Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1152
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Soma Hiroaki - - 2005
The placenta is an important functional unit for gas transfer between mother and fetus. The placental membrane, consisting of trophoblast layer interposed between maternal and fetal blood, plays an active role for intensity of respiration, but no morphological evidence has been documented. Until now, it has been reported that fetal ...
Shibata Eiji - - 2005
CONTEXT: An excess of the soluble receptor, fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) may contribute to maternal vascular dysfunction in women with preeclampsia by binding and thereby reducing concentrations of free vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF) in the circulation. The putative stimulus for increased sFlt-1 during preeclampsia, ...
Kankofer M - - 2005
Exposure of living organisms to a constant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in the development of antioxidative defence systems which protect cells and tissues against their harmful effects. The retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows is hypothesized to be connected with the imbalance between production and neutralization ...
Painter Danika L - - 2005
The placenta provides a maternal-fetal exchange interface that maximizes the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and wastes. However, the placenta also may permit diffusion of lipid-soluble steroid hormones that influence processes such as sex-specific fetal development and maternal pregnancy maintenance. In mammals, placental steroid metabolism contributes to regulation of maternal and ...
Korkmaz Ay┼če - - 2005
In this study we investigated the presence of placental apoptosis in pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage. Placental tissue samples at term were obtained from 15 normal and 15 pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method was applied to confirm apoptosis in all placental samples. ...
Lyall F - - 2005
It is now well known that in order to establish human hemochorial placentation and to provide a progressive increase in blood supply to the growing fetus, the uterine spiral arteries must undergo considerable alterations. This physiological modification is thought to be brought about by the interaction of invasive cytotrophoblast with ...
Redline R W - - 2005
Placental pathology is a valuable link explaining how underlying pregnancy risk factors result in adverse pregnancy outcome. This potentially useful information is currently underutilized due to a general lack of rigor in placental diagnosis. This lack of rigor is in large part due to a failure to appreciate the importance ...
Reynolds Lawrence P - - 2005
Because the placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems, development of its vascular beds is essential to normal placental function, and thus in supporting normal fetal growth. Compromised fetal growth and development have adverse health consequences during the neonatal period ...
Kovacs Christopher S - - 2005
We utilized a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene knockout model to study the effects of maternal and fetal absence of VDR on maternal fertility, fetal-placental calcium transfer, and fetal mineral homoeostasis. Vdr null mice were profoundly hypocalcemic, conceived infrequently, and had significantly fewer viable fetuses in utero that were also ...
Quarello E - - 2005
Large placental chorioangiomas are rare complications in pregnancy. We present a case of a placental chorioangioma, complicated by polyhydramnios, in which obliteration of its blood supply using diode laser coagulation at 25 weeks of gestation was followed by an uneventful pregnancy and delivery of a healthy baby with a normal ...
Lea Richard G - - 2005
Most intrauterine growth restriction cases are associated with reduced placental growth. Overfeeding adolescent ewes undergoing singleton pregnancies restricts placental growth and reduces lamb birth weight. We used this sheep model of adolescent pregnancy to investigate whether placental growth restriction is associated with altered placental cell proliferation and/or apoptosis at d ...
Reis Nádia S V - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcome and pathologic findings in cases of placental lake visualized on sonography in pregnancies without concurrent fetal or maternal disease. METHODS: Placental aspect was evaluated sonographically in 4,106 singleton pregnancies without maternal or fetal disease at between 15 and 34 ...
Redline Raymond W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study tests the hypothesis that placental disease can identify antepartum processes that either progress into the intrapartum period or predispose to intrapartum brain injury. STUDY DESIGN: Lesions that affect large fetal vessels were compared in the placentas of 125 neurologically impaired term infants who were the focus of ...
Wlodek Mary E - - 2005
During pregnancy, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is one of many growth factors that play important roles to promote fetal growth and development, including stimulation of placental calcium transport. Angiotensin II, acting through the AT(1a) receptor, is also known to promote placental growth. We examined the effects of bilateral uterine artery ...
Yuan Hai-Tao - - 2005
Preeclampsia affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is responsible for substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is believed to be a two-stage disease with an initial placental trigger with no maternal symptoms followed by a maternal syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and endothelial dysfunction. The first stage is thought ...
Nekhayeva Ilona A - - 2005
Methadone maintenance programs are considered the standard of care for the pregnant opiate addict. However, data on changes in methadone pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy are limited and do not include its disposition by the placenta due to obvious ethical and safety considerations. Accordingly, investigations in our laboratory are focusing on ...
Wicherek Lukasz - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Independently of the fetal death cause the beginning and course of stillbirth is closely related with the growing cytotoxic activity at the maternal-fetal interface. RCAS1 participates in the inhibition of maternal immune response during pregnancy. The alterations of RCAS1 protein expression in placental cells seem to determine the beginning ...
Stanek Jerzy - - 2005
Laminar necrosis of placental membranes (LN), a band of coagulative necrosis at the choriodecidual interphase, is a histologic lesion of unclear pathogenesis that has been reported in placentas from preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and preterm abruption. To better explore other possible correlations of LN, we performed a retrospective ...
Huppertz Berthold - - 2005
Pregnancy leads to dramatic changes of the vascular system of the mother and enables the development of a completely new vascular system within the growing embryo including the formation of the placenta as the exchange organ between both circulations. Besides a general adaptation of the maternal blood system, the uterine ...
Gupta A K - - 2005
Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-associated multi-system disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by damage to the maternal endothelium. The latter facet has been suggested to be mediated in part by elevated shedding of inflammatory placental syncytiotrophoblast micro-particles (STBM) into the maternal circulation. In this study, we have examined STBM prepared by three ...
van Rens B T T M - - 2005
The relationship between placental efficiency (PLEFF, i.e., the ratio of birth weight [BWB] to placental weight [PLW]) and neonatal pig vitality as measured by the probability of preweaning death of live born piglets was examined for 1,036 live born piglets of 118 litters. The data were first analyzed to establish ...
Haggarty P - - 2004
The fetus has an absolute requirement for the n-3/n-6 fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) in particular is essential for the development of the brain and retina. Most of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. The likely rate of DHA ...
Oral Engin - - 2004
The hormonal changes and maternal adaptations of human pregnancy are among the most remarkable phenomena in nature. Endocrinologic parameters in the early gestation period have been used to predict abnormal pregnancies and to identify fetuses that have chromosomal aberrations. This article focuses on the changes in hormones that are secreted ...
Shukunami Ken-ichi - - 2004
Subamniotic hematoma is a placental pathological lesion resulting from the rupture of allantochorionic vessels. Some of them decrease in size during pregnancy. However, the relation between the reduction of the lesions during pregnancy and the structure of the placenta at delivery has not been previously reported. We report a case ...
Cheung Cecilia Y - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Umbilical-placental embolization with microspheres has been used as a model of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, the effects of embolization on placental structure and organ morphology of the resulting IUGR fetus are relatively unexplored. In this study using ovine fetuses, we determined the location and distribution ...
Alvaro Ruben E - - 2004
We have previously observed that the infusion of a placental extract inhibits breathing movements in fetal sheep, suggesting that a placental factor may be responsible for the inhibition of fetal breathing. Our preliminary results suggested that a small peptide or a substance bound to a peptide was likely responsible for ...
Paulesu Luana - - 2005
The localization and activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was investigated in the interhemal region of the noninvasive, diffuse, folded epitheliochorial placenta and in the nonpregnant uterus of the pig. MIF, a proinflammatory cytokine with many actions on macrophages and monocytes, may play an important role in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance ...
McMaster Michael T - - 2004
Preeclampsia, particularly the severe cases that occur early in pregnancy, is associated with defects in the (placental) cytotrophoblast differentiation pathway that leads to uterine invasion. At a morphologic level, interstitial invasion often is shallow. Perhaps more significantly, endovascular invasion, particularly the arterial component, is rudimentary. The latter defect is thought ...
Aida K - - 2004
Betamethasone is frequently administered to pregnant women at risk of premature labor to accelerate fetal lung maturation. Maternally administered betamethasone produces pronounced changes in the fetal peripheral vasculature, raises fetal blood pressure and produces fetal growth restriction. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in regulating vascular tone. ...
Komuro Hiroaki - - 2004
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The mechanisms of intrauterine vascular disruptions that result in the development of jejunoileal atresia (JIA) are not fully understood. Monochorionic twinning with fetal death of a cotwin is known to be correlated with the development of JIA in the survivor through placental communication. The aim of this study was ...
Prater Mary Renee - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is a potent carcinogen and teratogen that is associated with central nervous system, craniofacial, skeletal, ocular, and appendicular birth defects following transplacental exposure at critical time points during development, and preliminary studies have suggested that nonspecific maternal immunostimulation may offer protection against development of these birth defects. ...
Albrecht Eugene D - - 2004
We have recently shown that there was a developmental increase in placental trophoblast vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor (VEG/PF) expression and vascularization that closely paralleled maternal serum estrogen levels during advancing baboon gestation. The present study determined whether estrogen regulates these important aspects of primate development. VEG/PF mRNA levels were determined ...
Tardif Suzette D - - 2005
Common marmosets, a New World primate, respond to a modest energy restriction with early termination of the pregnancy. Within female marmosets, comparisons (n = 6) between a normal, term pregnancy and a restriction-induced aborted pregnancy were used to establish cortisol, free estradiol, and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) as urinary markers of ...
Illanes Sebastian - - 2004
When fetuses are growth restricted as a result of inadequate placental function, there is an increased risk of poor perinatal outcome compared with fetuses where small dimensions are constitutional and associated with normal placental function. The management of reduced fetal size should therefore focus on the identification of the fetus ...
Li Raymond H W - - 2004
This study investigated the expression profile of placental leptin and leptin receptor isoforms in preeclampsia, using placental tissue from normal pregnancies that were matched in gestational age and birth weight as controls. A total of 29 cases of preeclampsia were studied by immunohistochemistry, including 16 severe and 13 mild preeclampsia ...
Bergmann A - - 2004
Many studies have documented that placental development is altered by a variety of environmental factors which alter placental bed blood flow and/or oxygen delivery. One of these is sustained weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of running throughout pregnancy on villous vascular development and ...
Bertolini M - - 2004
Changes in placental development have been associated with foetal abnormalities after in vitro embryo manipulations. This study was designed to investigate bovine conceptus development and substrate levels in plasma and fluids in in vivo- and in vitro-produced (IVP) concepti and neonates. In vivo-produced and IVP embryos were derived by established ...
Ravelich Susan R - - 2004
Appropriate growth, development, and function of the placenta is central to the success of nutrient partitioning between the mother, placenta, and fetus. Hormones such as placental lactogen (PL) and leptin are produced in the bovine placenta and play an important role in nutrient partitioning and regulation of placental and fetal ...
Macaldowie C - - 2004
Pregnant cattle were inoculated with N. caninum strain NC-1 tachyzoites intravenously (iv) (group 1, n = 8) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2, n = 8) at 70 days' gestation. Control animals (group 3; n = 8) received uninfected Vero cells iv. Two animals from each group were killed at 14, ...
Redline Raymond W - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to assemble and test the reliability of a complete set of the placental reaction patterns seen with chronic fetal vascular obstruction in the hope that this might provide a standardized diagnostic framework useful for practicing pathologists. Study cases (14 with fetal vascular obstructive lesions, ...
Myatt Leslie - - 2004
Pregnancy is a state of oxidative stress arising from increased placental mitochondrial activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly superoxide anion. The placenta also produces other ROS including nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and peroxynitrite which have pronounced effects on placental function including trophoblast proliferation and differentiation and vascular ...
Seckin N C - - 2004
Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is an uncommon but serious complication of pregnancy. Placental abruption is the most common associated condition among the causes of acute obstetrical DIC. We present a case of life-threatening DIC complicating placental abruption in the second trimester of pregnancy with protein S deficiency as a triggering ...
Hviid Thomas Vauvert - - 2004
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells in the feto-maternal contact zone. Polymorphisms have been described in the HLA-G gene and have been linked with differences in HLA-G mRNA alternative splicing patterns and protein expression. Differences in the isoform profile or the degree of HLA-G expression ...
Tongsong Theera - - 2004
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to establish normal values of placental thickness during the first half of pregnancy. METHODS: Normal pregnant women with singleton pregnancies between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation were recruited into the study. All the newborns were normal at birth. Placental thickness was measured perpendicularly through ...
Zhong Xiao Yan - - 2004
Pregnancy at high altitude (>2700 m) is associated with higher rates of fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia as well as alterations in placentation, including increased villous vascularization and reduced remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. Because circulatory fetal DNA concentrations were shown to be enhanced in pregnancies affected by preeclampsia, we ...
Dy Colleen L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish normal parameters for placental weights and fetal/placental weight ratios. STUDY DESIGN: Placentas (2402) from uncomplicated singleton deliveries at the Royal Alexandra Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) were collected from 1997 to 1998 and weighed after fixation. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. RESULTS: ...
Alkazaleh F - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To screen women with uteroplacental insufficiency between 18 and 26 weeks' gestation for sonographic evidence of destructive placental lesions, to observe the effect of low molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in these cases, and to compare the outcome with similar but untreated controls. METHODS: We screened 180 women at high risk ...
Stabin Michael G - - 2004
Placental transfer and fetal dose estimates have been published for women in early pregnancy and at the end of each trimester for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals. For the case of (18)F-FDG, a dose was given with no information about placental transfer of the radiopharmaceutical. Recent publications have reported quantitative ...
Clifton V L - - 2004
Studying the effect of maternal asthma during pregnancy on placental function and fetal development has highlighted that there is a strong interaction between mother, placenta and fetus and these interactions appear to be sex-specific. This work has found that the female fetus alters maternal asthma during pregnancy by upregulating maternal ...
McDonald Kirsten R - - 2004
We used the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-alpha gene knockout model (Ct/Cgrp null) to determine whether calcitonin and CGRPalpha are required for normal fetal mineral homeostasis and placental calcium transfer. Heterozygous (Ct/Cgrp(+/-)) and Ct/Cgrp null females were mated to Ct/Cgrp(+/-) males. One or two days before term, blood was collected from ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >