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Results 351 - 400 of 1153
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Chavatte-Palmer P - - 2006
Somatic cloning in the bovine species leads to high levels of fetal losses which occur throughout pregnancy. These losses are most often associated with fetal overgrowth, a syndrome known as large offspring syndrome (LOS), and excessive maternal plasma pregnancy serum protein 60 (PSP60), a protein similar to a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Clinicians widely regard placental abruption as an acute event, though accumulating data point towards abruption being the end-result of chronic processes early in pregnancy, and perhaps even extending to conception. The Collaborative Perinatal Project was a prospective cohort study performed from 1959 to 1966 in the United States. Since ...
van Basten J P A - - 2006
When considering laparoscopic tumor nephrectomy during pregnancy, questions will arise about the consequences of the increased abdominal pressure (IAP) for uterine-placental perfusion and the impact of carbondioxide insufflation on the fetus. These considerations should be weighed against the advantages for the mother, in term of shorter convalescence and decreased wound ...
Ticconi Carlo - - 2006
Pregnancy is a unique condition in which the conceptus is allowed to implant, survive, develop, and reach a considerable organ growth and maturation within the maternal body despite the fact that it is half genetically different from the mother. Moreover, it deeply influences the overall endocrine, metabolic, and immunological functions ...
Lambot N - - 2006
During human pregnancy, the trophoblast layer is in direct contact with maternal albumin. In contrast to immunoglobulins, albumin does not cross the placental barrier. However, albumin affects the trophoblast placental lactogen and chorionic gonadotroph secretion. The present study investigated the interaction between albumin and syncytiotrophoblast using human term placental explants. ...
Wildman Derek E - - 2006
The placenta is essential for the success of therian mammalian reproduction. Intense selective pressure has shaped changes in placental anatomy and function during mammalian cladogenesis. Here we challenge the view that the hemochorial placenta is a derived feature in haplorhine primates. Using phylogenetic and statistical analyses of molecular and morphological ...
Steiger K - - 2006
Although spontaneous and medically induced canine embryonic or fetal death and "resorption" are clinically well documented, morphological studies of these processes are still missing. The objective of this study was therefore a detailed morphological investigation of canine placental sites after embryonic or fetal death. In five pregnant beagle bitches, embryonic ...
Myatt Leslie - - 2006
Fetal programming occurs when the normal pattern of fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal stimulus or 'insult' applied at a critical point in in utero development. This then leads to an effect, for example diabetes or hypertension, which manifests itself in adult life. As the placenta is the regulator ...
Reynolds Lawrence P - - 2006
The placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems. Consequently, placental blood flow and vascular development are essential components of normal placental function and are critical to fetal growth and development. Normal fetal growth and development are important to ensure optimum ...
Raijmakers M T M - - 2006
Early placental development is characterised by rapid cell differentiation and migration, matrix remodelling and angiogenesis. The enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of superoxide anions implicated in signalling pathways regulating these processes in other systems. It is also thought to be involved in oxygen sensing and regulation of the ...
Renee Prater Mary - - 2006
PROBLEM: Immunostimulation reduces murine teratogen-induced birth defects. It is unclear if placental improvement contributes to this outcome. The current study examined murine placental ultrastructure and fetal limb development following maternal methylnitrosourea (MNU) exposure, +/-Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) immunostimulation. METHOD OF STUDY: Two murine strains (CD-1, C57BL/6N) were administered MNU on ...
Tabano Silvia - - 2006
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with reduced placental supply of nutrients to the fetus. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mediates the hydrolysis of triglycerides from maternal lipoproteins to obtain fatty acids. Here, we tested the hypothesis that placental LPL gene expression level is altered in pregnancies complicated by IUGR. To this ...
Jansson T - - 2006
Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with a range of alterations in placental transport functions: the activity of a number of transporters is reduced (Systems A, L and Tau, transporters for cationic amino acids, the sodium-proton exchanger and the sodium pump), placental glucose transporter activity and expression are unchanged whereas the ...
Madazli R - - 2006
The aim of the study was to examine the expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-3 in placental tissue samples and placental bed (maternal decidual tissue) biopsies of pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to determine whether PE and FGR are associated with an increase ...
Apari Péter - - 2006
This paper argues that parent-offspring conflict is mediated by placental beta-endorphins in placental mammals, i.e., foetuses make their mothers endorphin-dependent then manipulate them to increase nutrient allocation to the placenta. This hypothesis predicts that: (1) anatomic position of endorphin production should mirror its presumed role in fetal-maternal conflict; (2) endorphin ...
Mose Tina - - 2006
Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a ...
Bertolini Marcelo - - 2006
Bovine conceptus development and its association with placental proteins present in maternal, foetal and neonatal plasma and foetal (amniotic and allantoic) fluids were investigated in in vivo- and in vitro-produced (IVP) concepti and newborn calves. Females were superovulated to obtain control embryos, whereas IVP embryos were derived from established in ...
Chan Karen K L - - 2006
Placental size may be influenced by maternal factors, placental function as well as the fetal condition. So far, no studies have examined how the fetal oxygen-carrying capacity or haemoglobin/haematocrit levels would affect placental growth in normal human pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between placental ...
Sankaralingam Sowndramalingam - - 2006
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterised by hypertension and proteinuria occurring after the 20th week of gestation. Delivery of the placenta results in resolution of the condition, implicating the placenta as a central culprit in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In preeclampsia, an inadequate placental trophoblast invasion of the maternal uterine ...
Toledo Mércia Tancredo - - 2006
The presence of cancer makes it difficult to predict the progress of pregnancy and can be deleterious to the maternal-foetal relationship. Apoptosis may affect a range of placental functions and result in the retardation of foetal growth. In this work, we investigated the placental alterations produced by tumour growth and ...
Gol Mert - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether fetal gender affects total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and placental ALP levels in normal pregnancy, and to determine the gestational age at which the difference occurs. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, serum total and placental ALP measurements were carried out in 30 normal pregnant women during different ...
Hagen Amy S Erickson - - 2005
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, and often results from functional placental insufficiency. Placentation requires extensive vasculogenesis and subsequent angiogenesis, in both maternal and fetal tissues. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) are angiogenic growth factors expressed in the placenta, and compete for binding to ...
Napolitano R - - 2005
Placental chorioangioma is the most common benign tumor of placenta. The relationship of vascularized chorioangiomas to adverse pregnancy outcome is well recognized. We report 3 cases of placental chorioangioma. Hypervascularization of the lesions in all patients and the immune hydrops with adverse fetal outcome in 2 cases are the complications ...
Gupta Sajal - - 2005
Preeclampsia is a complex multisystem disorder exclusively seen in human species that is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This disorder has the highest maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality of all pregnancy-related complications. Growing evidence suggests that placental oxidative stress is involved in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. Reduced perfusion as ...
Padavala Sudha - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), seeded on Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Bedford, UK), undergo an angiogenic-like process. We hypothesized that placental explants from normal pregnancies, maintained in cultures of different oxygen, would liberate factors that could be measured in this system. We further tested the angiogenic potential of placentae ...
Helliwell Rachel J A - - 2006
CONTEXT: The importance of prostaglandin (PG) signaling pathways to the maintenance of pregnancy and initiation of labor is well recognized. However, the complexity of these pathways and the mechanism(s) of their coordinated regulation in physiological and pathological conditions are only now being appreciated. OBJECTIVES: In this report we provide new ...
Reynolds L P - - 2005
The study of the development of the fetal membranes is an ancient one, and the importance of placental vascular development to placental function has long been recognized. Animal models have been important in these studies, as they allow for controlled experiments and analysis of multiple time-points during pregnancy. Since the ...
van Runnard Heimel P J - - 2005
During pregnancy the placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11beta-HSD2) enzyme inactivates prednisolone by interconversion into prednisone, protecting the fetus from high levels of prednisolone. Recent reports suggest decreased placental 11beta-HSD2 activity in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. The purpose of our investigation was to study the transplacental passage of prednisolone in patients ...
Brownbill P - - 2006
We used the in vitro dually perfused human placental lobule to test the hypothesis that known vasoconstrictors of the fetal placental circulation, angiotensin II and the thromboxane mimetic U46619 could induce fetomaternal water transfer. Secondly, we used a combination of vasoconstrictor and mechanically induced increases in fetal placental circulatory pressure ...
Pritlove D C - - 2006
2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate mutase (2,3-BPGM), an erythroid-expressed enzyme, synthesises 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), the allosteric modulator of haemoglobin. This ligand has a higher affinity for adult haemoglobin than for fetal haemoglobin and differential binding of it facilitates transfer of oxygen between adult and fetal blood by lowering the affinity of adult haemoglobin for oxygen. ...
Kiserud Torvid - - 2005
Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. ...
Stepan H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: BNip3 and its homologue Nix are pro-apoptotic factors of the Bcl-2-family and are expressed in malignant tumors. In vitro, this expression was shown to be mediated by hypoxia. Recently, it has been shown that placental hypoxia as well as apoptosis are pathogenetic factors for pregnancy-induced hypertensive diseases and intrauterine ...
Clifton Vicki L - - 2005
Human pregnancy is associated with sexually dimorphic differences in mortality and morbidity of the fetus with the male fetus experiencing the poorest outcome following complications such as pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery and infection. The physiological mechanisms that confer these differences have not been well characterised in the human. Work conducted on ...
Ward J W - - 2006
The gross morphological appearance of ovine placentomes is known to alter in response to adverse intrauterine conditions that increase fetal cortisol exposure. The direct effects of fetal cortisol on the placentome morphology, however, remain unknown, nor is the functional significance of the different placentome types clear. The present study investigated ...
Bowen Robin S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Placental hypoxia and altered placental cytokine productions have been considered to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to determine whether hypoxia could modify interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 production by placental trophoblast cells (TCs) from normal and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. ...
Smets Eva M L - - 2006
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-associated disease with maternal symptoms, but placental origin. Although clinical symptoms are late, systemic and maternal, the origin of preeclampsia is early, local and placental. Despite that various protein biomarkers display changed levels in maternal serum at presymptomatic stages, they lack discriminative and predictive power in individual ...
Omwandho C A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To elute placental bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) in situ. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department, The University of Newcastle Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Twelve pregnant ewes 10 to 15 days before the onset of natural parturition. RESULTS: Placental eluates were ...
Egbor M - - 2006
Both pre-eclampsia (PET) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) pose a heavy burden on fetal and maternal health and may disrupt pregnancy outcome. Using design based stereological techniques, placental vascular and villous morphology were assessed to determine the individual role played by both PET and FGR on placental growth during the ...
Wicherek Lukasz - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: RCAS1 is a membrane protein that plays a role in the maintenance of maternal immune tolerance during pregnancy. The work presented here demonstrates the results of RCAS1 expression in placenta in cases of placental abruption and patients with retained placental tissue during the third stage of labor. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Rutland Catrin S - - 2005
The placenta is a specialized vascular interface between the maternal and fetal circulations that increases in size to accommodate the nutritional and metabolic demands of the growing fetus. Vascular proliferation and expansion are critical components of placental development and, consequently, interference with vascular growth has the potential to severely restrict ...
Mölsä Melissa - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In vitro and animal experiments suggest that P-glycoprotein forms a functional barrier between maternal and fetal blood circulation in the placenta, thus protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy. In this study we aimed to characterize the role of P-glycoprotein in the blood-placental barrier by use of ...
Sánchez-Vera Isabel - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Atherosis and placental infarction have been observed in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; therefore, it could be involved in the placental alterations observed in FGR. The aims of the present study were to estimate ...
Pasupathy D - - 2005
Antepartum stillbirth is the single most common cause of perinatal death. Antepartum stillbirth is associated with fetal abnormality, congenital infection, rhesus isoimmunisation, maternal medical conditions, and complications of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. However, the majority have no direct obstetric cause and are referred to as unexplained. Many ...
Malek A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of systemic inflammation. Recently, it has been shown that CRP is present in amniotic fluid and fetal urine, and that elevated levels are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the precise source of amniotic fluid CRP, its regulation, and function during pregnancy is ...
Stone S - - 2006
Pregnancy in women with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is frequently associated with placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)+/-fetal death, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, premature delivery or thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the placental bed in APS pregnancies for evidence of impaired trophoblast invasion, endothelial cell ...
Rodie Vanessa A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Human and animal studies have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in placental development and play key roles in metabolism and inflammation. We studied placental PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) expression in healthy pregnancy and in preeclampsia (PET) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS ...
Nanovskaya Tatiana - - 2005
Methadone is the therapeutic agent of choice for treatment of the pregnant opiate addict. However, little is known on the factors affecting its concentration in the fetal circulation during pregnancy and how it might relate to neonatal outcome. Therefore, a better understanding of the function of placental metabolic enzymes and ...
Ravelich S R - - 2006
Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear ...
Kuzmina Irina Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the structural basis of abnormal Doppler waveforms in the utero-placental circulations in cases of chronic fetal hypoxia. STUDY DESIGN: Morphometric analysis was performed on placental samples from 58 pregnancies with abnormal Doppler waveforms in the uterine, placental and umbilical circulations at 32-34 weeks, and 10 pregnancies with ...
Predanic Mladen - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the rates and patterns of placental "migration" with the mode of fetal and placental delivery and the incidence of peripartum complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 163 cases of placenta previa diagnosed by transvaginal sonography at 28 weeks' gestation ...
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