Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1151
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Cirpan T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine VEGF protein with immunohistochemical staining in placental bed biopsies of preeclamptic pregnancies in comparison to normal controls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: The placental bed biopsies were obtained from 12 patients with preeclapmsia and ten patients for a control group at ...
Marceau Geoffroy - - 2007
Retinol (vitamin A) is a fat-soluble nutrient indispensable for a harmonious mammalian gestation. The absence or excess of retinol and its active derivatives [i.e., the retinoic acids (RAs)] can lead to abnormal development of embryonic and extraembryonic (placental) structures. The embryo is unable to synthesize the retinol and is strongly ...
Symonds Michael E - - 2007
The maternal nutritional and metabolic environment is critical in determining not only reproduction, but also long-term health and viability. In the present review, the effects of maternal nutritional manipulation at defined stages of gestation coinciding with embryogenesis, maximal placental or fetal growth will be discussed. Long-term outcomes from these three ...
Hoffert-Goeres Kara A - - 2007
Impaired placental angiogenesis during early pregnancy may result in placental defects that adversely affect development of nuclear-transfer (NT) embryos later in pregnancy. These experiments were designed to quantify and compare development of placental microvasculature and expression of genes associated with angiogenesis, including members of the VEGF and angiopoietin (Ang) families, ...
Widmer Mariana - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate claims that elevated soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 receptor (sFlt-1) and decreased placental growth factor predict preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-March 2006), EMBASE (1980-June 2006), POPLINE (1980-June 2006), CINAHL (1982-June 2006), and LILACS (1982-June 2006) were searched, and experts contacted. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Studies identified and included ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2007
Considerable evidence exists for marked beneficial effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy. The omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is incorporated in large amounts in fetal brain and other tissues during the second half of pregnancy, and several studies have provided evidence for a link between early ...
Zamudio Stacy - - 2007
The influence of hypoxia (lowered arterial blood and/or tissue PO2) on fetoplacental development and the role of hypoxia in preeclampsia are major research foci in perinatal biology. While animal and cell models are of utility, we do not know whether artificial hypoxic stimuli mimic the pathological conditions attributed to hypoxic ...
Alvarez-Oxiley A V - - 2007
Concentrations of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) were determined in fetal plasma samples by twelve double-antibody competitive radioimmunoassay systems (RIA I-XII) based on either recombinant bPL (non-glycosylated) or native bPL (glycosylated). Both preparations were used as standard and tracer, and for primary antisera production. The minimum detection limit measured by these ...
Fletcher C J - - 2007
The efficiency of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is poor in livestock with approximately 5% of transferred cloned embryos developing to term. SCNT is associated with gross placental structural abnormalities. We aimed to identify defects in placental histology and gene expression in failing ovine cloned pregnancies to better ...
Carter A M - - 2007
This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however, substantive differences, including a different mode of ...
Redline Raymond W - - 2006
Thrombophilic states have been associated with a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The underlying placental pathology linking thrombophilia to these outcomes closely resembles that seen in other pregnancy disorders associated with chronic obstruction of the maternal or fetal vasculature. No single placental lesion is pathognomonic for thrombophilia. However, the finding ...
Enders A C - - 2007
Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of ...
Sferruzzi-Perri Amanda N - - 2007
Appropriate partitioning of nutrients between the mother and conceptus is a major determinant of pregnancy success, with placental transfer playing a key role. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) increase in the maternal circulation during early pregnancy and are predictive of fetal and placental growth. We have previously shown in the guinea ...
Jorgez Carolina J - - 2006
Methods utilizing circulating cell-free RNA in plasma have clinical applications for cancer and prenatal genetic analysis. Given these potential roles, the feasibility of detecting placental specific RNA in dried maternal blood spots after storage at room temperature for varying lengths of time was investigated. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ...
Nekhayeva Ilona A - - 2006
This study examines the role of placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the transfer of buprenorphine (BUP) and L-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) across the dually perfused human placental lobule. BUP (10 ng/mL) and LAAM (35 ng/mL) were perfused in the maternal-to-fetal direction. The following kinetic parameters were determined: fetal transfer rate (TR (f)), maternal ...
de Vrijer Barbra - - 2006
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are postulated to be altered in association with the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present studies examined placental and fetal hepatic mRNA concentration of components of the IGF system at two time points (55 and 90 d gestational age, dGA; Term 147 dGA) ...
Hewitt Damien P - - 2006
Increased glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal growth and predisposes to an increased risk of disease in later life. In addition to direct effects on fetal growth, glucocorticoids also compromise fetal growth indirectly via detrimental effects on placental growth and function. The current study investigated the effects of dexamethasone-induced intrauterine growth restriction ...
Hung Tai-Ho - - 2006
Preeclampsia is a human pregnancy-specific disorder that is diagnosed by the new appearance of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks' gestation. It is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and the only intervention that effectively reverses the syndrome is delivery. Oxidative stress of the placenta is considered to ...
Yamada Hideto - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: There has been no study concerning association between topological factors of placental vascularization and neonatal growth in humans. The aim of study was to assess whether any network index of placental surface arteries was associated with neonatal birth weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six placentas were randomly selected between 34 ...
Zharikova Olga L - - 2007
Aromatase, cytochrome P450 19, is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens by the human placenta. It is also the major placental enzyme that metabolizes the opiates L-acetylmethadol (LAAM), methadone, and buprenorphine (BUP). Methadone and BUP are used in treatment of the opiate addict and are competitive inhibitors of ...
Bashiri Asher - - 2007
Placental ALP (ALP(h)) is a membrane-anchored, heat-stable enzyme produced by the syncytiotrophoblast. We report a case of a patient presenting in the third trimester with extreme increased levels of ALP(h). A 40-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1, was admitted to the high risk pregnancy unit at 30 weeks of gestation ...
Girardi Guillermina - - 2006
Immune mechanisms have been implicated in placental dysfunction in patients with recurrent miscarriages and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but the mediators are undefined. Here we show that complement activation, particularly C5a, is a required intermediary event in the pathogenesis of placental and fetal injury in an antibody-independent mouse model of ...
Dahlgren Jovanna - - 2006
Maternal systemic infection during pregnancy may expose the fetus to infectious agents and high levels of mediators of the resulting inflammatory response, such as IL-6 (IL-6). Increased fetal and maternal levels of IL-6 have been associated with adverse neonatal outcome but might also stress the fetus and contribute to cardiovascular ...
Signore Caroline - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in circulating angiogenic factors have been reported in diseases of abnormal placentation, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Our objective was to determine whether circulating angiogenic factors are altered in another placental vascular disease, abruptio placentae. METHODS: In a nested case-control study of nulliparous pregnancies, we examined ...
Bainbridge Shannon A - - 2006
Cigarette smoking throughout pregnancy is associated with several negative outcomes, of which an increased incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is most pronounced. Gestationally age-matched infants born to smoking mothers are, on average, 200 g lighter at birth, per pack smoked per day. The mechanisms and specific tobacco compounds responsible ...
Lyall Fiona - - 2006
The placental bed underlies the placenta and includes the decidua basalis and underlying myometrium containing the uterine spiral arteries. For successful human haemochorial placentation, the placental bed spiral arteries must undergo considerable alterations. These physiological modifications are thought to be brought about by the interaction of invasive cytotrophoblast with the ...
Tian Yong - - 2006
Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the first step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the formation of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). In this work, the predicted Etnk2 cDNA was established as a soluble protein with ethanolamine-specific kinase activity that was most highly expressed in liver. Mice with an inactivated Etnk2 gene ...
Wang X - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To seek evidence of early vascular injury in the placental villous microcirculation in placental insufficiency identified by a high-resistance umbilical Doppler study by examining for expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1), its transcription factor, early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) and plasma fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). DESIGN: Case-control study. ...
Mayhew Terry M - - 2006
Correlations between placental size and fetal mass during gestation fail to account for changes in composition that accompany placental growth and maturation. This study uses stereological data on the sizes of different tissue compartments in human placentas from 10 weeks of gestation to term and relates them to placental volume ...
Elliot Michael G - - 2006
A central question in evolutionary biology is why animal lineages differ strikingly in rates and patterns of the evolution of reproductive isolation. Here, we show that the maximum genetic distance at which interspecific mammalian pregnancies yield viable neonates is significantly greater in clades with invasive (hemochorial) placentation than in clades ...
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2006
In the overnourished adolescent sheep, maternal tissue synthesis is promoted at the expense of placental growth and leads to a major decrease in lamb birth weight at term. Maternal growth hormone (GH) concentrations are attenuated in these pregnancies, and it was recently demonstrated that exogenous GH administration throughout the period ...
Jauniaux Eric - - 2006
Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visualized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno-fetal relationship has emerged ...
Dubey J P - - 2006
The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora ...
Xu Bei - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive drugs such as clonidine, diazoxide, hydralazine and furosemide are used in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to control blood pressure, but it is not clear if they modulate the production of placental or circulating cytokines. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of pharmaceutical doses of well known antihypertensive drugs ...
Roberts Drucilla J - - 2006
Complete pathologic evaluation of the placenta provides valuable information for perinatal care for the obstetrician, neonatologist, pediatrician, and family. The histopathology of the placenta can answer specific questions about in utero insults, give insight into management of subsequent pregnancies, and provide an assessment of the newborn risk. Placental pathology has ...
Ness Roberta B - - 2006
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia differ in their association with maternal disease but share a similar placental pathology. Moreover, mothers who have had pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or IUGR are at elevated later-life cardiovascular risk. Why, then, do some women develop IUGR and others develop preeclampsia? In this clinical ...
Pap E - - 2007
Successful pregnancy is closely related to polarization toward a Th2 type immune response. As histamine is known to initiate Th2 dominance during inflammatory processes we raised the question whether histamine has any effect on the actual tuning of proper cytokine balance for the proceeding of the gestation. Histamine has multiple ...
Redline Raymond W - - 2006
Histopathological examination of the placenta is the gold standard for evaluating antenatal inflammatory processes that might influence fetal development. Histological chorioamnionitis develops through a well-characterised stereotyped progression of maternal and fetal cellular stages that vary from patient to patient and are amenable to quantification. Increases in the intensity of these ...
Ghidini Alessandro - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumors. Large chorioangiomas have been reported to cause several obstetric complications, including premature labor, placental abruption, polyhydramnios, fetal hydrops, fetal growth restriction, fetal hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, a congestive heart failure and fetal death. The clinical significance of small hemangiomas is less known. CASE: Multiple small ...
Marconi Anna Maria - - 2006
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of clinical severity and placental weight upon fetal lactacidemia in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pregnancies. Seventy pregnancies complicated by IUGR were compared with 70 normal (appropriate for gestational age, AGA) pregnancies at the time of elective cesarean section. IUGR pregnancies ...
Ogawa M - - 2007
There have been controversies whether maternal serum placental protein 5 (PP5)/tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI)-2 is increased in the patients with preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Here, we have estimated the serum PP5/TFPI-2 in these patients by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a newly developed monoclonal antibody, coupled ...
Kraemer Jennifer - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes affects up to 5% of women. Oral hypoglycemics have been avoided because of the assumption that their placental transfer may cause fetal-neonatal hypoglycemia. A recent randomized trial could not show measurable glyburide levels in umbilical blood despite maternal treatment with regular doses of glyburide. The mechanism underlying ...
Constant F - - 2006
Somatic nuclear transfer (NT) in cattle is often complicated by fetal oversize (i.e., large offspring syndrome), hydrallantois, and placentomegaly in late gestation. The aims of this work were to obtain data on the placentome structure in NT-recipient cows with hydrallantois (NTH) and to relate these with fetal and placental weights ...
Egbor M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate placental morphology in pregnancies complicated by early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia (PET) with and without fetal growth restriction (FGR) using stereological techniques. DESIGN: A total of 69 pregnant women were studied. Twenty women had pregnancies complicated by PET, 17 by FGR and 16 by both PET and FUR; ...
Ahn Y M - - 2007
Pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Deficiencies in antioxidants during pregnancy and placental oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may impair the development of the fetoplacental unit or the eventual offspring. In order to elucidate the association of prenatal status of vitamin C with the oxidative stress and apoptotic activity in ...
Sferruzzi-Perri Amanda N - - 2006
The placenta transports substrates and wastes between the maternal and fetal circulations. In mice, placental IGF-II is essential for normal placental development and function but, in other mammalian species, maternal circulating IGF-II is substantial and may contribute. Maternal circulating IGFs increase in early pregnancy, and early treatment of guinea pigs ...
Murphy V E - - 2007
Pregnant women with asthma are frequently exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids are known to reduce fetal growth. The fetus is normally protected from the harmful effects of maternally derived glucocorticoids by the placental enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2). Whether 11beta-HSD2 inactivates the synthetic glucocorticoids used for asthma treatment ...
Jansson T - - 2006
Fetal overgrowth in pregnancies complicated by diabetes is the result of an increased substrate availability which stimulates fetal insulin secretion and fetal growth. However, despite strict glycemic control in modern clinical management of the pregnant woman with diabetes, fetal overgrowth remains an important clinical problem. Recent studies in vivo provide ...
Chavatte-Palmer P - - 2006
Somatic cloning in the bovine species leads to high levels of fetal losses which occur throughout pregnancy. These losses are most often associated with fetal overgrowth, a syndrome known as large offspring syndrome (LOS), and excessive maternal plasma pregnancy serum protein 60 (PSP60), a protein similar to a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Clinicians widely regard placental abruption as an acute event, though accumulating data point towards abruption being the end-result of chronic processes early in pregnancy, and perhaps even extending to conception. The Collaborative Perinatal Project was a prospective cohort study performed from 1959 to 1966 in the United States. Since ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >