Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1151
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Redline Raymond W - - 2004
Placental examination can be a useful tool for specifying the etiology, prognosis, and recurrence risk of pregnancy disorders. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of a predetermined set of placental reaction patterns seen with maternal vascular underperfusion in the hope that this might provide a useful ...
Anteby Eyal Y - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether common inherited thrombophilias in the fetus influence the severity of severe preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. DESIGN: A case-control study among patients with complicated pregnancies. Cases were defined as fetuses with thrombophilia. Setting: A university hospital with 3700 deliveries per year. POPULATION: Seventy cases with severe ...
Barrio E - - 2004
We studied the rate of apoptosis in the placental tissue of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and compared it with the results obtained in normal placentas. Our results clearly demonstrate a strongly increased rate of apoptosis in placentas of children born with IUGR, suggesting severe placental dysfunction. The ...
Clapp James F JF - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test the null hypothesis that serial changes in maternal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding-protein-1 (IGFBP-1) levels during pregnancy do not reflect differences in either corrected birth weight or placental mass at term. Study design Serial blood samples were obtained before ...
Coan Philip M - - 2004
The mouse is an excellent model for studying the genetic basis of placental development, but analyses are restricted by the lack of quantitative data describing normal murine placental structure. This study establishes a technique for generating such data, applies stereological techniques on systematic uniform random sections of placentas between E12.5-E18.5 ...
Brenner Benjamin - - 2004
Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state with an increased thrombotic risk throughout gestation and the postpartum period. Women with thrombophilia may have a further increased risk of placental vascular complications, including pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental abruption. Preliminary data suggest that maternal antithrombotic prophylaxis may result in improved ...
Edelbauer M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of cord blood mononuclear cells in response to nutritive and inhalant allergens implies intrauterine exposure with resulting T cell priming. However, the mechanisms triggering these fetal allergen-specific immune responses are incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied the placental release of endogenous beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and ovalbumin (OVA) by the ...
Merchant S J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of impaired placental development in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes that are released by placental cells during tissue remodeling processes. We hypothesized 1) that release of MMP-2 and -9 is decreased and/or release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is ...
Wlodek M E - - 2004
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has important roles in fetal growth and development through stimulation of placental calcium transport, vasodilatation of the uteroplacental vasculature and regulation of cellular growth and differentiation. The growth restricted spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has reduced fetal plasma, placental and amniotic fluid PTHrP concentrations compared to its ...
Thaete Larry G - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Normal placental function is dependent on maintenance of uteroplacental perfusion. Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor, is produced in and is active in the uteroplacental vasculature. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of endothelin in the regulation of uteroplacental perfusion under normal conditions, and in hypoxia-induced fetal ...
Mercé Luis T - - 2004
AIMS: To assess the reproducibility of 3D power Doppler study of placental vascularization in order to establish its methodological bases for its further application in normal and pathological pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective study was carried on 30 normal singleton pregnancies from 14 to 40 weeks. To evaluate placental vascularization 3D ...
Steinborn A - - 2004
Placental abruption is an unpredictable severe complication in pregnancy. In order to investigate the possibility that the activation of the fetal nonadaptive immune system may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, IL-6 release from cord blood monocytes was examined by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometric analysis. Our ...
Wilson Caroline - - 2004
Adrenomedullin is a 52 amino acid peptide originally isolated from human phaeochromocytoma in 1993. It was initially demonstrated to have profound effects on the vasculature including vasodilatation and subsequently promotion of angiogenesis. Since then it has become apparent that it has a wide range of other biological actions including regulation ...
Bersinger Nick A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Poor placentation may perpetuate preeclampsia, but the presence of a major placental pathology has been questioned in cases of preeclampsia where the newborn has an appropriate birthweight for gestational age. On the other hand, poor placentation is also observed in the absence of preeclampsia, in pregnancies with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) ...
Chellakooty M - - 2004
The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective longitudinal study of 89 ...
Borovecki Fran F Department of Anatomy, Medical School University of Zagreb, Zagreb, - - 2004
BMP-7 is an important mediator of metanephric mesenchyme differentiation during kidney development. Gene knockout studies have shown that BMP-7 null mutation mice die shortly after birth due to renal failure, although the induction of metanephric structures has initially occurred (E11-E13). Iodinated BMP-7 was injected into the tail vein of pregnant ...
Holcberg Gershon - - 2003
The human placenta is the interface between the mother and fetus in the uterus. Until recently it was generally believed that the uterus provides a protective environment for the fetus. It is now accepted that any chemical substance, including any therapeutic agent, administered to a mother is able to permeate ...
Hempstock Joanne - - 2003
In cases of miscarriage, onset of the maternal blood flow to the placenta is precocious and disorganized compared with this event in normal pregnancy. We sought to determine whether this difference is associated with excessive levels of oxidative damage and stress in the placental tissues. Morphological and immunohistochemical markers of ...
Chan K K L - - 2003
A disproportionately large placenta may represent an adaptive response to adverse intrauterine conditions. Both maternal nutritional intake and presence of gestational diabetes (GDM) have been found to affect relative placental growth. As dietary modification is part of the standard management in GDM women, the observed increase in placental size in ...
Tsatsaris Vassilis - - 2003
Several growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PlGF) are involved in the placental vascular development. We investigated whether dysregulation in the VEGF family may explain the defective uteroplacental vascularization characterizing preeclampsia. We compared pregnancies complicated by early onset severe preeclampsia or intrauterine growth ...
Ravelich Susan R - - 2004
In cloned pregnancies, placental deficiencies, including increased placentome size, reduced placentome number, and increased accumulation of allantoic fluid, have been associated with low cloning efficiency. To assess differences in paracrine and endocrine growth regulation in cloned versus normal bovine placentomes and pregnancies, we have examined the expression of insulin-like growth ...
Baboonian Christina - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The concept that low birth weight infants are more predisposed to coronary artery disease (CAD) in adulthood has been studied extensively. Although many infectious agents have been associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), Chlamydia pneumoniae an organism implicated in CAD has not been investigated. It was our aim to ...
Konje Justin C - - 2003
Maldevelopment of placental villous trees and their blood vessels results in impaired fetal growth, which can greatly compromise fetal, neonatal, childhood, and adulthood health. There are no means of directly assessing such maldevelopment. We have applied a new technique of imaging (colour power angiography [CPA]) with 3-dimensional reconstruction to assess ...
Viganò P - - 2003
The implantation process requires a functionally normal conceptus and a receptive endometrium, but also a communication link between them. This paracrine dialogue involves not only gonadal steroids but also a variety of other biologic molecules secreted by the conceptus and the reproductive tissues themselves in a communicative, interconnected network. The ...
Gagnon Robert - - 2003
Placental insufficiency is a process leading to progressive deterioration in placental function and a decrease in transplacental transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The resulting fetal hypoxemia is the major stimulus involved in the reduction in fetal growth as an attempt to reduce metabolic demands by the growing ...
Lee Rita S F - - 2004
The cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) is associated with a high incidence of abnormal placentation, excessive fluid accumulation in the fetal sacs (hydrops syndrome), and fetal overgrowth. Fetal and placental development was investigated at Day 50, during placentome formation; at Day 100, when placentation was completed; ...
Stewart James R - - 2003
The reptilian placenta is a composite structure formed by a functional interaction between extraembryonic membranes and the maternal uterus. Study of placental structure of squamate reptiles over the past century has established that each of the multiple independent origins of placentation, which characterize the reproductive diversity of squamates, has resulted ...
Musicki Biljana - - 2003
Estrogen stimulates morphological and functional (i.e. steroidogenesis) differentiation of the primate placental trophoblast, and with advancing gestation there is an increase in estrogen and placental chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) mRNA and protein levels. To examine whether CS formation is regulated by estrogen, placental villous trophoblast CS was determined in baboons in ...
Flemming Alexander F - - 2003
Phylogenetic information offers an important resource in analyses of reproductive diversity, including interpretations of fetal membrane evolution. In this paper, we draw upon ongoing studies of South American and African lizards to consider the value of combining phylogenetic and reproductive evidence in the construction of evolutionary interpretations. South American lizards ...
Lin Dongming - - 2003
Our previous animal studies showed that maternal Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in a subcutaneous chamber is associated with hepatic and uterine translocation, as well as systemic induction of maternal inflammatory responses, both of which were associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, P. gingivalis-challenged dams had fetuses with either FGR (2 ...
Saito Shigeru - - 2003
The syndrome of preeclampsia has previously been ascribed to generalized maternal endothelial dysfunction, poor placentation and excessive maternal inflammatory response. Recent reports suggest that preeclampsia is associated with a Th1 predominant profile and may be considered as a failure of the tolerance system allowing the second physiological trophoblastic invasion. In ...
Murata Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To establish a rat preeclampsia model with fetoplacental growth restriction caused by bestatin via induction of placental apoptosis. STUDY DESIGN: 200 mg/kg/day of bestatin or saline as a control were infused intraperitoneally into pregnant Wistar rats from 15 days' gestation. In the first experiment, maternal blood pressure and proteinuria ...
Regnault Timothy R H - - 2003
Placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in placental angiogenesis through interactions with the VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 receptors. The placenta of pregnancies whose outcome is fetal growth restriction (FGR) are characterized by abnormal angiogenic development, classically associated with hypoxia. The present study evaluated the near-term ...
Kreiser Doron - - 2003
Fetal growth is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Our objective was to determine the pattern of heme oxygenase (HO) expression in the pregnant rat and to study its association with fetal growth and growth factors. Uterine tissues were obtained from nonpregnant and from time-mated rats at 7, 13, ...
Di Iorio Romolo - - 2003
This review will consider whether adrenomedullin (AM) plays a role in the different aspects of perinatal medicine: contributing to maternal systemic vasodilatation during pregnancy, regulating uterine and placental blood flow, being involved in the process of implantation and participating in uterine quiescence prior to parturition. In addition, this will also ...
Hafner E - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine placental growth between 12-22 weeks in normal pregnancies compared to pregnancies complicated by foetal SGA and maternal pre-eclampsia (PE). The placentae of 1199 women were measured 3D sonographically at 12, 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. Placental volume growth was then calculated. ...
Pavek Petr - - 2003
Rhodamine 123 (Rho123), a model substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was used to evaluate the functional activity of P-gp efflux transporter in the rat placental barrier. The dually perfused rat-term placenta method was used. In our experiments, the materno-fetal transplacental passage of Rho123 did not meet the criteria of the first-order ...
Lyall Fiona - - 2003
It is now well known that in order to establish human hemochorial placentation and to provide a progressive increase in blood supply to the growing fetus, the uterine spiral arteries must undergo considerable alterations. This physiological modification is thought to be brought about by the interaction of invasive cytotrophoblast with ...
Witt Armin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Infection of the amnion cavity with Ureaplasma urealyticum continues to be a therapeutic challenge. The transplacental transfer rates of macrolide antibiotics are low, and tetracyclines and quinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate placental transfer of clarithromycin in a well-studied placental perfusion model ...
Kudo Yoshiki - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Tryptophan degradation and depletion resulting from activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is characteristic of inflammatory reactions and may control their intensity. Normal third-trimester pregnancy is characterized by a maternal systemic inflammatory response, which is more intense in preeclampsia. Therefore, we studied tryptophan metabolism in pregnant women, with or without preeclampsia, ...
Sterle J A - - 2003
Crowded uterine conditions were induced by unilateral hysterectomy-ovariectomy (UHO) in 42 gilts to determine the effect of recombinant porcine somatotropin on fetal and placental growth. Gilts were randomly assigned across three replicates to one of three treatments: Control (C; n = 14), daily injections of 1 mL saline from d ...
Scher Mark S - - 2003
The pediatric neurologist can contribute to a fetal diagnostic service that includes the maternal-fetal specialist as well as placental and pediatric pathologists, neonatologists, neurosurgeons, geneticists, and other pediatric subspecialists. Selected case histories of patients who presented to our fetal neurology service illustrate the wide spectrum of disease entities that are ...
Rhone Stephanie A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the nature and extent of placental pathologic findings; (2) to associate placental pathologic findings with clinical indicators of infection; (3) to evaluate placental pathology in the context of the guidelines outlined by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, through review of ...
Schäfer-Somi S - - 2003
This article reviews the function of cytokines during early pregnancy of mammals including the human species. Investigations concerning conceptus and other secretory proteins, their meaning for maternal recognition and maintenance of pregnancy, fetal and placental growth and differentiation, adhesion, invasion and implantation are discussed, and differences between laboratory rodents, carnivores, ...
Witters Ingrid - - 2003
A male newborn with multiple cutaneous hemangiomatosis is described. Pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios and a large placental chorioangioma. After an initial outburst of the hemangiomas in the first two weeks of life, spontaneous and almost complete regression occurred before the age of 3 months. The relationship between hemangiomas and ...
Lepercq Jacques - - 2003
To investigate placental leptin production in placental insufficiency, placental leptin production was measured in women with severe preeclampsia (group 1) and in normotensive pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth restriction (group 2), compared to controls (group 3). Placental leptin content was increased 3-fold in group 1 compared to group 2 (192.5.1 ...
Sheiner E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, obstetric risk factors and pregnancy outcome of placental abruption at term. METHODS: A comparison of all singleton term deliveries (> or = 37 weeks' gestation) complicated with placental abruption to singleton term deliveries without placental abruption. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate independent risk factors ...
Hausman Nicole - - 2003
To investigate the effects of celecoxib on fetal growth, and placental prostanoid and nitric oxide (NO) production in fetal rabbits, pregnant rabbits received celecoxib (30 mg/kg per day) from 13 to 20 days (Cel-A), from 13 to 28 days (Cel-B), or vehicle from 13 to 28 days gestation. Fetal body ...
Karteris E - - 2003
Placentally derived CRH seems to play a major role in the mechanisms controlling human pregnancy and parturition, via activation of specific receptors widespread in reproductive tissues. In the human placenta, CRH seems to modulate vasodilation, prostaglandin production, and ACTH secretion. It has also been suggested that CRH might act as ...
Zhang Yan - - 2003
The physiological significance of the cooperativity of human hemoglobin (Hb) is considered from the viewpoint of the effectiveness of the Bohr shift at the sites of O(2) release and uptake across the placental membrane. The effects of the Bohr shift was examined by changing the O(2) saturation of Hb (S(pO2)) ...
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