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Results 501 - 550 of 1304
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He Na - - 2004
In our previous studies [J. Comp. Neurol. 435 (2001) 263] we demonstrated that rhesus monkeys born to mothers receiving cocaine orally during the period of pregnancy when neurons destined for the cerebral neocortex were generated displayed inappropriate positioning of neocortical neurons, loss of normal neocortical lamination, and reduction in neocortical ...
Burbacher Thomas M - - 2004
Toxicokinetic studies were conducted following daily inhalation exposure to methanol vapor prior to and throughout pregnancy in adult female Macaca fascicularis monkeys. They were part of a larger study to investigate the effects of chronic methanol exposure on maternal reproductive performance and early offspring effects. In a two-cohort study design, ...
Intorre L - - 2004
The safety of azamethiphos (AZA), an organophosphorous insecticide and the active ingredient of Salmosan, was evaluated in the European eel, seabass and rainbow trout. Fish were bathed in 0.1 ppm AZA for a period of 60, 120 or 240 min. After termination of each treatment fish were transferred to clean ...
Gambichler T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) lamps used in commercial sunbeds are usually defined as UVA sources. Although it is well accepted that sunbed exposure significantly increases melanin pigmentation, its capacity to induce epidermal thickening is discussed controversially. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess non-invasively the effects of repeated sunbed ...
Kuczkowski Krzysztof M - - 2004
PURPOSE: The prevalence of recreational drug abuse among young women, including in pregnancy, has increased markedly over the past two decades. Cocaine remains the drug commonly used for recreational purposes in pregnancy. However, there appears to be an absence of uniform guidelines for obstetric and anesthetic management of pregnant patients ...
Liu Xiu - - 2004
Epidemiological studies have suggested that adverse experiences in utero predispose individuals to neurobehavioral disorders including drug abuse in adulthood. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that maternal endotoxin exposure during pregnancy increases ethanol consumption in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lippopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.0 mg/kg, ...
Hanke Wojciech - - 2004
The epidemiological studies presented in this paper refer to the association between agricultural occupation of parents and the incidence of infertility, congenital malformations, miscarriage, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, preterm delivery and stillbirth. The results of the analyses showed that employment in agriculture increases the risk of specific morphological abnormalities ...
Freudenmann Roland W - - 2004
This paper reviews the pharmacology and toxicology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA, "eve"). MDEA is a ring-substituted amphetamine (RSA) like MDMA, its well known N-methyl analog. Both have become very popular substances of abuse in the techno- and house-music scene. They can evoke psychomotor stimulation, mild alterations of perception, sensations of closeness ...
Glinianaia Svetlana V - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Research on the potential impact of air pollution on the health of adults and children has grown rapidly over the last decade. Recent studies have suggested that air pollution could also be associated with adverse effects on the developing fetus. This systematic review evaluates the current level of epidemiologic ...
Chang Grace - - 2005
Pregnant women continue to drink despite evidence that prenatal alcohol consumption can negatively affect fetal growth and development. Because no universally safe level of prenatal alcohol use has been established, it is beneficial to identify and modify a woman's prenatal alcohol use early in her pregnancy, particularly as her past ...
Widaman Keith F - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of this study were to model the form of the relation between prenatal exposure to phenylalanine (Phe) and measures of offspring intellectual development and to estimate the developmental relations of maternal demographic, pregnancy-related, and perinatal variables on offspring intelligence during infancy and childhood. METHODS: The participants ...
Anttila Petra - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The detection of excessive alcohol consumption by laboratory methods continues to lack sensitivity and specificity. Recent studies have suggested that diagnostic improvement may be achieved by combining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GT) measurements into a marker defined as gamma-CDT. METHODS: We developed a new approach for determining gamma-CDT ...
Tabacova Sonia - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes following the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, including enalapril, have been reported in descriptive studies. However, no analytical studies on the relationship between the adverse outcomes and enalapril gestational exposures are available. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between enalapril exposure and adverse outcomes in pregnancy, ...
Bharti Des - - 2003
Little is known about the effect of inhalation of methanol and other solvents on the pregnancy and the growth of the fetus. We report a preterm male infant who developed cerebral infarcts in utero, leading to large areas of bilateral frontal cortical leukomalacia following chronic maternal inhalation of carburetor-cleaning fluid ...
Tolstrup J S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. ...
Wurst Friedrich Martin - - 2003
Current biological state markers remain suboptimal with regard to sensitivity and specificity for monitoring recent alcohol consumption in various settings. Furthermore, these biomarkers can be influenced by age, gender and a variety of substances and non-alcohol-associated diseases and do not cover fully the time axis for alcohol intake. Ethyl glucuronide ...
Ken Joyner
this paper, microwave radiation will be regarded as a subset of the radiofrequency (RF) band.) Claims of adverse health effects due to EMR exposure include increased cancer rates, adverse pregnancy outcomes and cataract induction
Kashiwagi Maki - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Maternal cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, abruptio placentae, and preterm delivery. CASE: We report what is, to our knowledge, the first published observation of fetal bilateral renal agenesis associated with a vascular disruption syndrome comprising upper limb reduction defect and a ...
Meschke Laurie L - - 2003
Fetal alcohol exposure is a common cause of birth defects and developmental disorders. As many as 1 in 100 children in the United States are believed to be affected by fetal alcohol exposure. Characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) include abnormal facial features, growth impairment, problems with learning, memory, attention ...
Göransson Mona - - 2003
Maternal alcohol consumption is a major health hazard for the fetus. Sweden has an extensive system of public antenatal care clinics, whose mission is to detect and prevent this type of health hazards. However, very few cases of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are detected. The aim of this study was ...
Anton Dan - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Assessing exposure to physical risk factors during variable noncyclic work can be problematic. The purpose of this study was to modify an existing data reduction method for directly quantifying physical exposures during variable noncyclic work. METHODS: Myoelectric activity of the finger flexors of two groups of workers, heavy equipment ...
Whitehead Nedra - - 2003
Few studies have examined the effect of binge drinking on human fetal growth. The authors studied the effect of binge drinking 3 months before pregnancy and during the last 3 months of pregnancy on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is an ...
Poggi Sarah H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common nongenetic cause of mental retardation. Peptides NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and SALLRSIPA (SAL), related to activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), prevent alcohol-induced damage in a mouse model of FAS. Our objective was to characterize ADNP in this model to relate this protein to the ...
Juhl Mette - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to have fewer ...
Herrick Kirsten - - 2003
Recent studies have linked maternal consumption of an unbalanced high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in late pregnancy with raised adult blood pressure in the offspring. Because high-protein diets stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we hypothesized that an unbalanced maternal diet might increase maternal cortisol levels, exposing the fetus to excess cortisol and programming ...
Meyer Katie A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and oral clefts in offspring remains unclear. We studied this relation in a case-control surveillance study of birth defects. METHODS: From 1983 to 1997, we recruited 5956 study subjects from greater Boston, Philadelphia, Toronto, and parts of Iowa. The cases were ...
Ratnapalan Savithiri - - 2003
One of my patients had a computed tomography scan of her abdomen a week ago and has just found out she is 7 weeks pregnant. What should I tell her about the pregnancy and the risk to her fetus? Your patient is not at increased risk of miscarriage or major ...
Uma Devi P - - 2003
The haemopoietic system in the developing mammal is very sensitive to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Epidemiological studies have established a strong association between obstetric exposure to diagnostic radiation and an increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia and between low dose gamma irradiation during the early fetal period ...
Myers Gary J - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) before birth can adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. The most common form of prenatal exposure is maternal fish consumption, but whether such exposure harms the fetus is unknown. We aimed to identify adverse neurodevelopmental effects in a fish-consuming population. METHODS: We investigated 779 mother-infant pairs residing ...
Naimi Timothy S - - 2003
To assess the relationship between unintended pregnancy resulting in a live birth and binge drinking (having 5 or more alcoholic beverages on 1 occasion) in the 3 months before pregnancy (the preconception period) and to characterize women who are of childbearing age and binge drink. A case-control study was conducted ...
Vidaeff Alex C - - 2003
Fetal cocaine exposure has proven to be an area of medicine that has generated more heat than light. Although many reports associate cocaine with a variety of isolated structural anomalies, there is no detectable syndromic clustering, raising doubts about a real causal association or a specific teratogenic action. Potential confounding ...
Chung Moon-Koo - - 2003
To identify possible effects of horizontally polarized magnetic field (MF) exposure on maintenance of pregnancy and embryo-fetal development, an MF exposure system was designed and constructed and 96 time-mated female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (24/group) received continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF at field strengths of 0 (sham control) and 5, ...
Björnberg K Ask - - 2003
We studied exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in Swedish pregnant women (total mercury [T-Hg] in hair) and their fetuses (MeHg in cord blood) in relation to fish intake. The women were recruited at antenatal care clinics in late pregnancy to participate in an exposure study of environmental pollutants. Fish consumption ...
O'Callaghan Frances V - - 2003
AIM: To examine whether alcohol exposure in pregnancy affects weight and head circumference (HC) at birth and 5 years, and whether these effects are independent of cigarette exposure in pregnancy and social disadvantage. STUDY DESIGN: The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) involves a prospective cohort of 8556 mothers who were ...
Zhang Qiang - - 2003
Knowledge of the extent of the "heated necrosis element" from a single exposure in target tissue created by an ultrasonic beam is critical for the application of focal ultrasound (US) surgery (FUS). This study uses the O'Nell and Pennes formulas to simulate the heated necrosis element from an annular focused ...
Kubotsu Stephanie L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Maternal ethanol consumption impairs fetal health, but it is unclear if this occurs through direct actions on the conceptus or indirectly through effects on the uterus. The objective of this study was to determine if chronic ethanol consumption in swine would impair early embryonic and fetal health either through ...
Lee B E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although there have been growing concerns about the adverse effects of air pollution on birth outcomes, little is known about which specific exposure times of specific pollutants contribute to low birth weight (LBW). METHODS: We evaluated the relationships between LBW and air pollution exposure levels in Seoul, Korea. Using ...
Eustace Larry W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To provide an integrated review of the literature on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), focusing on the definition of FAS/FAE, their incidence and related problems, gestational research findings, FAS symptoms, the effects of prenatal alcohol consumption on offspring over time, and FAS/FAE preventive measures. DATA ...
Cook Janine Denis - - 2003
To describe the serious health consequences of alcohol (ethanol) use, especially as they relate to pregnancy and the development of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). The classic markers of alcohol exposure, including blood/breath alcohol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde (HAA) and carbohydrate ...
Cohen-Kerem Raanan - - 2003
Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, and heavy drinking during pregnancy can result in serious adverse outcomes to the fetus. The cellular mechanisms by which ethanol induces damage in utero are not well understood, while induction of oxidative stress is believed to be one putative mechanism. Our objective is ...
Diav-Citrin Orna - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Mebendazole is an anthelmintic that is commonly needed in women of reproductive age. Its use in pregnancy is a reason for concern for women and their health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the fetal safety of mebendazole. STUDY DESIGN: The Israeli Teratogen Information Service ...
Wierzba-Bobrowicz Teresa - - 2003
Alcohol ingestion by female rats during pregnancy and/or lactation leads to developmental anomalies of different organ systems, retardation and immune system impairment in their offspring. In humans, these disorders are termed foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or foetal alcohol effect (FAE) if abnormalities are of lesser degree. The study materials consisted ...
Chen Wei-Jung A - - 2003
One of the distinguishing features of prenatal alcohol exposure is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system. Information available from the small number of autopsied cases in humans indicates that the offspring of mothers who abused alcohol during pregnancy have various neuroanatomical alterations ranging ...
Moore Christine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), and alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorders (ARNDs) in neonates are often the result of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Facial characteristics are associated with FAS, but ARBDs and ARNDs are more difficult to diagnose. Fetal exposure to alcohol can cause central nervous system ...
Carey Luke C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity in mice is related to the maternal expression of metallothionein (MT), a zinc (Zn)-binding protein. Ethanol induces maternal liver MT, which causes plasma Zn concentrations to decrease as Zn moves into the liver. During pregnancy it is suggested that this change decreases ...
Fischer Doris - - 2003
Chronic alcohol exposure during pregnancy and the resulting toxic effects for the fetus has been the subject of many investigations. In contrast, acute alcohol intoxication during pregnancy is a rare event and less is known about the consequences for fetal life. We report a case of the acute ethanol intoxication ...
Purokivi M - - 2002
Several epidemiological studies have revealed a large variety of adverse health effects related to exposure to microbes in moisture damaged buildings. Recently some evidence has been reported for a biochemical linkage between microbial exposure and the respiratory symptoms suffered by the occupants. The objective of the current study was to ...
Rennen Monique A J - - 2002
Health risks resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals are controlled by the establishment of acceptable dermal and respiratory exposure levels. Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, acceptable levels are frequently established by means of route-to-route extrapolation. A pitfall in route-to-route extrapolation is the occurrence of local effects. Often, ...
Hellawell G O - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the risks of placing double-pigtail stents during pregnancy in women presenting with loin pain associated with hydronephrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of women presenting with loin pain and hydronephrosis in pregnancy were treated with double-pigtail ureteric stents. A flexible cystoscope was used to identify the ...
Savage Christine L - - 2002
Alcohol is a known teratogenic substance that operates under a dose-response mechanism. Before we conducted a larger study that examines the use of alcohol both before pregnancy and during pregnancy, it was important to pilot our method for measuring a pregnant mother's alcohol use that would allow us to capture ...
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