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van Patot M C Tissot - - 2009
Previous data indicate that placentas from normotensive pregnancies in non-native women at 3100 m (Leadville, CO) are not hypoxic at term, despite lower uterine artery blood flow, than in the same population at sea-level. We hypothesized that placental vascular development is greater at 3100 m in compensation. Further, because the ...
Chiang Meng-Hsiu - - 2009
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy-specific disorder affecting 5-7% of pregnancies worldwide. Although hypoxia caused by incomplete trophoblast invasion and impaired spiral arterial remodeling is thought to be a major cause of preeclampsia, how hypoxia affects placental development remains uncertain. GCM1 (glial cells missing homolog 1) is a transcription factor critical ...
Sibley C P - - 2009
The placenta, in general and the physiology of maternofetal nutrient transfer is under-researched compared to other organs with epithelial transport function, as evidenced, for example, by publication numbers. This report provides reasons why more researchers should become involved in this topic. First, the syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the placenta, ...
Collier Abby C AC Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 651 Ilalo St, Honolulu, HI 96822, - - 2009
The placenta plays a vital role in pregnancy by facilitating steroid passage from maternal to fetal circulation and/or direct production of hormones. Using a murine model, we demonstrated the differences in placental steroid metabolism between pregnancies conceived naturally and with assisted reproduction technologies (ART): in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic ...
Coall David A - - 2009
Suboptimal fetal growth has been associated with an increased risk of adult disease, which may be exacerbated by an increased placental weight-to-fetal weight ratio. Placental weight is a summary measure of placental growth and development throughout pregnancy. However, measures of placental structure, including the chorionic disk surface area and thickness ...
Butwick Alexander - - 2009
PURPOSE: To report a case of massive obstetric hemorrhage occurring during Cesarean delivery for an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. Methods to optimize the anesthetic, obstetric, and perinatal management are discussed. CLINICAL FEATURES: A healthy parturient underwent an urgent EXIT procedure at 32 weeks gestation for a giant fetal ...
Reynolds Rebecca M - - 2009
Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that was originally discovered in 1996 from a metastasis tumour suppressor gene, KISS1 and was appropriately named metastin. More recently, the discovery of inactivating mutations in the receptor for kisspeptin, a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54 (KISS1R), have been shown to result in a failure to progress ...
de Barros Duarte Luciana - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is used in obstetrical practice to promote analgesia and anesthesia during labor and in cesarean delivery, with rapid and short-term effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine fentanyl concentrations in maternal plasma, in the placental intervillous space, and in the umbilical artery and vein in term pregnant women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...
Noguchi J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate placental vascular sonobiopsy using three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound to assess placental vascularization in normal and growth restricted fetuses. METHODS: Placental vascular sonobiopsy using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with the VOCAL imaging analysis program was performed on 208 normal fetuses between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation ...
Kim Mi Jeong - - 2009
The co-presence of histoincompatible fetal and maternal cells is a characteristic of human placental inflammation. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), a destructive inflammatory lesion of villous placenta, is characterized by participation of Hofbauer cells (placental macrophages) and maternal T cells. In contrast to acute chorioamnionitis of infection-related origin, the fundamental ...
Salafia C M CM Placental Analytics, LLC 93 Colonial Avenue, Larchmont, NY 10538, United States. - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that the fetal-placental relationship scales allometrically and identified modifying factors of that relationship. Among women delivering after 34 weeks but prior to 43 weeks' gestation, 24,601 participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) had complete data for placental gross proportion measures, specifically, placental weight (PW), disk ...
Chen Chih-Ping - - 2009
Women who are carrying a trisomy 13 fetus are prone to have an abnormal placenta as well as to develop preeclampsia in the second and third trimesters. This article provides a comprehensive review of placental abnormalities, such as small placental volume, reduced placental vascularization, a partial molar appearance of the ...
Sullivan T M - - 2009
The influences of nutritional protein during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on placental hormones and fetal growth were determined in composite beef heifers. At artificial insemination, heifers were stratified by weight within each composite genotype into 4 treatment groups: High High (HH=1.4kg crude protein (CP)/day for first and ...
Redecha Patricia P Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College at Cornell University, New York, NY, - - 2009
Pregnancy loss and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are serious pregnancy complications, and the triggers and mediators of placental and fetal damage are not completely understood. Using a mouse model of recurrent spontaneous miscarriages (DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice) that shares features with human recurrent miscarriage and fetal growth restriction, we identified tissue ...
Apel-Sarid Liat - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare the placental pathologies and perinatal outcomes in fetal growth restriction (FGR) pregnancies with and without oligohydramnios. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, comparing placental findings in all singleton deliveries with FGR. RESULTS: Macroscopic placental findings were available for 1,104 singleton FGR pregnancies. A total of 397 placentas were ...
Rasmussen S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the recurrence of placental abruption by severity, comparing the risk in a woman with that of recurrence in her sister and in the partner of her brother. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: General population. POPULATION: Population-based study based on records of ...
Scott Naomi M - - 2009
In the presence of maternal asthma, we have previously reported reduced placental blood flow, decreased cortisol metabolism, and reductions in fetal growth in response to maternal asthma and asthma exacerbations. We have proposed that these changes in placental function and fetal development may be related to activation of proinflammatory pathways ...
Redmer Dale A - - 2009
To establish the basis for altered placental development and function previously observed at late gestation, fetoplacental growth and placental vascular development were measured at three stages of gestation in a nutritional paradigm of compromised pregnancy. Singleton pregnancies to a single sire were established and thereafter adolescent ewes were offered an ...
Gauvin Jeanot - - 2010
Current methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to 11 genes previously reported with placental mRNA circulating in maternal blood. We found two genes, hPL ...
Cetin I - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) correlates with a specific placental phenotype, associated with defects in placental transport functions, that lead to fetal undernutrition. Both placental metabolism and transport may be affected, thus modifying the normal supply of nutrients. Models to investigate placental function may either couple or separate metabolism and transport. ...
Brosens Jan J - - 2009
Menstruation is widely viewed as serving no purpose other than to reinitiate the endometrial cycle in the absence of pregnancy. Yet, it is striking that cyclic endometrial decidualization followed by menstrual shedding is confined to the few species, including human beings, where placenta formation entails deep trophoblast invasion of maternal ...
Clancy Kathryn B H - - 2009
Endometrial function is often overlooked in the study of fertility in reproductive ecology, but it is crucial to implantation and the support of a successful pregnancy. Human female reproductive physiology can handle substantial energy demands that include the production of fecund cycles, ovulation, fertilization, placentation, a 9-month gestation, and often ...
Demir Ramazan - - 2009
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate ...
Gingelmaier Andrea - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on placental mitochondria. METHODS: HIV-1-infected pregnant women and HIV-1-uninfected controls were enrolled prospectively. Placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers were determined by quantitative PCR, subunits II and IV of cytochrome ...
Ueki Ryusuke - - 2009
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the placental transfer of local anesthetics in perfusates with different pH values, using a dual-perfused human cotyledon model. METHODS: The dual-perfused human cotyledon model was prepared from placentas obtained following cesarean delivery (n = 5). Protein-free solution was perfused through both maternal and fetal arteries. ...
Mihu Carmen Mihaela - - 2009
Placental morphology and vascularization are important stages in the evolution of pregnancies. Placental morphogenesis and angiogenesis processes are studied by two-dimensional, three-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound methods provide important data on the physiology and pathophysiology of fetal-placental exchange. The macroscopic and microscopic study of the placenta brings valuable information on ...
Facciotti Patricia R - - 2009
Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal ...
Malek Antoine - - 2009
Methadone is the therapeutic agent of choice for the treatment of opiate addiction in pregnancy. The co-consumption (heroin, cocaine) which may influence the effects of methadone is frequent. Therefore, the impact of cocaine and heroin on the placental transfer of methadone and the placental tissue was investigated under in vitro ...
Vallet J L JL USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, P. O. Box 166, State Spur 18D, Clay Center, Nebraska 68933, USA. - - 2009
Placental insufficiency results in fetal loss, low birth weight, stillbirth, preweaning mortality and poor growth. Placental development begins at conceptus elongation, which is a primary factor controlling the size of the placenta. After elongation, the allantois develops outward from the embryo to establish the allantochorion, which defines the size of ...
de Paula C F S - - 2009
Evaluate the distribution and variation of placental vascular indices according to gestational age and placental volume. From March to November 2007, three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler ultrasound was performed in 295 normal pregnancies from 12 to 40 weeks of gestation. Using the same preestablished settings for all patients, power Doppler was applied ...
Kodomari Ikuko - - 2009
Gastrointestinal peptides and hormones are known to penetrate through the utero-placental barrier and regulate fetal development. In the present study, we tested permeation of maternal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to fetuses, using BDNF-gene deficient mice and exogenous BDNF administration. At embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5)-14.5, BDNF protein concentrations in the fetal ...
Burton G J - - 2009
The pregnancy complications of unexplained intrauterine growth restriction and early onset preeclampsia are thought to share a common aetiology in placental malperfusion secondary to deficient maternal spiral artery conversion. A key question is whether the contrasting clinical manifestations reflect different placental pathologies, or whether they are due to altered maternal ...
Schneider H - - 2009
In the dual ex vivo perfusion of an isolated human placental cotyledon it takes on average 20-30 min to set up stable perfusion circuits for the maternal and fetal vascular compartments. In vivo placental tissue of all species maintains a highly active metabolism and it continues to puzzle investigators how ...
van Dijk A J - - 2008
At present no standard pharmacological intervention strategy is available to reduce these adverse effects of birth asphyxia. In the present study we aimed to evaluate placental transfer of allopurinol, an inhibitor of XOR. For this purpose, fetal catheterization of the jugular vein was conducted in five late pregnant sows (one ...
Becker Taryn - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: While elevated maternal weight in early pregnancy is associated with a higher rate of preeclampsia, the risk of placental abruption and placental infarction is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the risk of placental abruption, placental infarction, and preeclampsia in association with maternal weight quintile at approximately 17 weeks' gestation in ...
Schiessl B - - 2009
During early human pregnancy invasion of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells contributes to their remodelling characterised by loss of musculo-elastic media and replacement by fibrinoid containing trophoblast. Despite its importance for successful pregnancy, the mechanisms underlying 'transformation' of spiral arteries are not well understood. The aim of this ...
de Paula Carla Fagundes Silva - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to construct nomograms of placental volumes according to gestational age and estimated fetal weight. From March to November 2007, placental volumes were prospectively measured by ultrasonography in 295 normal pregnancies from 12 to 40 weeks' gestation and correlated with gestational age and estimated fetal ...
Palmieri C - - 2008
Cloning of cattle, sheep, and mice by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can result in apparently healthy offspring, but the probability of a successful and complete pregnancy is less than 5%. Failures of SCNT pregnancy are associated with placental abnormalities, such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium, and ...
Vagnerová K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11HSD1 and 11HSD2) in determining the fetal concentration of glucocorticoids. METHODS: The expression patterns for mRNA abundance, protein level, and enzyme activities of placental and fetal 11HSD1 and 11HSD2 were assessed from embryonic day 13 (E13) ...
Zelop Carolyn M - - 2008
New insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of acetaminophen raises questions about its possible safety in certain subgroups of pregnant women. Recent focus on acetaminophen's ability to modulate prostaglandin synthesis may require modification of its ubiquitous use in pregnancy. Further basic science, epidemiologic and clinical studies are required to explore the ...
Gilbert Jeffrey S JS Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School-Duluth and Duluth Medical Research Institute, Duluth, MN 55812, USA. - - 2008
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy continue to be a significant source of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence suggests that the incidence of preeclampsia (PE) is increasing. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the effects of PE may persist long after pregnancy, in both the mother and the offspring, ...
Burstein Eliezer - - 2009
We sought to determine whether three-dimensional (3D) placental volume measurements can be assessed in normal pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation with good intraobserver accuracy. Twenty normal pregnancies were included. Placental volume was determined twice, using the virtual organ computer-aided analysis method. Three-dimensional placental volume measurements were performed by ...
Beghin D - - 2009
The placenta plays a key role during pregnancy. In vitro models have proven to assess the role of placental transporters in the exchange of nutrients, waste products and the distribution of drugs between the maternal and fetal compartments. Therefore, a primoculture of Wistar rat trophoblasts from the labyrinth zone was ...
Burton Graham J - - 2009
The accumulation of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere enabled metabolic pathways based on high-energy electron transfers that were capable of sustaining complex multicellular organisms to evolve. This advance came at a price, however, for the high reactivity of oxygen posed a major challenge as biological molecules became susceptible to oxidative ...
Brownbill P - - 2008
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent, physiologically relevant, vasodilator of the human term fetoplacental vasculature of placental lobules from normal pregnancy. There is evidence that VEGF and its receptors are dysregulated in preeclampsia (PE). Here, we used dual perfusion of the human placental lobule to test the hypothesis ...
Torricelli Michela - - 2008
Kisspeptin, a placental polypeptide secreted throughout pregnancy, is suggested to play a role at parturition. Here we evaluated whether its placental mRNA expression and maternal/fetal plasma levels change at term and preterm delivery, and its effect on oxytocin secretion from placental explants. Samples were collected from 40 women with singleton ...
Srinivas Sindhu K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether specific placental pathology may provide further insight into the mechanisms of second-trimester pregnancy loss, particularly in cases without inflammation. STUDY DESIGN: A blinded pathologist examined placentas from 90 patients with spontaneous second-trimester pregnancy loss and 17 controls who presented for induction of labor ...
Carter A M - - 2008
Recently a fossil of one of the earliest jawed fishes was found with a fetal skeleton and the remains of a cord. It was from the Devonian period and takes the history of vertebrate placentation back to 380 million years ago. This and later fossil evidence for viviparity in marine ...
Lindegaard Marie L - - 2008
Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present ...
Amash Alaa - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the perfusates of the fetal and the maternal compartments of perfused human term placental tissue. Term placentas were perfused for 10h in the absence [control, (n=4)] and presence ...
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