Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1152
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Street Maria E - - 2008
Changes and relationships of components of the cytokine and IGF systems have been shown in placenta and cord serum of fetal growth restricted (FGR) compared with normal newborns (AGA). This study aimed to analyse a data set of clinical and biochemical data in FGR and AGA newborns to assess if ...
Baptiste-Roberts Kesha - - 2008
Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We conducted an analysis ...
Oliveira Moacir F - - 2008
Placentas of guinea pig-related rodents are appropriate animal models for human placentation because of their striking similarities to those of humans. To optimize the pool of potential models in this context, it is essential to identify the occurrence of characters in close relatives. In this study we first analyzed chorioallantoic ...
Corcoran Jemma J Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, The University of Manchester, St Mary's Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester, - - 2008
Decreased activity of "oxygen-sensitive" potassium (K) channels reduces hypoxia-induced contraction of pulmonary vascular tissue. "Oxygen-sensitive" channels are present in the fetoplacental vasculature, where vascular resistance is thought to increase in fetal growth restriction (FGR). We assessed placental gene expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)9.3 and K(IR)6.1, three "oxygen-sensitive" K channels in normal ...
Red-Horse K K Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5307, USA. - - 2008
During pregnancy, maternal uterine blood vessels undergo dramatic vascular remodeling. However, until now, little was known about whether the lymphatic circulation experiences similar changes and whether these vessels interact with placental cells that invade maternal tissue. Recent studies demonstrate that lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall are highly compartmentalized where ...
Zhao Hui - - 2008
Heme oxygenase (HMOX) regulates vascular tone and blood pressure through the production of carbon monoxide (CO), a vasodilator derived from the heme degradation pathway. During pregnancy, the maternal circulation undergoes significant adaptations to accommodate the hemodynamic demands of the developing fetus. Our objective was to investigate the role of HMOX ...
Dy J - - 2008
The placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) serves as a functional barrier to protect the fetus from excessive exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol. There is evidence that placental 11beta-HSD2 is reduced in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but the relationship between the two is uncertain owing ...
Owens Stephen - - 2008
In developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common and associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, which may in turn have longer-term effects on human health. The peri-conceptional period represents a particularly sensitive window of feto-placental development, during which suboptimal maternal micronutrition may have far-reaching consequences. The effects of targeted interventions during this ...
Barry J S - - 2008
Successful outcome of human pregnancy not only impacts the quality of infant life and well-being, but considerable evidence now suggests that what happens during fetal development may well impact health and well-being into adulthood. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the developmental events that occur between conception and delivery is needed. ...
Zalud Ivica - - 2007
PURPOSE: Extreme placental size has been associated with abnormal pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for placental and spiral artery volume and gray-scale value as assessed via 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in the second trimester. METHODS: The entry criterion was a documented singleton pregnancy at ...
Kalanithi Lucy E G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and second-trimester placental location. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in well-dated singleton pregnancies with (n = 67) and without (n = 205) IUGR (defined as estimated fetal weight <10th percentile for ...
Gordon Z - - 2007
Normal fetal development is dependent on adequate placental blood perfusion. The functional role of the placenta takes place mainly in the capillary system; however, ultrasound imaging of fetal blood flow is commonly performed on the umbilical artery, or on its first branches over the chorionic plate. The objective of this ...
Amash Alaa - - 2007
The aim of the study was to examine the stimulatory effect of the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the capacity of human term placenta to secrete interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-18. Isolated placental cotyledons from normal human term deliveries were dually perfused for ten hours with perfusion medium alone (n=5) or ...
Redline R W - - 2008
Despite advances over the past 25 years in the monitoring of in utero fetal status, the gravid uterus remains a "black box" integrating underlying genetic risk factors, preexisting maternal disease, and injurious extrinsic events in a poorly understood way to produce an evolving state linked to pregnancy outcome. It is ...
Szukiewicz Dariusz - - 2008
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and its hemodynamic effects on placental vasculature mediated via Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1) may play significant role in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Placental lactogen (HPL) production directly reflects placental function. We compared influence of Ang II on HPL production in normal and IUGR-complicated pregnancies ...
Ziebell Bradley T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine: 1) placental eNOS mRNA concentration across gestation in normal ovine pregnancy and in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and 2) placental eNOS protein concentration in early ovine pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 24 sheep were studied with 12 ewes placed in hyperthermic (HT) ...
Guimarães Filho Hélio Antonio - - 2008
The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. It combines the functions of an endocrine organ, kidneys, lungs and intestines, purifying catabolites, oxygenating and nourishing the conceptus. Its fetal portion is the largest part develops from the chorionic sac. The maternal portion, which is smaller, is originated in the endometrium, more ...
Hayes B - - 2007
Ten children (six males, four females) with spastic (n=9) and mixed spastic-dyskinetic (n=1) cerebral palsy were born at term to mothers who earlier in the pregnancy had been involved in accidents without suffering overt abdominal injury, placental abruption, or premature onset of labour. At follow-up (at ages 2-24y), Gross Motor ...
Sawady Joram - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In utero exposure to repeated doses of antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs) has been shown to reduce fetal growth. Our goal was to evaluate whether weekly betamethasone (R-ACS) alters placental growth and histologic findings. STUDY DESIGN: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial of R-ACS vs a single course of ACS followed ...
Lam Christopher - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The etiology of placental dysfunction after fetal cardiopulmonary bypass remains unknown. The placental nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been implicated in this pathophysiology. We set out to examine possible perturbations in this pathway in an ovine model of fetal bypass. METHODS: Ovine fetuses (n = 14) between 100 and ...
Albery, M; ;
Objective. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity but can have many different causes. Non-cellular fetal DNA in maternal blood offers many opportunities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. It is likely that the source of the DNA is apoptosis or cell death in ...
Vallet J L - - 2007
The efficiency of nutrient transport from the pregnant female pig to the developing fetus depends on the size and function of the placenta. It has been reported that maternal and fetal blood vessels are arranged in a cross-countercurrent arrangement within placental microscopic folds. Thus, the blood supplies are in close ...
Kim Young Ju - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, induces endothelial dysfunction by reversibly blocking NO production from L-arginine. To elucidate the association of prenatal status of ADMA with placental heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in normal full-term pregnancies, we evaluated the ...
Li C C Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, - - 2007
Information on the influence of poor maternal nutrition on the regulation of responses to pregnancy, placental and fetal growth and development is critical to a better understanding of pregnancy physiology and pathophysiology. We determined normal changes and effects of controlled and monitored moderate nutrient restriction (NR) (global nutrient intake reduced ...
Braun Thorsten - - 2007
The placenta may mediate glucocorticoid-induced fetal growth restriction. Previous studies have examined effects of fetal cortisol in sheep, which reduces placental binucleate cell (BNC) number; the source of ovine placental lactogen (oPL). The effects of maternal GC are unknown. Therefore, this study examined the effects of maternal betamethasone (BET) administration ...
Jansson Thomas - - 2007
Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, ...
Hafez S A - - 2007
Microvascular corrosion casts of caruncles from non-pregnant and pregnant doe goats at 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 18 weeks were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The internal convex surface of the caruncles of non-pregnant does was covered with capillary meshes of regular diameter and form, without crypts. As pregnancy ...
Jones H N - - 2007
Fetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is intimately related to placental nutrient transport. Detailed information on the regulation of placental nutrient transporters is therefore critical in order to understand the mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and fetal programming. After briefly summarizing the cellular mechanisms for placental transport ...
Thompson J M D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To produce population-based, gender- and gestational-age-specific centile curves for placental weight. DESIGN: Population study. SETTING: Medical Birth Registry of Norway. POPULATION: All singleton live births in Norway from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2002. METHODS: In a cohort of children born in Norway, placental weights and the ratio ...
Lisman B A M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate normal chorionic villous vascularization using CD31 immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to elucidate the spatial arrangement in terms of connections between vessels and cords and their branching patterns compared to deficient chorionic villous vascularization in complicated pregnancies. METHODS: A ...
Sferruzzi-Perri Amanda N - - 2007
In early pregnancy, the concentrations of IGFs increase in maternal blood. Treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with IGFs in early to midpregnancy enhances placental glucose transport and fetal growth and viability near term. In the current study, we determined whether exogenous IGFs altered placental gene expression, transport, and nutrient partitioning ...
Goldman-Wohl Debra S - - 2007
In pregnancy, the maternal spiral arteries must widen to nourish the growing fetus. It is this critical step in placental development that is commonly defective in the pathology of preeclampsia. Other features often observed in the placental pathology of preeclampsia include fewer invasive trophoblasts, shallow trophoblast invasion and placental thrombosis ...
Luther Justin - - 2007
Limiting maternal nutrient intake during ovine adolescent pregnancy progressively depleted maternal body reserves, impaired fetal nutrient supply, and slowed fetal soft tissue growth. The present study examined placental growth, angiogenic gene expression, and vascular development in this undernourished adolescent model at Days 90 and 130 of gestation. Singleton pregnancies were ...
Stanek Jerzy - - 2007
Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive ...
Ericsson Anette - - 2007
In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, suboptimal glucose control in the first trimester is a strong predictor for giving birth to a large fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We hypothesized that transient hyperglycaemia in early pregnancy results in (1) increased placental growth and (2) an ...
Masuyama Hisashi - - 2007
CONTEXT: Recent reports have demonstrated that soluble endoglin (sEng), an antiangiogenic protein thought to impair TGF-beta binding to receptors, and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR)-1 play important roles in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Moreover, insulin resistance, which is greatly influenced by adipocytokines, characterizes PE. OBJECTIVES: We examined ...
Salafia Carolyn M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An important contributor to fetal growth is growth of the placenta, the fetus' sole source of nutrients and oxygen. Here we use placental growth measures (larger and smaller disk diameters, reflecting the laterally expanding chorionic plate, and disk thickness) to test the hypothesis that placental growth patterns, while associated ...
Chan Owen T M - - 2007
There are conflicting studies associating twin pregnancies derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART) with preterm birth, low birthweight, and other negative outcomes. This work investigates whether ART is linked with any placental pathology, given that placentation significantly influences fetal development. A 5-year, retrospective cohort study was conducted on placentas from ...
Schlabritz-Loutsevitch N - - 2007
The aims of the present study were to describe the ontogeny of spatial relationships between placental components in baboons and to investigate alterations in these indices following (1) moderate maternal nutrient restriction and (2) administration of glucocorticoids to pregnant baboons. We investigated the effects of glucocorticoids since they have been ...
Makris A - - 2007
Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality for the mother and the fetus. Presumptions are made that placental hypoxia has a causative role in the clinical syndrome. Furthermore, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) has been shown to have a role in the maternal syndrome of ...
Tennekoon K H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To describe pattern of secretion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and their correlation with each other and major placental hormones during normal pregnancy. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Academic Institutions and a Tertiary Care Maternity Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies (N = ...
Mandang Stephen - - 2007
Circulating levels of activin A are significantly increased in women with preeclampsia when compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The mechanisms underlying these increased levels are unknown. We undertook these studies to explore whether oxidative stress might be the mechanism. We exposed trophoblast explants, human umbilical vein endothelial cells ...
Tikkanen Minna - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSbeta-hCG) levels to placental abruption. METHODS: Fifty-seven women with placental abruption and 108 control women without placental abruption were tested for second-trimester MSAFP and MSbeta-hCG levels as a part of a trisomy 21 ...
Deurloo Koen - - 2007
PURPOSE: Determine the reproducibility of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) measurements of fetal and placental volumes. METHODS: We included 34 pregnant women between gestational weeks (GW) 11-18. Two operators independently acquired fetal and placental volumes using 3DUS. Each volume was acquired twice and stored on disk for off-line analysis. Intra- and interobserver ...
Shintaku Kyohei - - 2007
The aim of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model to describe the transplacental transfer of drugs, based on the human placental perfusion study. The maternal and fetal sides of human placentas were perfused with salicylic acid together with antipyrine, a passive diffusion marker. The drug concentration in the ...
Kawamura Takakazu - - 2007
The uteroplacental circulation in the placenta can have a major impact on the fetus. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is the noninvasive method of measuring changes in blood volumes and oxygen concentrations in living tissue. The purpose of this study is to monitor changes in placental tissue oxygen index (TOI) levels, ...
Mess Andrea - - 2007
The chorioallantoic placenta is an organ of gaseous exchange that exhibits a high degree of structural diversity. One factor determining oxygen transfer across the placenta, the diffusion distance, is in part dependent on the number of cell layers separating maternal from fetal blood. This interhaemal barrier occurs in three principal ...
Fischer D - - 2007
The aim of this study was to analyze the hormonal basis for low 1,25(OH)2D3 circulating levels in patients with preeclampsia and/or preterm deliveries. The activity and expression of the 1 alphaOHase, 25-OHase, 24-OHase and VDR in the placental tissue of normal pregnancies, preeclampsia-complicated pregnancies and premature births were investigated. The ...
Martin Robert D - - 2007
Successful reconstruction of any aspect of human evolution ideally requires broad-based comparisons with other primates, as recognition of general principles provides a more reliable foundation for inference. Indeed, in many cases it is necessary to conduct comparisons with other placental mammals to test interpretations. This review considers comparative evidence with ...
Parveen Zahida - - 2007
CONTEXT: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is characterized by placentomegaly and may be mistaken for molar pregnancy both clinically and macroscopically because of the presence of "grapelike vesicles." It may be associated with a completely normal fetus, a fetus with growth restriction, or a fetus with features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >