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Results 551 - 600 of 1304
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Cornelius Marie D - - 2002
This prospective study evaluated the relations between maternal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use during pregnancy and children's growth at 6 years. In this cohort of pregnant teenagers and their offspring, mothers were recruited from an urban prenatal clinic between 1990 and 1995, and observed from their fourth prenatal month. At ...
Song Jun - - 2002
AIM: To investigate the toxic effects of mid-pregnancy cocaine exposure on embryo-fetus. METHODS: A transplacental murine model of cocaine exposure on embryo-fetus mice was established, in which pregnant dams of comparable weight were assigned into three groups: cocaine with food ad lib (COC), saline and pair-fed with COC (SPF), and ...
Holmes Lewis B - - 2002
Limb abnormalities are one of the most common and visible phenotypic effects of several human teratogens. The specific effects are different for most teratogens and include effects on limb morphogenesis (thalidomide, warfarin, phenytoin, valproic acid) and the effect of vascular disruption on a limb that had formed normally (misoprostol, chorionic ...
Mitchel R E J - - 2002
Teratogenesis in tails and limb digits of fetal mice with varying Trp53 status was examined after exposure of pregnant females to 4 Gy gamma radiation with and without a prior 30-cGy exposure. Prior low-dose exposure modified the teratogenic effects of radiation in a manner dependent upon Trp53 status and gestation ...
Till Christine - - 2002
As part of a prospective study of solvent exposure and child behavior, it occurred that women's responses about exposure history during pregnancy differed from the information documented during the postpartum period. The objective of the study was to examine the levels of agreement in 29 self-reports of exposure information obtained ...
Wester U - - 2002
We describe a 2-year-old boy with chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP). The boy was exposed to phenytoin, in combination with carbamazepine, during pregnancy. There has been previous evidence for a connection between phenytoin exposure during pregnancy and chondrodysplasia punctata. The boy had clinical and some radiological characteristic features of CDP, of the ...
Little Jennifer F - - 2002
The startle behaviour of the fetus (both spontaneous and elicited) was examined in fetuses of mothers who drank alcohol and mothers who did not. Fetuses exposed to alcohol showed a higher frequency of spontaneous startles and were less likely to exhibit a normal startle in response to a vibroacoustic stimulus. ...
Oström Mats - - 2002
During October 1973 through May 1998, 157 snowmobile fatalities were autopsied in Northern Sweden, including 131 riders, 15 passengers, six occupants with unknown position and five victims pulled by a snowmobile. Most fatalities occurred during March and April (41%), on weekends/holidays (75%), between 18:00 and 02:00 h (59%), during darkness ...
Rothenberg Stephen J - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine the dose-response relationship between blood lead concentration ([PbB]) and scotopic ERG amplitude in 7- to 10-year-old children with lifetime lead exposure. METHODS: Full-field flash scotopic ERGs were recorded over a 4-log-unit range in 45 dark-adapted children with normal visual acuity. [PbB] was measured throughout pregnancy and postnatal ...
- - 2002
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. FAS is diagnosed on the basis of a combination of growth deficiency (pre- or postnatal), central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, ...
Moore Elizabeth S - - 2002
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) refers to the adverse effects to the fetus from prenatal exposure to alcohol. Originally, the diagnosis of FAS was given only to those individuals that were the most severely affected. Since that time, it has become apparent that the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are broad-based, ...
Jacobson Sandra W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Evidence that mothers report higher levels of drinking retrospectively than during pregnancy has led some investigators to suggest that women systematically underreport alcohol antenatally and that alcohol-related deficits may actually reflect heavier prenatal exposure. This study is the first to compare the validity of antenatal and retrospective reports of ...
Mehta Sudhir Ken - - 2002
Because cocaine crosses the placenta, we prospectively evaluated global and segmental systolic and diastolic cardiac function by color kinesis in clinically asymptomatic newborns who were exposed to cocaine in utero (group 1, n = 82). Their data were compared with normal controls (group 3, n = 87) and newborns exposed ...
Vuorela Piia - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse during pregnancy compromises fetal development not only directly but also by abnormal placental function. Therefore, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and placenta growth factor (PlGF), expressed in the placenta, may play a role in alcohol-induced placental dysfunction. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected ...
Infante-Rivard Claire - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the association of parental consumption of alcohol prior to and during pregnancy with the risk of childhood leukemia, as well as for the potentially modifying role of genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 491 incident cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Axmon Anna - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of exposure to presistent organochlorine compounds through the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea on human fertility. METHODS: Information on time to pregnancy, miscarriages, and subfertility was collected retrospectively by self-administered questionnaires in two cohorts of fishermen's ...
Ward O Byron - - 2002
Male offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress and/or alcohol during late pregnancy show aberrant patterns of sexual behavior masculinization and defeminization that vary as a function of treatment. The impact of these treatments on the postparturitional testosterone (T) surge that contributes to sexual behavior differentiation was investigated. Plasma T ...
Bauer Charles R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Reports of maternal effects resulting from drug exposure during pregnancy are inconsistent. The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) is a multicenter, prospective, observational study that was initiated to better define the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the mother, fetus, and infant. METHODS: Between May 1993 and ...
Koren Gideon - - 2002
Many women worldwide use recreational drugs and alcohol. Details on the amounts and schedule of such exposures in pregnancy are often unreliable because of recall issues and shame and fears of legal action. Even when the report on maternal dose is correct, it does not necessarily reflect the amount reaching ...
Graves Karen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Little is known about beverage preference, especially among understudied urban minority populations. Also, most studies do not differentiate between beer and malt liquor or among wine, wine coolers, and fortified wine. This article examines whether ethnicity or drinking frequency are associated with beverage choice, considering six types of alcoholic ...
Hayes Marie J - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined prior use and psychosocial factors associated with alcohol and/or drug use in pregnant women from a predominantly Caucasian, rural clinic in northeastern Maine. METHODS: We conducted archival record reviews of 217 pregnant women who delivered at the Family Practice Clinic of Eastern Maine Medical ...
Macinnis-Ng Catriona M O - - 2002
This in situ study used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc on the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Custom-made portable in situ exposure (PIE) chambers were developed so seagrasses could be dosed within the meadow. Z capricorni ...
Schneider Mary L - - 2002
The question of whether psychosocial stress during pregnancy (alone or in combination with fetal alcohol exposure) has negative consequences for offspring has not been clearly established in human studies. In this article, we present an overview of three prospective longitudinal studies. Using rhesus monkeys as subjects, a noise or hormone ...
Fox Anthony W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of best available evidence for tolerability of sumatriptan after inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Migraine's demography suggests that inadvertent exposure to acute therapies is likely during the earliest undiagnosed stages of pregnancy. The tolerability of such therapies under these conditions is not amenable to clinical trial for ethical ...
Juhl M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) ...
Houlmont J P - - 2001
For the first time, we report here the synthesis and use of pentyl and cetyl rhamnoside as cosurfactant or surfactant, respectively, and their evaluation in cosmetic formulations. l-rhamnose is more reactive than d-glucose in direct acetalization with long alkyl chains of alcohol, because of its higher lipophilicity, whereas for short ...
Mulberrry G - - 2001
A new waterless surgical hand preparation containing 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 61% ethyl alcohol was evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy in comparison with a standard 4% CHG surgical scrub and a 61% ethyl alcohol control. Clinical studies were based on the Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products (TFM) ...
Chambers C D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Most congenital defects associated with prenatal exposures are notable for a pattern of major and minor malformations, rather than for a single major malformation. Thus, traditional epidemiological methods are not universally effective in identifying new teratogens. The purpose of this report is to outline a complementary approach that can ...
Cooper S P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers have a high potential for pesticide exposures, yet are rarely included in epidemiologic studies. This study examined the feasibility of assessing prenatal exposures to pesticides and other compounds in pregnant Hispanic farmworkers. METHODS: Nine women completed a survey about work experiences during pregnancy. Maternal urine, ...
Moyal D D - - 2001
It is well established that ultraviolet radiation has immunomodulatory effects that may be involved in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that ultraviolet A radiation (320-400 nm) as well as ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) is immunosuppressive. This means sunscreens that mainly absorb ultraviolet B (protection against erythema) may be less ...
Cook J L - - 2001
The effect of alcohol on maternal vascular adaptations to pregnancy is unknown. This study was designed to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on nitric oxide-mediated vascular function in mice during pregnancy. Female pregnant or nonpregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet or a liquid diet of 25% ethanol-derived ...
Kesmodel U - - 2001
Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant Danish women, the agreement ...
Kesmodel U - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15-16 weeks gestation from October to December 1998. ...
Yang Q - - 2001
PURPOSE: Heavy maternal drinking during pregnancy causes fetal alcohol syndrome, but whether more moderate alcohol consumption is associated with such adverse pregnancy outcomes as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) remains controversial. METHODS: Using data from a case-control study, we examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk for IUGR among ...
Kamath B R - - 2001
There are various causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy such as Graves' disease and gestational thyrotoxicosis. The thyroid stimulation results from the excessive levels of circulating human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the trophoblastic tissue in both hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. We present a pregnant patient with hydatidiform mole who presented ...
DeSesso J M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic has been used by many laboratories to study the pathogenesis of exencephaly in rodents. These studies, which used predominantly injection exposures, coupled with the paucity of epidemiology data, resulted in the erroneous inference that inorganic arsenic should be considered a human teratogen. METHODS: This study assembles and ...
Moore E S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to demonstrate that an objective, multivariate case definition of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) can be derived by means of craniofacial anthropometry. STUDY DESIGN: Craniofacial measurements (n = 21) were taken of 100 individuals who had been exposed to alcohol before ...
Smillie F I - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergen exposure beyond the 22nd week of pregnancy may be important in foetal T cell priming. Allergen-specific cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) immunoproliferative responses without corresponding bacterial antigen responses (tetanus toxoid), have been suggested as evidence of in utero sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between lymphoproliferative responses ...
Matthews S G - - 2001
Glucocorticoids are critical for normal brain development. There is no doubt that prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid affords great benefit to the preterm infant. However, animal studies, now carried out in many species, indicate that there may be some long-term physiological costs of early exposure to excess glucocorticoid, and that ...
Kesrouani A - - 2001
The Authors report a case where cocaine abuse during pregnancy assessed by drug analysis at various site was associated with foetal microcephaly. Foetal pathologic findings revealed anomalies in neuronal migration and in the vascular architecture in the brain. Such anomalies might be the result of prolonged exposure to cocaine in ...
West J R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although the mechanisms that underlie fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss have not been determined, hypoxia/hypoxemia has been considered a leading candidate. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neuronal loss could occur in the developing brain in the absence of fetal hypoxemia. METHODS: Three groups of pregnant sheep ...
Roseboom T J - - 2001
Early life events may affect adult survival. We studied the effect of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine 1944--45 on survival among 2254 people born in Amsterdam. Mortality up to age 50 was highest among those born before the famine (15.2%) and among those exposed to famine in late gestation ...
Ahmad S A - - 2001
We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive ...
Ohnaka H - - 2001
In the presence of ethanol, cocaine is metabolized to its ethyl homolog, cocaethylene. To investigate the embryotoxic effects of cocaethylene, pregnant ICR mice receiving ethanol orally during pregnancy were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cocaine i.p. on days 7, 8 and 9 of gestation. Treatment with either cocaine or ethanol alone ...
Shi L - - 2001
The proportion of pregnant women who work during pregnancy is increasing as more women move into previously male-dominated occupations. With this move, occupational exposure to chemical or physical factors during pregnancy could be further increased. In the last decade, there have been many reports on the causes of birth defects. ...
Appel C C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Excessive ingestion of caffeine can induce hypokalemia, which affects the neuromuscular system and can lead to paralysis. CASE: A 24-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 2-0-0-2 at 33 weeks' gestation presented with muscular paralysis and hypokalemia secondary to drinking 6 to 7 L of cola per day with little other ...
Deubner D - - 2001
In this study, we examine beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and workplace exposures at a beryllium mining (mine) and extraction facility (mill) in Delta, Utah. Historical airborne beryllium data collected between 1970-1999 included general area (GA), breathing zone (BZ), and personal lapel (LP) measurements and calculations of job-specific quarterly ...
Riley E P - - 2001
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Edward P. Riley. The presentations were (1) Does alcohol withdrawal contribute to fetal alcohol effects? by Jennifer D. Thomas and Edward P. Riley; (2) Brain damage and neuroplasticity in an animal ...
Macdonald S - - 2001
A case of congenital renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM), presenting with profuse haematuria in the second trimester of pregnancy is reported. Selective embolisation with polyvinyl alcohol particles and absolute alcohol successfully ablated the lesion and a healthy infant was delivered at term five months later. Renal angiography at three years showed ...
Pogoda J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between specific levels of nitrite intake from cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the relative risk of paediatric brain tumours in the offspring. DESIGN: Exposure data were previously collected for a population-based case-control study of paediatric brain tumours; data on nitrite content were obtained by ...
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