...
Zachman R D - - 1998
The mechanism of the fetal embryopathology resulting from ethanol ingestion during pregnancy is not established. This review summarizes recent research on the interaction of ethanol and vitamin A in models that explore if an interaction between these two compounds might potentially be the mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome. The rationale ...
Bailey B - - 1998
There is large variability in the rate and extent of fetal damage from cocaine in humans; however, the sources of such variability are not presently known. In order to study the relationship between maternal cocaine pharmacokinetics at the end of pregnancy and maternal or infant cocaine and benzoylecgonine hair concentrations ...
Akay M - - 1998
Fractal methods have been found to be useful in characterizing biomedical signals. The use of fractal estimation requires the estimation of parameter H, which is directly related to the fractal dimension D. Here, we propose a new approach which is a combination of the wavelet transform and fractal estimators to ...
Abel E L EL Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. - - 1998
Deborah Mathieu's proposal for state intervention in the lives of pregnant substance abusers in order to prevent serious harm to their future children sparked a lively debate in this journal. The present discussion characterizes the three main arguments offered against her proposal as (a) the "uncertainty principle"--the inability to predict ...
Golub M S - - 1998
Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, ...
Venables P H - - 1998
This study examined the effect of mothers' exposure to the 1957 A2/Singapore influenza virus in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy on the electrodermal activity of their 15-year-old offspring. The epidemic occurred during cold months of the year. The results show that maternal viral (and cold) exposure during ...
West J R - - 1998
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is commonly believed to be the leading known cause of mental retardation in the United States, although surveillance at state and national levels is problematic. The most serious consequence of fetal alcohol exposure is central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. While the facial features of FAS become ...
Woods J R - - 1998
Pregnancy is a dynamic process, and maternal as well as fetal risks from cocaine use in pregnancy may differ as pregnancy progresses. Three areas of biology offer opportunities for reevaluating cocaine's effects in pregnancy: (1) Maternal cardiovascular and neurologic responses to cocaine hydrochloride are enhanced when compared with responses in ...
Church M W - - 1998
The illicit use of cocaine has increased dramatically over the last 10-12 years. There has been a corresponding increase in cocaine abuse among obstetric patients and in the number of "cocaine babies." According to some estimates, these children make up more than half of the drug-associated births. This problem is ...
Richardson G A - - 1998
The current study examines the effect of prenatal cocaine use on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development at birth, 1, 3, and 7 years, controlling for other factors that affect child development. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy were more likely to be single and to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco ...
Driscoll C D - - 1998
Diglyme (Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, CAS No. 111-96-6) is a glycol ether which has been used in solvent formulations. To assess the potential developmental toxicity of this chemical, groups of pregnant Crl:CD BR rats were exposed to either 0 (control, room air only), 25, 100, or 400 ppm diglyme by ...
Robbins S J - - 1998
Sixty-one cocaine abuse patients provided self-reports of craving and urine samples 3 times a week. Within-subject analyses revealed several relationships between the measures. First, peak craving levels were higher for 2-3-day intervals during which cocaine use had occurred than for preceding or following abstinent intervals. Second, average craving ratings during ...
Myles T D - - 1998
We evaluated the outcome of pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membrane (PROM) in order to determine if tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug usage were associated with alterations in pregnancy or neonatal outcome. Comparisons in outcome were made with respect to tobacco, alcohol, and/or illicit drug usage. Comparisons were ...
Kamstrup O - - 1998
A summary is given of the biopersistence and pathology after inhalation by rats of two different Man-made Vitreous Fibres, MMVF21 (traditional stone wool) and MMVF34 (HT stone wool), and the results are discussed in relation to biopersistence measured after intra-tracheal instillation. The results are given from a short-term inhalation biopersistence ...
Larroque B - - 1998
Very high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are harmful for the central nervous system of the child and affect morphogenesis and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on development at preschool age in a longitudinal study. Pregnant women were ...
Plessinger M A - - 1998
Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced ...
Plessinger M A - - 1998
Cocaine continues to be abused during pregnancy, creating increased demands on the health care system. Epidemiology and basic science research have identified and confirmed risks of adverse maternal and fetal effects when cocaine is used during pregnancy. These effects of cocaine in pregnant women often are influenced by a number ...
Scher M S - - 1998
We investigated the effects of prenatal substance use on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Seventy-four children were tested at birth and 1 month of age with binocular flash VEPs and at 4, 8, and 18 months of age with binocular pattern VEPs. Regressions were run by trimester to assess the independent ...
Cook J L - - 1998
A common pattern of birth defects was reported in children born to alcoholic women over 20 years ago. Shortly thereafter the constellation of defects became known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and reports from around the world served to acknowledge the pervasiveness of the disorder. Simultaneously with the clinical reports, ...
Caan B - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The effect of caffeine consumption on fertility was examined prospectively in 210 women. METHODS: Women reported on caffeinated beverage consumption and pregnancy status monthly. Odds ratios for becoming pregnant were calculated for both high and moderate vs low consumption. RESULTS: No significant association was found for any of the ...
Eyler F D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, longitudinal project was designed to determine the effects of prenatal cocaine use on the pregnancy outcomes of women from a historically understudied rural public health population. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed over 2500 women prenatally, identified 154 cocaine users, and matched 154 controls on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and ...
Wilson L C - - 1998
We report on a 3-year-old boy with bilateral choanal atresia, hypoplastic nipples, and developmental delay who had been exposed to carbimazole in utero because of maternal Graves disease. His combination of abnormalities and facial appearance strongly resembles that of a previously reported child exposed to methimazole (which is the active ...
Heil S H - - 1998
All mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Milk production (i.e., lactation), which occurs in the mammary glands, is regulated by several hormones, most prominently prolactin and oxytocin. Studies in both humans and laboratory animals have demonstrated that maternal alcohol consumption before and during lactation can interfere with the functions ...
Martínez-Frías M L - - 1998
The adverse effect of therapeutic use of sex hormones during pregnancy inducing pseudohermaphroditism in female offspring has been well known since the early 1950s. Consequently there has been great concern about the potential effects on the offspring of women who use these agents during gestation. Some studies have reported an ...
Gabriel K - - 1998
During pregnancy, the hormonal systems of the mother and fetus are intricately interconnected to ensure normal fetal development. Accordingly, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can interfere with fetal development, not only directly, through adverse effects exerted by alcohol that crosses the placenta and enters the fetal bloodstream, but also indirectly, ...
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