Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1304
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Ostrea E M EM - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, and meconium analysis in detecting perinatal exposure to cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid. DESIGN/METHODS: The use of cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid during pregnancy was determined prospectively in 58 women by 3 methods: structured maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, ...
Yang X F - - 2001
Polysubstituted tetrahydropyrans and thiacyclohexanes were synthesized in high yields with excellent diastereoselectivities via indium trichloride mediated cyclizations between homoallyl alcohols and mercaptans with aldehydes. In the case of tetrahydropyran products, the stereochemistry of the product was found to be directly correlated with the geometry of the homoallyl alcohols; whereas the ...
Berg C - - 2001
Oestrogen is needed for normal oviductal development in female birds, but excessive early exposure to oestrogen can cause oviductal abnormalities and impair egg-laying ability. In this study, the anatomical and histological effects of in ovo exposure to the synthetic oestrogen ethynyloestradiol on the oviducts of immature and adult female Japanese ...
Bearer C F - - 2001
Detecting alcohol use among pregnant women is an important step toward preventing alcohol-related birth defects. A biomarker that could detect alcohol use during pregnancy would aid in earlier identification and intervention for affected infants. The existing potential biomarkers for identifying alcohol use during pregnancy can detect varying degrees of alcohol ...
Handmaker N S - - 2001
Although the risks associated with pregnancy are well-documented, prevention efforts, for the most part, have not reached women who drink at levels that present the greatest risk. Recent clinical studies and demonstration projects show that interventions by obstetric caregivers can help reduce drinking even among women who consume alcohol at ...
Lishner M - - 2001
I have an 8-weeks' pregnant patient who was diagnosed with stage III Hodgkin's disease last week. The oncologist suggests delaying chemotherapy until the second trimester. What are the effects of chemotherapy on a fetus after the first trimester? Where can I find reliable information on the subject? Available data suggest ...
Harding L K - - 2000
Irradiation of pregnant women either in the workplace or as a consequence of clinical diagnosis is often unavoidable. This paper reviews the issues relating to this topic. For clinical exposures the "missed period" rule is applied prior to most clinical studies. However normal physiological variations in the menstrual cycle may ...
Friedberg W - - 2000
Air carrier crews are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, principally from galactic cosmic radiation. To promote radiation safety in aviation the Federal Aviation Administration has: issued educational material on the nature of the radiation received during air travel; recommended radiation exposure limits for pregnant and nonpregnant aircrew members; developed computer ...
Hacon S - - 2000
The region of Alta Floresta in the South of the Amazon basin, close to the Teles Pires River, was one of the main prospecting gold areas in the Amazon Basin until the beginning of the 1990s. The economic growth was accompanied by a considerable increase in the population, due to ...
Karam P A - - 2000
Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to diagnostic ionizing radiation for any number of legitimate medical reasons. When this occurs, it is important to perform an accurate fetal dose estimate using standard methodologies as quickly as possible and to convey this information to the woman's physician, along with a summary of ...
McAulay I R - - 2000
The current European Directive on radiation protection requires that exposure of air crew to cosmic radiation should be assessed if it is likely to exceed 1 milliSievert per year. The approach to this problem in the European Union is described and the relative merits of experimental measurement and computer based ...
Vermeulen A C - - 2000
Mouthpart deformation in chironomid larvae is induced by exposure to chemical contaminants and is becoming an established bio-indicator in sediment assessment programmes. However, concentration-response relationships with causal agents have only been established occasionally and with varying success. In this laboratory study, instar II and III larvae were exposed to sub-lethal ...
Chaudhuri J D - - 2000
It can be concluded that alcohol is definitely harmful to the developing fetus. The effect can manifest in various ways, the most extreme of which is a condition called Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The diagnosis of maternal alcoholism leading onto cases of FAS is difficult due to absence of accurate ...
Douwes J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Sawmill workers have an increased risk of developing occupational asthma and other respiratory symptoms. Wood dust and microorganisms have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured microbial exposure levels in sawmills. METHODS: The preliminary study reported in this paper assessed airborne dust, bacterial endotoxin ...
Miller W R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Though it has enjoyed widespread popularity, Gorski's post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) model of relapse has been subjected to little scientific scrutiny. A scale to operationalize Gorski's 37 warning signs was developed and tested in a larger prospective study of predictors of relapse. Of central interest were: (1) whether the ...
Benke G - - 2000
The job exposure matrix (JEM) has been employed to assign cumulative exposure to workers in many epidemiological studies. In these studies, where quantitative data are available, all workers with the same job title and duration are usually assigned similar cumulative exposures, expressed in mgm(-3)xyears. However, if the job is composed ...
Apostoli P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been paid in recent decades to the effects on male reproduction of occupational exposures to toxic agents. There is strong evidence that high level exposure to lead, i. e. blood lead level (PbB) > 70 microg/dl, is associated with male infertility and some reports suggest an ...
Bateman D A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between head circumference, birth weight, and cocaine dose in healthy term and near-term newborns exposed to cocaine in utero. METHODS: We used radioimmune assay (RIAH) of cocaine metabolite in maternal hair to quantify third trimester cocaine exposure in 240 healthy newborn infants (gestational age: >36 ...
Andrews K - - 2000
The consequences of prematurity and prenatal cocaine exposure on early neurobehavior and physical growth were examined longitudinally in a sample of 20 cocaine-exposed and 20 non-exposed preterm neonates. The magnitude of the difference in physical growth acceleration related to prenatal cocaine exposure increased with increasing birth gestational age, whereas growth ...
Faas A E - - 2000
Previous human and animal studies have shown that specific memories arise during prenatal life as a function of fetal processing of chemosensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid. Furthermore, the animal literature indicates that fetal exposure to alcohol modifies subsequent neonatal and infantile responsiveness toward the sensory attributes of the ...
Larroque B - - 2000
High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy affect the development of the baby's central nervous system. Pregnant women were interviewed about their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, when they first visited the maternity hospital in Roubaix, France. Of the 698 women interviewed, 156 of their children were investigated at the age ...
Hannigan J H - - 2000
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol effects in children are characterized by life-long compromises in growth, health, behaviour and cognitive ability. Most of the structural signs and many behavioural signs of FAS are evident at birth. This review describes the expression of fetal alcohol effects in neonates, including ...
Figà-Talamanca I - - 2000
Fertility among workers exposed to metal fumes and solvents in the Italian mint (stampers, founders, and other technical workers) was compared to the reproductive experience of the administrative staff. Data on the reproductive history and time to pregnancy were collected by interview. For workers with children, data on the time ...
Brinkworth M H - - 2000
The concept that mutations can be induced in the male germ-line and result in adverse effects in the offspring has achieved only limited acceptance despite considerable theoretical appeal. This is partly because fetal malformations are generally perceived to be induced solely as a result of maternally mediated events during gestation ...
Selcen D - - 2000
Topical preparations of tretinoin are used for the treatment of various skin conditions and for rejuvenation of the skin. Published information on pregnancy outcome following maternal exposure to topical tretinoin is limited to three case reports. We report a case of a patient with anomalies involving the ear and central ...
Golden J - - 2000
This article examines the portrayal of pregnancy and alcohol in thirty-six national network evening news broadcasts (ABC, CBS, NBC). Early coverage focused on white, middle-class women, as scientific authorities and government officials warned against drinking during pregnancy. After 1987, however, women who drank during pregnancy were depicted as members of ...
Myers G J - - 2000
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that in high exposures can cause mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and seizures. The developing brain appears particularly sensitive to MeHg. Exposure levels in pregnant experimental animals that do not result in detectable signs or symptoms in the mother can adversely affect the offspring's development. ...
Goldberg A E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Season of birth is a putative etiological factor for several psychiatric illnesses. An excess of late winter and early spring births has been demonstrated repeatedly for schizophrenia, which has usually been interpreted as the result of prenatal or infant exposure to seasonally mediated "harmful effects," such as infectious diseases. ...
Sarkola T - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio of CDT to total transferrin, and hemoglobin-acetaldehyde adducts with mean cell volume (MCV) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the follow-up of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. METHODS: Forty-four pregnant drug and alcohol abusing female patients attending a special ...
Ryan B M - - 2000
Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz ...
Diekman S T - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge, attitudes, current clinical practices, and educational needs of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding patients' alcohol use during pregnancy. METHODS: A 20-item, self-administered questionnaire on patients' prenatal alcohol use was sent to 1000 active ACOG fellows. Responses were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS: Of the 60% of ...
Radzievsky A A - - 2000
Based on a hypothesis of neural system involvement in the initial absorption and further processing of the millimeter electromagnetic waves (MW) signal, we reproduced, quantitatively assessed and compared the analgesic effect of a single MW treatment, exposing areas of skin possessing different innervation densities. The cold water tail flick test ...
Liu J K - - 2000
Repeated prenatal exposure to cocaine is associated with attenuated respiratory and arousal responses in infants and piglets. As the normal development of these functions is influenced by medullary opioid systems, the present study explored the possible contribution of the opioid systems to the attenuation induced by cocaine. Methionine-enkephalin (met-enkephalin), an ...
Apostoli P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Whole blood and urinary manganese have been measured in occupational and environmental studies for the assessment of exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the airborne concentrations of manganese and these biological indicators. METHODS: Environmental and biological monitoring was performed in a group of ...
Mann F A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Trauma surgeons must balance the risk and benefits of diagnostic radiographic procedures on potentially pregnant patients and should know the range and likelihood of effects that radiation might have on pregnancy. METHODS: We present guidelines for assessing such radiation risks. Knowledge of a patient's pregnancy status and an estimate ...
Cornelius M D - - 2000
Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy have both been associated with a number of adverse effects on the growth, cognitive development, and behavior of the exposed child. Understanding the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure allows researchers to identify those characteristics that are uniquely related to tobacco and those that are ...
Westphal L L - - 2000
This paper examines prenatal drinking among American Indian/Alaska Native women using the 1988 Urban Indian Over-sample for the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined by demographic and behavioral variables. Although one out of every five American Indian/Alaska Native ...
Morse B A - - 2000
Prenatal providers are reluctant to discuss alcohol use in the clinical setting, even though heavy alcohol use is associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), sometimes known as alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Fourteen percent to 20% of pregnant women report drinking some alcohol during pregnancy. Approximately 0.2% ...
- - 2000
Thousands of pregnant patients and radiation workers are exposed to ionising radiation each year. Lack of knowledge is responsible for great anxiety and probably unnecessary termination of pregnancies. For many patients, the exposure is appropriate, while for others the exposure may be inappropriate, placing the unborn child at increased risk. ...
Gardella J R - - 2000
Couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss are often concerned that toxins within the environment have contributed to their reproductive difficulty. Questions posed by these couples to their health care providers are difficult to answer because scientifically accurate information regarding the reproductive impact of potential environmental toxins and other teratogens is not ...
Goldstein R B - - 2000
PURPOSE: Substance use by pregnant women is socially stigmatized and may be legally punishable. This societal condemnation raises concerns about underascertainment of prenatal substance exposure of offspring if mothers are asked specifically about their behavior during gestation, versus their life histories without reference to gestational dates. This study assessed agreement ...
Williams R J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) among Natives in northern Manitoba. A second objective was to determine if there are age or gender differences in level of knowledge. A third objective was to examine the relationship between knowledge about FAS and reported frequency of drug and alcohol ...
Chan D Q - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) describes the systemic and ocular anomalies resulting from the teratogenic effect of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. It is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the U.S. CASE REPORTS: Two case reports illustrate the characteristic findings in FAS. These include growth retardation, cognitive ...
Little Bertis B. - - 1999
The objective of the study was to analyze possible adverse effects of peripartum cocaine use on maternal and fetal outcomes. Informed consent was given by 720 (97%) of 740 women who delivered consecutively at a large urban public hospital to test an umbilical cord blood sample for the presence of ...
Floyd R L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Frequent alcohol use during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion and dysmorphologic changes in the developing organ systems of the embryo, including the heart, kidneys, and brain. However, few population-based studies are available that describe the prevalence of frequent drinking (6 or more drinks ...
Alm B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether alcohol and caffeine are independent risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses based on data from the Nordic epidemiological SIDS study, a case control study in which all parents of SIDS victims in the Nordic countries from 1 September 1992 to ...
Taskinen H K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether exposure to formaldehyde, organic solvents or other chemicals in the wood-processing industry affects the fertility of women. METHODS: For this purpose, a retrospective study on time to pregnancy was conducted among female wood workers who had given birth during 1985-1995. ...
Cornelius M D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study examines the effects of alcohol use during pregnancy on the growth and gestational age at birth of 413 offspring of adolescents. METHODS: Data were collected during 1990 to 1994. The adolescents were from a prenatal clinic in Pittsburgh, PA. They were interviewed at mid-pregnancy and at ...
Saillenfait A M - - 1999
The developmental toxicities of 4 methacrylates were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats after inhalation exposure for 6 h/day, during days 6 to 20 of gestation. The exposure concentrations were, for methacrylic acid, 0, 50, 100, 200, or 300 ppm; for ethyl methacrylate, 0, 600, 1200, 1800, or 2400 ppm; for n-butyl ...
Chang G - - 1999
The reservations expressed about the accuracy of patient self-reports of drinking may be heightened when obtaining information about prenatal alcohol consumption, which may be subject to fears of social or medical disapproval. Thus, clinicians may seek collateral reports to confirm patients' reports during this critical time. The purpose of this ...
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