Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1331
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Juhl Mette - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to have fewer ...
Herrick Kirsten - - 2003
Recent studies have linked maternal consumption of an unbalanced high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in late pregnancy with raised adult blood pressure in the offspring. Because high-protein diets stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we hypothesized that an unbalanced maternal diet might increase maternal cortisol levels, exposing the fetus to excess cortisol and programming ...
Meyer Katie A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and oral clefts in offspring remains unclear. We studied this relation in a case-control surveillance study of birth defects. METHODS: From 1983 to 1997, we recruited 5956 study subjects from greater Boston, Philadelphia, Toronto, and parts of Iowa. The cases were ...
Ratnapalan Savithiri - - 2003
One of my patients had a computed tomography scan of her abdomen a week ago and has just found out she is 7 weeks pregnant. What should I tell her about the pregnancy and the risk to her fetus? Your patient is not at increased risk of miscarriage or major ...
Uma Devi P - - 2003
The haemopoietic system in the developing mammal is very sensitive to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Epidemiological studies have established a strong association between obstetric exposure to diagnostic radiation and an increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia and between low dose gamma irradiation during the early fetal period ...
Myers Gary J - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) before birth can adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. The most common form of prenatal exposure is maternal fish consumption, but whether such exposure harms the fetus is unknown. We aimed to identify adverse neurodevelopmental effects in a fish-consuming population. METHODS: We investigated 779 mother-infant pairs residing ...
Naimi Timothy S - - 2003
To assess the relationship between unintended pregnancy resulting in a live birth and binge drinking (having 5 or more alcoholic beverages on 1 occasion) in the 3 months before pregnancy (the preconception period) and to characterize women who are of childbearing age and binge drink. A case-control study was conducted ...
Vidaeff Alex C - - 2003
Fetal cocaine exposure has proven to be an area of medicine that has generated more heat than light. Although many reports associate cocaine with a variety of isolated structural anomalies, there is no detectable syndromic clustering, raising doubts about a real causal association or a specific teratogenic action. Potential confounding ...
Chung Moon-Koo - - 2003
To identify possible effects of horizontally polarized magnetic field (MF) exposure on maintenance of pregnancy and embryo-fetal development, an MF exposure system was designed and constructed and 96 time-mated female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (24/group) received continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF at field strengths of 0 (sham control) and 5, ...
Björnberg K Ask - - 2003
We studied exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in Swedish pregnant women (total mercury [T-Hg] in hair) and their fetuses (MeHg in cord blood) in relation to fish intake. The women were recruited at antenatal care clinics in late pregnancy to participate in an exposure study of environmental pollutants. Fish consumption ...
O'Callaghan Frances V - - 2003
AIM: To examine whether alcohol exposure in pregnancy affects weight and head circumference (HC) at birth and 5 years, and whether these effects are independent of cigarette exposure in pregnancy and social disadvantage. STUDY DESIGN: The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) involves a prospective cohort of 8556 mothers who were ...
Zhang Qiang - - 2003
Knowledge of the extent of the "heated necrosis element" from a single exposure in target tissue created by an ultrasonic beam is critical for the application of focal ultrasound (US) surgery (FUS). This study uses the O'Nell and Pennes formulas to simulate the heated necrosis element from an annular focused ...
Kubotsu Stephanie L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Maternal ethanol consumption impairs fetal health, but it is unclear if this occurs through direct actions on the conceptus or indirectly through effects on the uterus. The objective of this study was to determine if chronic ethanol consumption in swine would impair early embryonic and fetal health either through ...
Lee B E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although there have been growing concerns about the adverse effects of air pollution on birth outcomes, little is known about which specific exposure times of specific pollutants contribute to low birth weight (LBW). METHODS: We evaluated the relationships between LBW and air pollution exposure levels in Seoul, Korea. Using ...
Eustace Larry W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To provide an integrated review of the literature on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), focusing on the definition of FAS/FAE, their incidence and related problems, gestational research findings, FAS symptoms, the effects of prenatal alcohol consumption on offspring over time, and FAS/FAE preventive measures. DATA ...
Cook Janine Denis - - 2003
To describe the serious health consequences of alcohol (ethanol) use, especially as they relate to pregnancy and the development of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). The classic markers of alcohol exposure, including blood/breath alcohol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde (HAA) and carbohydrate ...
Cohen-Kerem Raanan - - 2003
Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, and heavy drinking during pregnancy can result in serious adverse outcomes to the fetus. The cellular mechanisms by which ethanol induces damage in utero are not well understood, while induction of oxidative stress is believed to be one putative mechanism. Our objective is ...
Diav-Citrin Orna - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Mebendazole is an anthelmintic that is commonly needed in women of reproductive age. Its use in pregnancy is a reason for concern for women and their health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the fetal safety of mebendazole. STUDY DESIGN: The Israeli Teratogen Information Service ...
Wierzba-Bobrowicz Teresa - - 2003
Alcohol ingestion by female rats during pregnancy and/or lactation leads to developmental anomalies of different organ systems, retardation and immune system impairment in their offspring. In humans, these disorders are termed foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or foetal alcohol effect (FAE) if abnormalities are of lesser degree. The study materials consisted ...
Chen Wei-Jung A - - 2003
One of the distinguishing features of prenatal alcohol exposure is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system. Information available from the small number of autopsied cases in humans indicates that the offspring of mothers who abused alcohol during pregnancy have various neuroanatomical alterations ranging ...
Moore Christine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), and alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorders (ARNDs) in neonates are often the result of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Facial characteristics are associated with FAS, but ARBDs and ARNDs are more difficult to diagnose. Fetal exposure to alcohol can cause central nervous system ...
Carey Luke C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity in mice is related to the maternal expression of metallothionein (MT), a zinc (Zn)-binding protein. Ethanol induces maternal liver MT, which causes plasma Zn concentrations to decrease as Zn moves into the liver. During pregnancy it is suggested that this change decreases ...
Fischer Doris - - 2003
Chronic alcohol exposure during pregnancy and the resulting toxic effects for the fetus has been the subject of many investigations. In contrast, acute alcohol intoxication during pregnancy is a rare event and less is known about the consequences for fetal life. We report a case of the acute ethanol intoxication ...
Purokivi M - - 2002
Several epidemiological studies have revealed a large variety of adverse health effects related to exposure to microbes in moisture damaged buildings. Recently some evidence has been reported for a biochemical linkage between microbial exposure and the respiratory symptoms suffered by the occupants. The objective of the current study was to ...
Rennen Monique A J - - 2002
Health risks resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals are controlled by the establishment of acceptable dermal and respiratory exposure levels. Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, acceptable levels are frequently established by means of route-to-route extrapolation. A pitfall in route-to-route extrapolation is the occurrence of local effects. Often, ...
Hellawell G O - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the risks of placing double-pigtail stents during pregnancy in women presenting with loin pain associated with hydronephrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of women presenting with loin pain and hydronephrosis in pregnancy were treated with double-pigtail ureteric stents. A flexible cystoscope was used to identify the ...
Savage Christine L - - 2002
Alcohol is a known teratogenic substance that operates under a dose-response mechanism. Before we conducted a larger study that examines the use of alcohol both before pregnancy and during pregnancy, it was important to pilot our method for measuring a pregnant mother's alcohol use that would allow us to capture ...
Cornelius Marie D - - 2002
This prospective study evaluated the relations between maternal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use during pregnancy and children's growth at 6 years. In this cohort of pregnant teenagers and their offspring, mothers were recruited from an urban prenatal clinic between 1990 and 1995, and observed from their fourth prenatal month. At ...
Song Jun - - 2002
AIM: To investigate the toxic effects of mid-pregnancy cocaine exposure on embryo-fetus. METHODS: A transplacental murine model of cocaine exposure on embryo-fetus mice was established, in which pregnant dams of comparable weight were assigned into three groups: cocaine with food ad lib (COC), saline and pair-fed with COC (SPF), and ...
Holmes Lewis B - - 2002
Limb abnormalities are one of the most common and visible phenotypic effects of several human teratogens. The specific effects are different for most teratogens and include effects on limb morphogenesis (thalidomide, warfarin, phenytoin, valproic acid) and the effect of vascular disruption on a limb that had formed normally (misoprostol, chorionic ...
Mitchel R E J - - 2002
Teratogenesis in tails and limb digits of fetal mice with varying Trp53 status was examined after exposure of pregnant females to 4 Gy gamma radiation with and without a prior 30-cGy exposure. Prior low-dose exposure modified the teratogenic effects of radiation in a manner dependent upon Trp53 status and gestation ...
Till Christine - - 2002
As part of a prospective study of solvent exposure and child behavior, it occurred that women's responses about exposure history during pregnancy differed from the information documented during the postpartum period. The objective of the study was to examine the levels of agreement in 29 self-reports of exposure information obtained ...
Wester U - - 2002
We describe a 2-year-old boy with chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP). The boy was exposed to phenytoin, in combination with carbamazepine, during pregnancy. There has been previous evidence for a connection between phenytoin exposure during pregnancy and chondrodysplasia punctata. The boy had clinical and some radiological characteristic features of CDP, of the ...
Little Jennifer F - - 2002
The startle behaviour of the fetus (both spontaneous and elicited) was examined in fetuses of mothers who drank alcohol and mothers who did not. Fetuses exposed to alcohol showed a higher frequency of spontaneous startles and were less likely to exhibit a normal startle in response to a vibroacoustic stimulus. ...
Oström Mats - - 2002
During October 1973 through May 1998, 157 snowmobile fatalities were autopsied in Northern Sweden, including 131 riders, 15 passengers, six occupants with unknown position and five victims pulled by a snowmobile. Most fatalities occurred during March and April (41%), on weekends/holidays (75%), between 18:00 and 02:00 h (59%), during darkness ...
Rothenberg Stephen J - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine the dose-response relationship between blood lead concentration ([PbB]) and scotopic ERG amplitude in 7- to 10-year-old children with lifetime lead exposure. METHODS: Full-field flash scotopic ERGs were recorded over a 4-log-unit range in 45 dark-adapted children with normal visual acuity. [PbB] was measured throughout pregnancy and postnatal ...
- - 2002
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. FAS is diagnosed on the basis of a combination of growth deficiency (pre- or postnatal), central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, ...
Moore Elizabeth S - - 2002
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) refers to the adverse effects to the fetus from prenatal exposure to alcohol. Originally, the diagnosis of FAS was given only to those individuals that were the most severely affected. Since that time, it has become apparent that the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are broad-based, ...
Jacobson Sandra W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Evidence that mothers report higher levels of drinking retrospectively than during pregnancy has led some investigators to suggest that women systematically underreport alcohol antenatally and that alcohol-related deficits may actually reflect heavier prenatal exposure. This study is the first to compare the validity of antenatal and retrospective reports of ...
Mehta Sudhir Ken - - 2002
Because cocaine crosses the placenta, we prospectively evaluated global and segmental systolic and diastolic cardiac function by color kinesis in clinically asymptomatic newborns who were exposed to cocaine in utero (group 1, n = 82). Their data were compared with normal controls (group 3, n = 87) and newborns exposed ...
Vuorela Piia - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse during pregnancy compromises fetal development not only directly but also by abnormal placental function. Therefore, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and placenta growth factor (PlGF), expressed in the placenta, may play a role in alcohol-induced placental dysfunction. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected ...
Infante-Rivard Claire - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the association of parental consumption of alcohol prior to and during pregnancy with the risk of childhood leukemia, as well as for the potentially modifying role of genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 491 incident cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Axmon Anna - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of exposure to presistent organochlorine compounds through the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea on human fertility. METHODS: Information on time to pregnancy, miscarriages, and subfertility was collected retrospectively by self-administered questionnaires in two cohorts of fishermen's ...
Ward O Byron - - 2002
Male offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress and/or alcohol during late pregnancy show aberrant patterns of sexual behavior masculinization and defeminization that vary as a function of treatment. The impact of these treatments on the postparturitional testosterone (T) surge that contributes to sexual behavior differentiation was investigated. Plasma T ...
Bauer Charles R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Reports of maternal effects resulting from drug exposure during pregnancy are inconsistent. The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) is a multicenter, prospective, observational study that was initiated to better define the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the mother, fetus, and infant. METHODS: Between May 1993 and ...
Koren Gideon - - 2002
Many women worldwide use recreational drugs and alcohol. Details on the amounts and schedule of such exposures in pregnancy are often unreliable because of recall issues and shame and fears of legal action. Even when the report on maternal dose is correct, it does not necessarily reflect the amount reaching ...
Graves Karen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Little is known about beverage preference, especially among understudied urban minority populations. Also, most studies do not differentiate between beer and malt liquor or among wine, wine coolers, and fortified wine. This article examines whether ethnicity or drinking frequency are associated with beverage choice, considering six types of alcoholic ...
Hayes Marie J - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined prior use and psychosocial factors associated with alcohol and/or drug use in pregnant women from a predominantly Caucasian, rural clinic in northeastern Maine. METHODS: We conducted archival record reviews of 217 pregnant women who delivered at the Family Practice Clinic of Eastern Maine Medical ...
Macinnis-Ng Catriona M O - - 2002
This in situ study used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc on the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Custom-made portable in situ exposure (PIE) chambers were developed so seagrasses could be dosed within the meadow. Z capricorni ...
Schneider Mary L - - 2002
The question of whether psychosocial stress during pregnancy (alone or in combination with fetal alcohol exposure) has negative consequences for offspring has not been clearly established in human studies. In this article, we present an overview of three prospective longitudinal studies. Using rhesus monkeys as subjects, a noise or hormone ...
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