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Results 501 - 550 of 1152
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Zhang Yan - - 2003
The physiological significance of the cooperativity of human hemoglobin (Hb) is considered from the viewpoint of the effectiveness of the Bohr shift at the sites of O(2) release and uptake across the placental membrane. The effects of the Bohr shift was examined by changing the O(2) saturation of Hb (S(pO2)) ...
Zamudio Stacy - - 2003
The influence of oxygen pressure on placental and villous vascular development is reviewed and considered relative to the natural experiment afforded by residence at high altitude. Data obtained from normal high altitude pregnancies are compared with those from IUGR and preeclampsia, conditions believed to be caused by placental hypoxia. High ...
Agarwal N, Parul, Kriplani ...
A 27-years-old woman married for 5 years with history of twin delivery 21/2 years ago, had irregular vaginal bleeding for last 10 months. She underwent dilatation and curettage (D &amp; C) twice which showed secretary endometrium. Her Beta-hCG values were 5632 MIU/ml and she received methotrexate for gestational trophoblastic disease. ...
Furuhashi M - - 2002
The aim of the present study by a retrospective chart review was to examine the recurrence rate after placental abruption. Between 1985 and 1998, 81 patients had a placental abruption. We had 2-year follow-up information about 31 patients and 27 of them had a total of 34 subsequent pregnancies. Recurrent ...
Roberts C T - - 2002
Restricting maternal nutrition before and throughout pregnancy in the guinea-pig restricts foetal growth in part by altering placental structural determinants of substrate transfer function. The insulin-like growth factors have been implicated in mediating these changes. To assess the role of IGF-I in placental adaptation to maternal undernutrition, we examined the ...
Toivonen Sari - - 2002
Placental abruption complicates about 1% of all singleton pregnancies and the aim of this study is to assess the reproductive maternal risk factors associated with placental abruption, and the outcome of affected births. We analyze 170 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by placental abruption who gave birth at Kuopio University ...
Myllynen P - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Presently, no well-validated predictive tools are available for human placental transfer. We studied the transplacental passage of diazepam (DZP) in a recirculating dual human placental perfusion and compared the data with in vivo clinical data from the literature. METHODS: Term placentas from healthy mothers without medication were used. The ...
Brosens Jan J - - 2002
Deep placentation in the human requires physiologic transformation of the spiral arteries into uteroplacental vessels. This process involves the inner myometrial segment (junctional zone) of the spiral arteries and is effected by trophoblast invasion of the vessel wall, resulting in complete loss of the arterial structure and deposition of fibrinoid ...
Lacroix Marie-Christine - - 2002
Survival and development of the mammalian conceptus depends on a variety of factors. Fetal growth is controlled by genetic and environmental determinants that may limit the mother's capacity to provide an appropriate environment (e.g., space, nutrients, temperature). Exchanges between the mother and fetus take place within the placenta. Interestingly, despite ...
Witlin Andrea G - - 2002
Adrenomedullin is a potent, endogenous vasodilator peptide synthesized and secreted by diverse locations such as adrenal glands, lungs, kidneys, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelium. Homozygous deletion of the adrenomedullin gene is embryonic lethal. We hypothesized that adrenomedullin has an important role in placental and fetal growth and development in rat ...
Lyall F - - 2002
Pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and spontaneous miscarriage have all been linked to abnormalities in trophoblast invasion into the placental bed. Despite intensive research our understanding of the mechanisms that control human trophoblast invasion in normal, let alone abnormal pregnancy, are still poorly understood. This is partly due to difficulties in ...
Sivarao S - - 2002
This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity on maternal, placental and neonatal parameters. Maternal, placental, and the newborn parameters were corrected for gestational age. The male:female sex ratio was 1:1.03. One hundred and forty-four freshly delivered placentae from 55 Malaysian, 51 Chinese, and 38 Indian normal healthy ...
Crossey Paul A - - 2002
IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is a secretory product of decidualized endometrium and a major constituent of amniotic fluid. It is thought to modulate the actions of the IGFs on trophoblast cells and is therefore potentially important in regulating placental development and fetal growth. To investigate this hypothesis, we have studied ...
Lange I G - - 2002
1. Residues of commonly used growth-promoting agents found in animal meat can be hormonally active and they have been implicated as possible endocrine disruptors in man. Although these compounds could be potentially detrimental to the developing foetus, it is not clear whether and to what extent they pass through placental ...
Benian Ali - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the plasma and placental levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. METHODS: The study population consisted of 33 women with normotensive pregnancy and 35 women with preeclampsia. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected before labor (35.3 +/- 1.1 ...
Bonkobara Makoto - - 2002
To evaluate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on placental amino acids uptake, transport activities for L-proline, L-leucine, and L-alanine were kinetically examined in placental microvillous vesicles(PMV) obtained from pregnant rats administered with EGF(100 and 200 microg/kg/day) from day 18 to 21 of pregnancy. The Vmax of Na(+)-dependent proline ...
Hobbs Nicole K NK Veterinary Molecular Biology, Marsh Laboratories, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, - - 2002
Mammalian TBP consists of a 180 amino acid core that is common to all eukaryotes, fused to a vertebrate-specific N-terminal domain. We generated mice having a modified tbp allele, tbp(DeltaN), that produces a version of TBP lacking 111 of the 135 vertebrate-specific amino acids. Most tbp(DeltaN/DeltaN) fetuses (>90%) died in ...
Kirwan John P - - 2002
Historically, insulin resistance during pregnancy has been ascribed to increased production of placental hormones and cortisol. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis by correlating the longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity during pregnancy with changes in placental hormones, cortisol, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Insulin resistance ...
Bustard Mark A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of glyceryl trinitrate across the in vitro term human perfused placenta. STUDY DESIGN: Peripheral placental lobules (n = 6) were dually perfused. The maternal side was perfused with glyceryl trinitrate (100 nmol/L) for 90 minutes. Serial samples from the ...
Zalel Yaron - - 2002
Shortened fetal long bones (SFLB) are usually indicative of a skeletal dysplasia. Our aim in this observational retrospective study was to describe a new association between SFLB, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and placental abnormalities, and to suggest an aetiologic explanation. During the last decade we have evaluated nine ...
Lesage J - - 2002
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a frequently occurring and serious complication of pregnancy. Infants exposed to IUGR are at risk for numerous perinatal morbidities, including hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, as well as increased risk of later physical and/or mental impairments, cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Fetal growth ...
Rajashekhar G - - 2002
Human angiogenin, a 14-kDa non-glycosylated polypeptide with both angiogenic and ribonucleolytic activities, is implicated in angiogenesis, a complex process of proliferation and formation of new capillary blood vessels from existing blood vessels. Placental growth requires extensive angiogenesis, which develops its vascular structure in both fetal chorionic villi and maternal deciduas. ...
Burton Graham J - - 2002
Providing adequate nutrition to the fetus is key to a successful pregnancy. The interstitial form of implantation displayed by the human blastocyst is generally associated with early onset of maternal blood flow to the developing placenta, and hence hemotrophic exchange. However, the recent finding that the maternal intraplacental circulation is ...
Chellakooty Marla - - 2002
Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455 women with normal ...
Henson Michael C - - 2002
Leptin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue and the placenta, is enhanced in the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy in both the human and the baboon ( Papio sp.), a proven nonhuman primate model for the study of human pregnancy. The presence of both leptin and its receptor in the fetus ...
Prokopenko V M - - 2002
Components of the antioxidant defense system in placental tissues were studied in women with normal pregnancy and full-term delivery and women with spontaneous abortions at 28-36 weeks. In women with spontaneous abortions glutathione peroxidase activity in placental tissues increased and the content of SH compounds decreased, which led to exhaustion ...
Vonnahme K A - - 2002
Our laboratory has demonstrated that Yorkshire placentae increase in size and surface area during the final third of gestation. In contrast, Meishan placental size remains constant during late gestation, but the density of blood vessels at the placental-endometrial interface increases markedly. Preliminary observations from our laboratory suggest that if one ...
Hladky Katherine - - 2002
Placental abruption complicates approximately 1% to 2% of all pregnancies and remains a significant cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity. Proposed pathophysiology of both acute placental abruption and the more common partial placental separation are discussed. The contribution of placental abruption to both preterm labor and preterm premature rupture ...
Godfrey Keith M - - 2002
The fetal origins hypothesis proposes that adult cardiovascular and metabolic disease originate through developmental plasticity and fetal adaptations arising from failure of the materno-placental supply of nutrients to match fetal requirements. The hypothesis is supported by experimental data in animals indicating that maternal nutrition can programme long term effects on ...
Murphy Vanessa E - - 2002
Pregnancies complicated by asthma are associated with an increased risk of low birth weight. Currently, the mechanisms causing this outcome are unknown. To investigate whether impaired placental function may be a determinant, we measured placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) activity, protein and mRNA, placental CRH mRNA, fetal cortisol, and ...
Reis Fernando M - - 2002
Intrauterine tissues (placenta, amnion, chorion, decidua) express hormones and cytokines that play a decisive role in maternal-fetal physiological interactions. The excessive or deficient release of some placental hormones in association with gestational diseases may reflect an abnormal differentiation of the placenta, an impaired fetal metabolism, or an adaptive response of ...
Ruangvutilert Pornpimol - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Placental hypertrophy and reduced fetal growth have been postulated to be an adaptation to maintain placental function in pregnant women with complications such as malnutrition. If this is true, a pregnancy with impaired fetal growth, resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, should have an increased placental ...
van Rens Birgitte T T M - - 2002
Liveborn piglets from gilts with estrogen receptor (ESR) genotype AA (95 AA-AA and 91 AA-AB piglets), AB (88 AB-AA, 118 AB-AB, and 37 AB-BB piglets), and BB (97 BB-AB and 89 BB-BB piglets) were compared after farrowing, to examine whether piglet ESR genotype (ESRp) nested within maternal ESR genotype (ESRm) ...
Pardi Giorgio - - 2002
The role of placental function in maintaining an adequate fetal growth has been addressed by many different laboratories. The relationship between maternal and fetal circulation in the placenta is crucial for efficient exchanges of oxygen and nutrients. Moreover, maturational changes are taking place throughout gestation within the placenta in order ...
Kumazaki Kaori - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the placenta provides some important insights into pathophysiologic changes that take place during the prenatal and intrapartum process. We investigated the relationship between placental findings and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) to obtain a better understanding of its cause. METHODS: Thirty-two preterm infants with PVL delivered before 34 weeks' ...
Clarke K A - - 2002
The effect of fetal cortisol on the activity of the type 2 isoform of the enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD2), was examined in ovine placenta and fetal kidney by measuring tissue 11 beta-HSD2 activity during late gestation when endogenous fetal cortisol levels rise and after exogenous cortisol administration to ...
de Rijk Eveline P C T - - 2002
The rat is commonly used as a model in studies on embryology and reproduction toxicology. Surprisingly, the current literature does not provide a comprehensive reference data set on placental development in rat. Therefore, we have evaluated morphological changes of the placenta and maternal blood parameters during pregnancy of the Sprague-Dawley ...
Overstreet Kerith - - 2002
Congenital nephrosis of the Finnish type (CNF) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of glomerular filtration that results in massive proteinuria, edema, and ascites. Although previous studies describe the classic renal lesions characterizing this disorder, there are few documenting in detail the associated placental alterations. In this context, we present ...
Capece B P S - - 2002
Albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) is an anthelmintic drug used in veterinary practice. Its molecule has a chiral centre in the sulphur atom and racemic formulations are always used. The kinetics of the ABZSO enantiomers in the last third of pregnancy in ewes, and the placental transfer to the fetus, were studied ...
Lacroix M C - - 2002
The factors controlling normal placental development are poorly understood. We have previously reported the presence of ovine placental growth hormone (oPGH) and growth hormone receptors in ovine placenta, and oPGH production by the trophectoderm and syncitium during the second month of pregnancy. To identify factors regulating oPGH production, we developed ...
Clapp James F JF - - 2002
Experimental evidence indicates that the primary maternal environmental factor that regulates feto-placental growth is substrate delivery to the placental site, which is the product of maternal substrate levels and the rate of placental-bed blood flow. Thus, maternal factors which change either substrate level or flow alter feto-placental growth rate. The ...
Sartori M J - - 2002
Congenital Chagas disease, due to the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with premature labor, miscarriage, and placentitis. Human enzyme placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) (EC 3.1.3.1.) is membrane-anchored through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). PLAP is present in plasma in late pregnancy, 36 to 40 weeks; there are lower levels in maternal Chagas ...
Georgiades P - - 2002
The placenta of eutherian mammals is a remarkable biological structure. It is composed of both zygote-derived and maternal cells, and mediates the complex interactions between the mother and the fetus that are necessary for fetal growth and survival. While the genetic basis of human placental development and function is largely ...
Ofner L D - - 2002
Cystinyl aminopeptidase (CAP; EC 3.4.11.3) is an integral protein of the placental membrane that is also found in a soluble form in maternal serum during pregnancy. CAP was found to be shed from human placental membranes in a temperature- and time-dependent process. The released form of CAP was hydrophilic as ...
Pierce B T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of fetal hypoxia and hyperoxia on placental vascular tone and production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. STUDY DESIGN: The maternal and fetal circulation of 2 cotyledons from 5 human placentas were perfused for 4 hours. The fetal circulation of 1 cotyledon was perfused with ...
Carter A M - - 2001
Recent analyses of nucleotide sequence data suggest that living placental mammals belong to one of four superorders. The early divergence of these groups was followed by long periods of geographical isolation, due to the break up of continental land masses, allowing for convergent evolution of similar traits in different superorders. ...
Lao T T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of large placentas in diabetic pregnancies is not known. A retrospective study was performed to determine whether a disproportionately large placenta, as represented by a high ratio of placental weight to birth weight (placental ratio), in pregnancies complicated by the World Health Organization category of impaired ...
Buchbinder A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of leptin and its receptor in ovine fetal tissues and to examine the relationship between circulating leptin concentrations and fetal and placental weights on gestational day 138 (GD138) of ovine pregnancy (term, 145 days). STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant sheep (n ...
Petty H R - - 2001
While characterizing natural antiinflammatory substances in human placental blood, we discovered a factor that affected human neutrophils and their adherence. Rigorous chemical and stereochemical analyses revealed this factor to be the well-known alkaloid, colchicine. When samples from individual patients were analyzed, significant levels (49-763 microg/L) of colchicine could be found ...
Hung T H - - 2001
Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of the placenta in many complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia. The cause is primarily unknown, although ischemia-reperfusion injury is one possible mechanism. Our aim was to test this hypothesis by examining the oxidative status of human placental tissues during periods of hypoxia and ...
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