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Reynolds Lawrence P - - 2010
The importance of the placenta and its vascular development to fetal growth and development has been appreciated since ancient times. Based on numerous studies in humans and animal model organisms in the last 2-3 decades, normal placental angiogenesis is critically important to ensure adequate blood flow to the placenta and ...
Peterson Suzanne E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Attempts at delayed interval deliveries in multifetal gestations have become more common. However, selection criteria are imperative to success, and placental abruption is generally considered a contraindication. CASE: A woman with a diamniotic-dichorionic twin gestation at 23 weeks presented after a motor vehicle accident with placental abruption, hypofibrinogenemia an ...
Guimar?es Filho H?lio Antonio - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate placental vascular indices, in pregnancies between 26 and 35 weeks, using three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound and the effect of placental location on these indices. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 283 patients. The placental vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization and flow index ...
Iranloye B - - 2010
Phyllanthus amarus is a medicinal plant used widely in the treatment of many diseases. It has a long tradition of use in the Hindu Ayurvedic system of medicine and it has long been used as a medicinal agent in cultures around the world. Traditionally, in the Yoruba speaking part of ...
Longo Lawrence D - - 2010
Ideas concerning the placenta, its development, structure and function can be traced to antiquity. An issue of importance that was only resolved in the late-eighteenth to early-nineteenth century is that of the separate nature of the maternal and fetal placental circulations. Other vital issues include the placentas of twins, the ...
Hasegawa Junichi - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is useful for evaluation of the placental function in cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Subjects included 282 delivered neonates of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 44 small for gestational age (SGA) babies. The measurement of the concentration ...
Guimarães Filho Hélio Antonio - - 2011
Assess intra and interobserver reproducibility of three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) placental vascular indices in normal pregnancies between 26 and 35 weeks. Thirty 3D volumes were captured by one observer and stored for analysis. Vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated from the spherical placental tissue ...
Aviram Rami - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Placental morphology and pregnancy outcome differ between normal pregnancies and those with foetal growth restriction (FGR). Most reports do not differentiate among different placental injury patterns related to foetal growth restriction. AIMS: To evaluate placental and perinatal findings in growth restricted pregnancies based on three placental injury patterns: maternal ...
Desforges Michelle - - 2010
This review considers mechanisms by which transfer across the placenta takes place and how the capacity of the placenta to supply nutrients relates to fetal growth and vice versa. Blood flow through both uterine and umbilical circulations of the placenta, the structural properties of the placental exchange barrier and its ...
Neau Jean-Philippe - - 2010
To describe the frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a French population of randomly selected women during their third trimester of pregnancy and its evolution up to 3 months after delivery and to identify potential factors associated with the improvement of RLS after delivery. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 186 ...
Swan B C - - 2010
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a clinically significant pregnancy disorder in which the fetus fails to achieve its full growth potential in utero. Most cases of FGR are idiopathic and are associated with placental thrombosis. Previous studies suggest that proteoglycans, such as decorin, that contain the glycosaminoglycan dermatan sulfate are ...
Golos Thaddeus G - - 2010
While there is broad agreement that interactions of the human maternal immune system with the tissues and cells of the implanting embryo are likely to be critical contributors to pregnancy success, there remains a dearth of information which directly confirms this expectation. Although animal models of reproductive function often provide ...
Albrecht Eugene D - - 2010
During human and nonhuman primate pregnancy, an extensive blood vessel network is established within the villous placenta to support fetal growth and follicles develop within the fetal ovary to provide a pool of oocytes for reproductive function in adulthood. These two important developmental events occur in association with a progressive ...
Jeevaratnam Kamalan - - 2010
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to ...
Anton Lauren - - 2010
During preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired. Factors released from the placenta including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PLGF), soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt1), and soluble endoglin (sEng) are regulatory molecules of placental development and function. While the renin angiotensin system has been shown to regulate angiogenic factors ...
Frederiksen Marie - - 2010
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants in consumer products. PBDEs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis, which can result in irreversible damage of cognitive performance, motor skills and altered behaviour. Thus, in utero exposure is of very high concern due to critical windows in fetal development. ...
Herr F - - 2010
Both exogenous and endogenous factors during pregnancy may impact placental vascular development and cause different malformations of placental vessels. In humans, consequences of abnormal vascular development have been associated with different pregnancy-related pathologies ranging from miscarriage to intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. Pregnancy-associated exposure to bacterial or viral infections or ...
Sifakis Stavros - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The placental anticoagulant protein Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is highly expressed on the apical surfaces of syncytiotrophoblasts and plays an important role in maintaining blood fluidity in the placental circulation. We investigated the mRNA and protein expression of ANXA5 in placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared ...
Gundogan Fusun - - 2010
Ethanol consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of early pregnancy loss and causes intrauterine growth restriction. We previously showed that chronic gestational exposure to ethanol impairs placentation, and that this effect is associated with inhibition of insulin and insulin growth factor signaling. Since ethanol also causes oxidative stress and DNA ...
Whitney Kathleen A - - 2009
When the author received a positive pregnancy test at a time she knew she couldn't possibly be pregnant, it caused her to rethink the healthy skepticism her years of nursing had engendered. This case reminds nurses that positive pregnancy tests can result from medical conditions other than pregnancy, including various ...
Zhang Jianhong - - 2009
Ultrasound scanning is a noninvasive, accurate, and cost-effective method to create images of the female reproductive tract clinically and in research. Ultrasonography is particularly valuable for studying the dynamic relationships among mother, placenta, and fetus during pregnancy because this modality does not disturb the ongoing course of gestation. Importantly, the ...
Coan P M - - 2010
Undernutrition during pregnancy reduces birth weight and programmes adult phenotype with consequences for life expectancy, but its effects on the phenotype of the placenta, responsible for supplying nutrients for fetal growth, remain largely unknown. Using molecular, morphological and functional analyses, placental phenotype was examined in mice during restriction of dietary ...
Pringle K G - - 2010
In the first trimester the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells occlude the uterine spiral arterioles creating a low oxygen environment early in pregnancy, which is essential for pregnancy success. Paradoxically, shallow trophoblast invasion and defective vascular remodelling of the uterine spiral arteries in the first trimester may result in impaired placental perfusion ...
Massuto Dana A - - 2010
In the pig, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), TGFB receptors (TGFBRs), and integrins are present during the peri-implantation period. Latency-associated peptide (LAP), a part of latent TGFB, can bind to integrin heterodimers via its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence; therefore, ligand-receptor interactions between TGFB and TGFBRs, along with LAP and integrin heterodimers, ...
Baird Donna Day - - 2009
This commentary links early pregnancy milestones (rescue of the corpus luteum, the luteal-placental shift, and blocking of the spiral arteries) with the pattern of gestation-specific pregnancy loss in humans. The objective is to describe the pattern and present an adaptive hypothesis: that high first trimester pregnancy loss results from selection ...
Rutherford Julienne N - - 2009
The placenta is a transmitter of fetal need and fetal quality, interfacing directly with maternal physiology and ecology. Plasticity of placental structure and function across the developmental timeframe of gestation may serve as an important tool by which a fetus calibrates its growth to shifting maternal ecology and resource availability, ...
Cunningham David - - 2010
Mutations in the gene encoding the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme NSDHL are associated with the X-linked male-lethal bare patches (Bpa) mouse. Mutant male embryos for several Nsdhl alleles die in midgestation with placental insufficiency. We examined here a possible role of the maternal genotype in such placental pathology. Pre-pregnancy plasma cholesterol ...
Stanek Jerzy - - 2009
Laminar necrosis (LN) and microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (MCP) are the two histological placental membrane lesions. This study retrospectively compares the clinical and placental associations of LN and MCP on a large placental material. Four hundred seventy-nine placentae featuring membrane LN (group 1), 220 placentae with MCP (group 2), and 50 ...
Hackney David N - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Placental fetal vessel thrombosis or vasculitis and retroplacental hematoma have been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. The activation of thrombin may contribute to the development of thrombosis and inflammation, and can be assessed through the measurement of thrombin-inhibitor complexes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed within a cohort ...
Deutsch Aaron B - - 2010
We sought to determine if there is a relationship between prepregnancy underweight status and placental abruption. We utilized the Missouri maternally linked cohort data files covering the period 1989 through 1997. We estimated the association between prepregnancy underweight subtypes and placental abruption using adjusted odds ratios. Subanalyses were performed to ...
Cygalova Lenka Hahnova - - 2009
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are the most abundantly expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters in the placenta. They recognize a large, partly overlapping spectrum of chemically unrelated compounds and affect their transplacental passage. In this study we investigate the effect of Bcrp and P-gp on the ...
Gavard Laurent - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The perfused cotyledon model is a very useful method to study placental transfer of drugs. Here we studied placental transfer of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir using the non-recirculating dual human placental perfusion with a main goal to determining the clearance index of nelfinavir as related to ...
Oh S-Y - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that the expression of placental connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is enhanced in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia (PE) or fetal growth restriction (FGR). CTGF expression was analyzed using immunostaining, western blot and real-time quantitative PCR in placental samples obtained after third trimester cesarean deliveries without ...
Gu M - - 2009
Bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) catalyses the formation of 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) a ligand of haemoglobin. BPG facilitates liberation of oxygen from haemoglobin at low oxygen tension enabling efficient delivery of oxygen to tissues. We describe expression of BPGM in mouse labyrinthine trophoblasts, located at the maternal-placental interface. Expression is lower in ...
Azpurua Humberto - - 2010
An abnormally decreased placental weight has been linked to increased perinatal complications, including intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) and fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Despite its promise, determining placental weight prenatally using three-dimensional systems is time-consuming and requires expensive technology and expertise. We propose a novel method using two-dimensional sonography that provides ...
Viau Mélanie - - 2009
Recent studies reveal that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) might play a role in the aetiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The involvement of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R) in diabetes has also been suggested. However, placental SERT and 5-HT(2A)R have never been studied in GDM-complicated pregnancies. The aim ...
Acosta-Maldonado Brenda - - 2009
It is known that pesticides cross the placental barrier and can cause alterations in the development of placental structures resulting in adverse effects in reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy on placental maturity and to evaluate the relationship between placental ...
Farley D - - 2009
Maternal obesity is present in 20-34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in ...
Eskild Anne - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Placental weight and infant birthweight may be markers of different types of preeclampsia. We studied birthweight within placental weight percentiles in pregnancies with and without preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population study of 317,688 singleton births. RESULTS: Within the lowest 10% of placental weight, 36% of the offspring ...
Bridges C C - - 2009
Methylmercury (CH3Hg+) is a serious environmental toxicant. Exposure to this metal during pregnancy can cause serious neurological and developmental defects in a developing fetus. Surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms by which mercuric ions are transported across the placenta. Although it has been shown that 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic ...
Vallet Jeffrey L - - 2010
The trophoblast-endometrial epithelial cell bilayer of porcine placenta undergoes microscopic folding during gestation, and the folded bilayer is embedded in fetal placental stroma. We hypothesized that hyaluronan was a component of fetal placental stroma, and that hyaluronoglucosaminidases played a role in bilayer folding. Gilts were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO) at 160 ...
Yong Paual J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Mosaicism with trisomy confined to the placenta is present in ~1% of ongoing pregnancies at the time of chorionic villus sampling. Some studies have found reduced fetal growth in confined placental trisomy. The objective of this study was to assess placental weight and feto-placental weight ratio in pregnancies with ...
Corradetti Alessandra - - 2010
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38alpha was shown to be implicated in the organogenesis of the placenta, and such placental alteration is crucial for the development of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. We aimed to analyze for the first time human placental expression of MAPK p38alpha in ...
Jozwik M - - 2009
Functional placental insufficiency results in impaired feto-placental exchange, and subsequently in fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesized that reductions in placental amino acid transporter activities in FGR pregnancies may be accompanied by abnormal expression of placental ammonia-handling enzymes. Term placentas were obtained from growth restricted (N=11) and normal (N=17) human ...
Rudge Cibele V - - 2009
Environmental toxicants such as metals may be detrimental to foetus and infant development and health because of their physiological immaturity, opportunistic and differential exposures, and a longer lifetime over which disease, initiated during pregnancy and in early life, can develop. The placental mechanisms responsible for regulation of absorption and excretion ...
Herr F - - 2009
Undisturbed development and growth of the fetus depends on an adequate vascular development in the fetomaternal unit. Several steps of vascular adaptation both on fetal and maternal side are necessary and involve uterine vasodilation and remodelling by extravillous trophoblast as well as vasculo- and angiogenesis within the placenta. Ubiquitous (e. ...
Warland Jane - - 2009
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between placental position and stillbirth with the objective of establishing if placental position impacted on stillbirth risk. BACKGROUND: Whilst there has been extensive research on low placental implantation because of the importance of detecting ...
Scifres Christina M - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a failure to achieve the growth potential of a fetus that is promised by the genetic constitution and environmental influences endogenous to the pregnancy. Optimal placental development and the ability of the placenta to compensate for stimulus-induced injury are central in promotion of normal fetal ...
Fowden A L AL Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK. - - 2009
Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the fetus is not just a passive recipient of nutrients from the placenta. It exerts a significant acquisitive drive for nutrients, which acts through morphological and functional adaptations in the ...
van Patot M C Tissot - - 2009
Previous data indicate that placentas from normotensive pregnancies in non-native women at 3100 m (Leadville, CO) are not hypoxic at term, despite lower uterine artery blood flow, than in the same population at sea-level. We hypothesized that placental vascular development is greater at 3100 m in compensation. Further, because the ...
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