Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1153
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Rutherford Julienne N - - 2008
Mothers and fetuses are expected to be in some degree of conflict over the allocation of maternal resources to fetal growth in the intrauterine environment. Variation in placental structure and function may be one way a fetus can communicate need and quality to its mother, potentially manipulating maternal investment in ...
Zalud Ivica - - 2008
PURPOSE:: To test the influence of maternal age and parity on placental volume and uterine spiral vasculature volume, their mean gray value, and 3-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) indices in normal pregnancy. METHODS:: Women with a gestational age of 14-25 weeks were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included posterior placenta, ...
Prater M R - - 2008
Fetal and placental developments rely on an intricate balance of nutrients, growth factors, and signaling pathways at precise times in gestation. Disruptions to this balance may result in disease that manifests in adulthood, a situation termed "developmental origins of health and disease". Diet, exercise, and certain chemical exposures during pregnancy ...
Walther T - - 2008
Impaired placentation is a key step in the pathogenesis of important pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. A role of angiotensin II in placental development can be assumed from the expression of angiotensin receptors on trophoblast from the earliest stages of pregnancy. To understand the role of ...
Sedano S - - 2008
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) results in an ineffective anticoagulant response leading to an increased risk of thrombosis, particularly during pregnancy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-eclampsia (PET), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption have been linked with thrombotic lesions compromising the utero-placental circulation. Using histological staining including ...
Han Yu Mi - - 2008
The amnion plays an important role during pregnancy and parturition. Though referred to as a single structure, this fetal tissue is regionally divided into placental amnion, reflected amnion, and umbilical amnion. Histological differences between placental amnion and reflected amnion led us to hypothesize that the amnion is biologically heterogeneous. The ...
Sebire N J - - 2008
There have been recent major advances in obstetric ultrasound, regarding both improved technologies and sonographer expertise, which have resulted in changes in antenatal obstetric management. The placenta is routinely examined to some extent at the time of the second trimester fetal anomaly sonogram, timing of delivery in pregnancies complicated by ...
Cole Laurence A - - 2008
Hyperglycosylated chorionic gonadotropin (CG-H) signals placental cytotrophoblast cell growth and invasion, and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) promotes uterine vascularization. A hypothesis is presented relating the evolution of these molecules to the evolution of human hemochorial implantation and that of the human brain. Deep placental invasion, vascularization and hemochorial placentation, under the ...
Giaginis Costas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: PPAR-gamma is a target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, as Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone are already used against type 2 diabetes. Pleiotropic functions, such as antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects against several pathological states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, are currently being explored in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: Evidence indicates that ...
Kumpel Belinda - - 2008
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thromboctyopenia due to maternal human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a antibodies affects primigravidas. Immunization must occur early in pregnancy before fetal platelets enter maternal blood via fetomaternal hemorrhage. The HPA-1a antigen is located on platelet glycoprotein (GP)IIIa (CD61, beta3 integrin), which is also present on the placental syncytiotrophoblast ...
Hemauer Sarah J SJ Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, - - 2008
Determine transplacental transfer and metabolism of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and its distribution between the tissue and the maternal and fetal circuits of the dually perfused placental lobule. 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (21 ng/mL) and its dual-labeled isotope, 17-alpha-hydroxy-[(3)H] progesterone [(14)C] caproate were added to the maternal circuit. The concentrations of the drug and ...
Ethier-Chiasson M - - 2008
The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (OLR1) is a newly described receptor for oxidatively modified LDL. The human pregnancy is associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. It has been reported that modification in maternal lipid profile can induce disturbance during pregnancy. In this study, we have evaluated the expression ...
Alvarez-Oxiley Andrea V - - 2008
The bovine placenta produces a wide variety of proteins that are structurally and functionally similar to the pituitary proteins from the GH/PRL gene family. Bovine placental lactogen (bPL) is a 200-amino acid long glycoprotein hormone that exhibits both lactogenic and somatogenic properties. The apparent molecular masses of purified native (n) ...
Gedeon C - - 2008
Glyburide, a drug used to treat gestational diabetes has previously been shown not to be measurable in fetal blood, and to be transferred from the fetal to the maternal circulation against a concentration gradient. The objective of the study is to determine whether indomethacin, an inhibitor of the multi-drug resistance ...
Rahman Azriani Ab - - 2008
The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of herbal medicines use during pregnancy among women in Tumpat district, Kelantan. A total of 210 mothers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There were 108 mothers (51.4%) who used at least one type of herbal medicines ...
Garland Marianne - - 2008
The glucuronide metabolites of several widely used drugs are detected in fetal plasma after maternal drug administration. However, the disposition of these metabolites is poorly understood and clinical concerns have been raised about accumulation of active metabolites in the fetus. For this reason, morphine-3-beta-glucuronide (M3G), an active metabolite of morphine, ...
Plaisier M - - 2008
Disturbances in decidual and placental vascular development may play a role in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. This study focused on the role of angiogenic factors in the first trimester in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR). First-trimester decidua was obtained during chorionic villous sampling.The expression ...
Pollex E - - 2008
Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common medical complication in pregnancy. Recent findings demonstrate that glyburide is effluxed against a concentration gradient from the fetal to the maternal circulation. However, the transport systems involved in the active efflux of glyburide in the human placenta have not yet been identified. The ATP-binding ...
Leandro Sandra Márcia - - 2008
A number of studies conducted in humans and in animals have observed that events occurring early in life are associated with the development of diseases in adulthood. Salt overload and restriction during pregnancy and lactation are responsible for functional (hemodynamic and hormonal) and structural alterations in adult offspring. Our group ...
Jeyabalan A A Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2008
Inadequate trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling leading to poor placental perfusion and hypoxia are believed to underlie preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Recent studies implicate increased circulating endoglin as a contributor to the pathogenesis of PE. The objective of this study was to determine whether placental and ...
Lam Christopher T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A deleterious fetal stress response, although not fully elucidated, may account for poor outcomes after experimental fetal cardiac surgery. We set out to characterize this fetal stress response and its potential role in placental dysfunction. METHODS: Fifteen ovine fetuses at gestational day 100 to 114 were placed on extracorporeal ...
Salafia Carolyn M - - 2008
Standard gross placental measures capture dimensions relevant to specific placental functions. Our objective was to determine their accountability independent of placental weight for variance in birthweight, an important proxy for intrauterine 'adequacy' in fetal origins studies. The sample consisted of 24 152 singleton liveborn children of the Collaborative Perinatal Project ...
Sun Zhi-Yong - - 2008
Infantile hemangiomas are common, benign tumors, distinctive for their perinatal presentation, rapid growth and subsequent involution. Hemangiomas can pose serious concerns to the cosmetic and psychosocial development of the afflicted child, but none of the current therapeutic modalities is ideal to date, partly because the origin of the pathogenic ECs ...
Wright Casey D - - 2008
Ovine GH (oGH) is synthesized in placental tissue during maximal placental growth and development. Our objectives were to localize oGH mRNA in the placenta, and study the impact of exogenous GH on twin pregnancies during the normal window (35-55 days of gestational age; dGA) of placental expression. In situ hybridization ...
Forbes Karen - - 2008
The main disorders of human pregnancy are rooted in defective placentation. Normal placental development depends on proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of cytotrophoblasts to form and maintain an overlying syncytiotrophoblast. There is indirect evidence that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are aberrant in pregnancy disorders, are involved in regulating trophoblast ...
Roberts Drucilla J - - 2008
Placental pathology continues to be an underutilized, undertaught, and inadequately handled surgical subspecialty. The requests for placental pathology are soaring, due partly to demands from obstetricians and to the litigious environment in which they practice, and to improved obstetrical care leading to pregnancies in medically challenging situations. Evaluation of the ...
Guller Seth - - 2008
Preeclampsia is associated with an increased release of factors from the placental syncytium into maternal blood, including the antiangiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin, the antifibrinolytic factor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, prostanoids, lipoperoxides, cytokines, and microparticles. These factors are suggested to promote maternal endothelium dysfunction and are associated ...
Nelson Scott M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fetal hormones with placental growth and fetal weight-to-placental weight ratio index (FPI) in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using umbilical venous blood samples taken at birth from 122 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes ...
Sferruzzi-Perri A N - - 2008
In guinea pigs, maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) infusion in early-pregnancy enhances placental transport near-term, increasing fetal growth and survival. The effects of IGF-II, but not IGF-I, appear due to enhanced placental labyrinthine (exchange) development. To determine if the type-2 IGF receptor (IGF2R) mediates these distinct actions of exogenous IGF-II ...
Ireland Zoe - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that elevating creatine in the maternal diet would reach fetal and placental tissues and improve fetal survival after acute hypoxia at birth. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or 5% creatine-supplemented diet from day 20 of gestation (term, approximately 39 days). On days 37-38, ...
Chavatte-Palmer P - - 2008
Fetal development is an important factor influencing the susceptibility of adults to metabolic diseases. In order to study the influence of fetal growth on further development in animal models like the rabbit, methods of measurement of fetal and placental size and viability must be established and validated. In this study, ...
Arroyo Juan A - - 2008
The objective of the study was to assess placental apoptosis at both midgestation and near term in an ovine model of placental insufficiency (PI) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). At 40 days' gestational age (dGA), 2 groups of 4 ewes were exposed to hyperthermic conditions for either 55 days or ...
Toal Meghana - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of placental ultrasound imaging at 19-23 weeks of gestation in clinically high-risk women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler (UTAD). STUDY DESIGN: Placentas of 60 women with abnormal UTAD were examined at 19-23 weeks of gestation for shape and ...
Albrecht Eugene D ED Department of Obstetrics, Center for Studies in Reproduction, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. - - 2008
We recently showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), decrease in angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and unaltered Ang-2 expression by the villous placenta with advancing baboon pregnancy. Moreover, placental VEGF expression was increased by estrogen in early pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether placental Ang-1 and Ang-2 are ...
Lawrence Gene C - - 2008
Chorioangiomas are common placental neoplasms that are primarily asymptomatic, but the larger subtypes have a variable presentation and can result in severe pregnancy complications. We report a case of a pregnant patient who presented with a 10 x 12 x 10 cm placental chorioangioma at 32 weeks, despite an unremarkable ...
Hoffmann Darren S - - 2008
Recently we described a mouse model, BPH/5, that spontaneously develops the hallmark clinical features of preeclampsia. BPH/5 exhibit impaired placentation before the onset of hypertension and proteinuria, supporting a causal role for the placenta in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Here we tested the hypothesis that an increase in reactive oxygen ...
Goldman-Wohl Debra - - 2008
Pre-eclampsia, a disease of pregnancy, is a cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide and a major factor in preterm birth. Up to 10% of primipara suffer from this disorder, characterized by pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria, usually in the third trimester when fetal demands on the placenta are greatly increased. ...
Cahill Alison G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of and risks for abruption and adverse pregnancy outcome after minor trauma in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a 3-year prospective cohort study of patients after noncatastrophic trauma. Data collected included maternal demographics and history, trauma mechanism, and pregnancy ...
Ceccaldi Pierre-Francois PF Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Louis Mourier Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and Paris 7-Denis Diderot University, Paris, - - 2008
The objective of the study was to determine the placental transfer of the antiretroviral fusion inhibitor, enfuvirtide (Fuzeon). Human cotyledons were perfused for 90 minutes in an open dual circuit with enfuvirtide, and fetal venous samples were collected every 5 minutes. Three perfusion experiments were validated using antipyrine. Enfuvirtide was ...
Kabyemela Edward R - - 2008
Inflammation during placental malaria (PM) is associated with low birth weight (LBW), especially during the first pregnancy, but the relative contribution of maternal or fetal factors that mediate this effect remains unclear and the role of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) has been controversial. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord ...
Nowak P M - - 2008
In this study we aimed to compare the multiplanar and VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) methods in the evaluation of placental volume during the first trimester of pregnancy. This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 37 pregnant women between 7 and 10 weeks of gestation. All volumetric measurements were performed ...
May Karen - - 2008
Placental syncytiotrophoblasts are known to express the efflux transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2), which are supposed to be a functional part of the human placental barrier. With advancing gestational age, expression of ABCB1 decreases progressively, whereas ABCC2 is more expressed. To evaluate to which extent ...
Roberts C T - - 2008
Placental insufficiency is thought to be a key factor in many cases of intrauterine growth restriction which complicates about 6% of pregnancies in western countries. Understanding the molecular control of placental and fetal growth is essential to identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets to improve pregnancy success. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I ...
Sesbuppha Wacharaporn - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Stillbirths in non-human primates are a major problem and represent failure of the maternal-fetal-placental unit to maintain normal relationships because of various endogenous, undetermined or environmental factors. METHODS: Records of 236 stillborns and their dams in a Macaca fascicularis colony during a 7-year period were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The ...
Tsui Nancy B Y - - 2008
Circulating fetal RNA in maternal plasma has offered a new approach for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and monitoring. Circulating fetal RNA markers could potentially be used for all pregnant women without being limited by fetal-maternal genetic polymorphisms and fetal gender. Over the past few years, encouraging findings have been reported on ...
Mose Tina - - 2008
Ex vivo perfusion of the human term placenta is a method to study placental transfer without extrapolation from animal to human and with no ethical concerns for mother and child. However, ex vivo placenta perfusion has a limited potential within chemical screening and testing as the method is time-consuming. This ...
Borowicz Pawel P - - 2008
In this chapter, we present some of the compelling evidence confirming the importance of placental angiogenesis to fetal growth and development in normal and compromised pregnancies. We then describe the methodology that has been used to evaluate placental angiogenesis throughout pregnancy, including both the practical methods used to obtain reliable ...
Valdés Gloria - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. METHODS: Utero-placental units were collected from early to term ...
Maynard Sharon - - 2008
Preeclampsia is a systemic syndrome of pregnancy that originates in the placenta and is characterized by widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. Until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of preeclampsia was largely unknown, but recent work suggests a key role for altered expression of placental antiangiogenic factors. Soluble Flt1 and soluble endoglin, secreted ...
Furuya Mitsuko - - 2008
During embryogenesis and development, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through placental microcirculation. The placenta is a distinctive organ that develops and differentiates per se, and that organizes fetal growth and maternal condition in the entire course of gestation. Several life-threatening diseases during pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced ...
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