Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1328
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >
Mulberrry G - - 2001
A new waterless surgical hand preparation containing 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 61% ethyl alcohol was evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy in comparison with a standard 4% CHG surgical scrub and a 61% ethyl alcohol control. Clinical studies were based on the Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products (TFM) ...
Chambers C D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Most congenital defects associated with prenatal exposures are notable for a pattern of major and minor malformations, rather than for a single major malformation. Thus, traditional epidemiological methods are not universally effective in identifying new teratogens. The purpose of this report is to outline a complementary approach that can ...
Cooper S P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers have a high potential for pesticide exposures, yet are rarely included in epidemiologic studies. This study examined the feasibility of assessing prenatal exposures to pesticides and other compounds in pregnant Hispanic farmworkers. METHODS: Nine women completed a survey about work experiences during pregnancy. Maternal urine, ...
Moyal D D - - 2001
It is well established that ultraviolet radiation has immunomodulatory effects that may be involved in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that ultraviolet A radiation (320-400 nm) as well as ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) is immunosuppressive. This means sunscreens that mainly absorb ultraviolet B (protection against erythema) may be less ...
Cook J L - - 2001
The effect of alcohol on maternal vascular adaptations to pregnancy is unknown. This study was designed to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on nitric oxide-mediated vascular function in mice during pregnancy. Female pregnant or nonpregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet or a liquid diet of 25% ethanol-derived ...
Kesmodel U - - 2001
Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant Danish women, the agreement ...
Kesmodel U - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15-16 weeks gestation from October to December 1998. ...
Yang Q - - 2001
PURPOSE: Heavy maternal drinking during pregnancy causes fetal alcohol syndrome, but whether more moderate alcohol consumption is associated with such adverse pregnancy outcomes as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) remains controversial. METHODS: Using data from a case-control study, we examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk for IUGR among ...
Kamath B R - - 2001
There are various causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy such as Graves' disease and gestational thyrotoxicosis. The thyroid stimulation results from the excessive levels of circulating human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the trophoblastic tissue in both hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. We present a pregnant patient with hydatidiform mole who presented ...
DeSesso J M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic has been used by many laboratories to study the pathogenesis of exencephaly in rodents. These studies, which used predominantly injection exposures, coupled with the paucity of epidemiology data, resulted in the erroneous inference that inorganic arsenic should be considered a human teratogen. METHODS: This study assembles and ...
Moore E S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to demonstrate that an objective, multivariate case definition of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) can be derived by means of craniofacial anthropometry. STUDY DESIGN: Craniofacial measurements (n = 21) were taken of 100 individuals who had been exposed to alcohol before ...
Smillie F I - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergen exposure beyond the 22nd week of pregnancy may be important in foetal T cell priming. Allergen-specific cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) immunoproliferative responses without corresponding bacterial antigen responses (tetanus toxoid), have been suggested as evidence of in utero sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between lymphoproliferative responses ...
Matthews S G - - 2001
Glucocorticoids are critical for normal brain development. There is no doubt that prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid affords great benefit to the preterm infant. However, animal studies, now carried out in many species, indicate that there may be some long-term physiological costs of early exposure to excess glucocorticoid, and that ...
Kesrouani A - - 2001
The Authors report a case where cocaine abuse during pregnancy assessed by drug analysis at various site was associated with foetal microcephaly. Foetal pathologic findings revealed anomalies in neuronal migration and in the vascular architecture in the brain. Such anomalies might be the result of prolonged exposure to cocaine in ...
West J R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although the mechanisms that underlie fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss have not been determined, hypoxia/hypoxemia has been considered a leading candidate. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neuronal loss could occur in the developing brain in the absence of fetal hypoxemia. METHODS: Three groups of pregnant sheep ...
Roseboom T J - - 2001
Early life events may affect adult survival. We studied the effect of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine 1944--45 on survival among 2254 people born in Amsterdam. Mortality up to age 50 was highest among those born before the famine (15.2%) and among those exposed to famine in late gestation ...
Ahmad S A - - 2001
We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive ...
Ohnaka H - - 2001
In the presence of ethanol, cocaine is metabolized to its ethyl homolog, cocaethylene. To investigate the embryotoxic effects of cocaethylene, pregnant ICR mice receiving ethanol orally during pregnancy were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cocaine i.p. on days 7, 8 and 9 of gestation. Treatment with either cocaine or ethanol alone ...
Shi L - - 2001
The proportion of pregnant women who work during pregnancy is increasing as more women move into previously male-dominated occupations. With this move, occupational exposure to chemical or physical factors during pregnancy could be further increased. In the last decade, there have been many reports on the causes of birth defects. ...
Appel C C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Excessive ingestion of caffeine can induce hypokalemia, which affects the neuromuscular system and can lead to paralysis. CASE: A 24-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 2-0-0-2 at 33 weeks' gestation presented with muscular paralysis and hypokalemia secondary to drinking 6 to 7 L of cola per day with little other ...
Deubner D - - 2001
In this study, we examine beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and workplace exposures at a beryllium mining (mine) and extraction facility (mill) in Delta, Utah. Historical airborne beryllium data collected between 1970-1999 included general area (GA), breathing zone (BZ), and personal lapel (LP) measurements and calculations of job-specific quarterly ...
Riley E P - - 2001
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Edward P. Riley. The presentations were (1) Does alcohol withdrawal contribute to fetal alcohol effects? by Jennifer D. Thomas and Edward P. Riley; (2) Brain damage and neuroplasticity in an animal ...
Macdonald S - - 2001
A case of congenital renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM), presenting with profuse haematuria in the second trimester of pregnancy is reported. Selective embolisation with polyvinyl alcohol particles and absolute alcohol successfully ablated the lesion and a healthy infant was delivered at term five months later. Renal angiography at three years showed ...
Pogoda J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between specific levels of nitrite intake from cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the relative risk of paediatric brain tumours in the offspring. DESIGN: Exposure data were previously collected for a population-based case-control study of paediatric brain tumours; data on nitrite content were obtained by ...
Ostrea E M EM - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, and meconium analysis in detecting perinatal exposure to cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid. DESIGN/METHODS: The use of cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid during pregnancy was determined prospectively in 58 women by 3 methods: structured maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, ...
Yang X F - - 2001
Polysubstituted tetrahydropyrans and thiacyclohexanes were synthesized in high yields with excellent diastereoselectivities via indium trichloride mediated cyclizations between homoallyl alcohols and mercaptans with aldehydes. In the case of tetrahydropyran products, the stereochemistry of the product was found to be directly correlated with the geometry of the homoallyl alcohols; whereas the ...
Berg C - - 2001
Oestrogen is needed for normal oviductal development in female birds, but excessive early exposure to oestrogen can cause oviductal abnormalities and impair egg-laying ability. In this study, the anatomical and histological effects of in ovo exposure to the synthetic oestrogen ethynyloestradiol on the oviducts of immature and adult female Japanese ...
Bearer C F - - 2001
Detecting alcohol use among pregnant women is an important step toward preventing alcohol-related birth defects. A biomarker that could detect alcohol use during pregnancy would aid in earlier identification and intervention for affected infants. The existing potential biomarkers for identifying alcohol use during pregnancy can detect varying degrees of alcohol ...
Handmaker N S - - 2001
Although the risks associated with pregnancy are well-documented, prevention efforts, for the most part, have not reached women who drink at levels that present the greatest risk. Recent clinical studies and demonstration projects show that interventions by obstetric caregivers can help reduce drinking even among women who consume alcohol at ...
Lishner M - - 2001
I have an 8-weeks' pregnant patient who was diagnosed with stage III Hodgkin's disease last week. The oncologist suggests delaying chemotherapy until the second trimester. What are the effects of chemotherapy on a fetus after the first trimester? Where can I find reliable information on the subject? Available data suggest ...
Harding L K - - 2000
Irradiation of pregnant women either in the workplace or as a consequence of clinical diagnosis is often unavoidable. This paper reviews the issues relating to this topic. For clinical exposures the "missed period" rule is applied prior to most clinical studies. However normal physiological variations in the menstrual cycle may ...
Friedberg W - - 2000
Air carrier crews are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, principally from galactic cosmic radiation. To promote radiation safety in aviation the Federal Aviation Administration has: issued educational material on the nature of the radiation received during air travel; recommended radiation exposure limits for pregnant and nonpregnant aircrew members; developed computer ...
Hacon S - - 2000
The region of Alta Floresta in the South of the Amazon basin, close to the Teles Pires River, was one of the main prospecting gold areas in the Amazon Basin until the beginning of the 1990s. The economic growth was accompanied by a considerable increase in the population, due to ...
Karam P A - - 2000
Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to diagnostic ionizing radiation for any number of legitimate medical reasons. When this occurs, it is important to perform an accurate fetal dose estimate using standard methodologies as quickly as possible and to convey this information to the woman's physician, along with a summary of ...
McAulay I R - - 2000
The current European Directive on radiation protection requires that exposure of air crew to cosmic radiation should be assessed if it is likely to exceed 1 milliSievert per year. The approach to this problem in the European Union is described and the relative merits of experimental measurement and computer based ...
Vermeulen A C - - 2000
Mouthpart deformation in chironomid larvae is induced by exposure to chemical contaminants and is becoming an established bio-indicator in sediment assessment programmes. However, concentration-response relationships with causal agents have only been established occasionally and with varying success. In this laboratory study, instar II and III larvae were exposed to sub-lethal ...
Chaudhuri J D - - 2000
It can be concluded that alcohol is definitely harmful to the developing fetus. The effect can manifest in various ways, the most extreme of which is a condition called Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The diagnosis of maternal alcoholism leading onto cases of FAS is difficult due to absence of accurate ...
Douwes J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Sawmill workers have an increased risk of developing occupational asthma and other respiratory symptoms. Wood dust and microorganisms have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured microbial exposure levels in sawmills. METHODS: The preliminary study reported in this paper assessed airborne dust, bacterial endotoxin ...
Miller W R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Though it has enjoyed widespread popularity, Gorski's post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) model of relapse has been subjected to little scientific scrutiny. A scale to operationalize Gorski's 37 warning signs was developed and tested in a larger prospective study of predictors of relapse. Of central interest were: (1) whether the ...
Benke G - - 2000
The job exposure matrix (JEM) has been employed to assign cumulative exposure to workers in many epidemiological studies. In these studies, where quantitative data are available, all workers with the same job title and duration are usually assigned similar cumulative exposures, expressed in mgm(-3)xyears. However, if the job is composed ...
Apostoli P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid in recent decades to the effects on male reproduction of occupational exposures to toxic agents. There is strong evidence that high level exposure to lead, i. e. blood lead level (PbB) > 70 microg/dl, is associated with male infertility and some reports suggest an ...
Bateman D A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between head circumference, birth weight, and cocaine dose in healthy term and near-term newborns exposed to cocaine in utero. METHODS: We used radioimmune assay (RIAH) of cocaine metabolite in maternal hair to quantify third trimester cocaine exposure in 240 healthy newborn infants (gestational age: >36 ...
Andrews K - - 2000
The consequences of prematurity and prenatal cocaine exposure on early neurobehavior and physical growth were examined longitudinally in a sample of 20 cocaine-exposed and 20 non-exposed preterm neonates. The magnitude of the difference in physical growth acceleration related to prenatal cocaine exposure increased with increasing birth gestational age, whereas growth ...
Faas A E - - 2000
Previous human and animal studies have shown that specific memories arise during prenatal life as a function of fetal processing of chemosensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid. Furthermore, the animal literature indicates that fetal exposure to alcohol modifies subsequent neonatal and infantile responsiveness toward the sensory attributes of the ...
Larroque B - - 2000
High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy affect the development of the baby's central nervous system. Pregnant women were interviewed about their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, when they first visited the maternity hospital in Roubaix, France. Of the 698 women interviewed, 156 of their children were investigated at the age ...
Hannigan J H - - 2000
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol effects in children are characterized by life-long compromises in growth, health, behaviour and cognitive ability. Most of the structural signs and many behavioural signs of FAS are evident at birth. This review describes the expression of fetal alcohol effects in neonates, including ...
Figà-Talamanca I - - 2000
Fertility among workers exposed to metal fumes and solvents in the Italian mint (stampers, founders, and other technical workers) was compared to the reproductive experience of the administrative staff. Data on the reproductive history and time to pregnancy were collected by interview. For workers with children, data on the time ...
Brinkworth M H - - 2000
The concept that mutations can be induced in the male germ-line and result in adverse effects in the offspring has achieved only limited acceptance despite considerable theoretical appeal. This is partly because fetal malformations are generally perceived to be induced solely as a result of maternally mediated events during gestation ...
Selcen D - - 2000
Topical preparations of tretinoin are used for the treatment of various skin conditions and for rejuvenation of the skin. Published information on pregnancy outcome following maternal exposure to topical tretinoin is limited to three case reports. We report a case of a patient with anomalies involving the ear and central ...
Golden J - - 2000
This article examines the portrayal of pregnancy and alcohol in thirty-six national network evening news broadcasts (ABC, CBS, NBC). Early coverage focused on white, middle-class women, as scientific authorities and government officials warned against drinking during pregnancy. After 1987, however, women who drank during pregnancy were depicted as members of ...
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >