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Results 301 - 350 of 1377
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Balakrishnan B - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To study transplacental transfer and biotransformation of genistein in the human placenta. STUDY DESIGN AND OUTCOMES: Human placentae obtained from healthy term singleton pregnancies were utilised in a dual re-circulating model of ex-vivo placental perfusion. Four placentae were perfused for 180min following addition of genistein (10ng/mL) to the maternal ...
Balakrishnan Biju - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study placental transfer and conjugation of bisphenol A (BPA) across the human placenta. STUDY DESIGN: Human placentae obtained from healthy term singleton pregnancies were utilized in a dual recirculating model of ex vivo placental perfusion. Seven placentae were perfused with BPA (10 ...
Maltepe Emin E Department of Pediatrics, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave. HSE-1401, Box 1346, San Francisco, CA 94143-1346, USA. - - 2010
The placenta provides critical transport functions between the maternal and fetal circulations during intrauterine development. Formation of this interface relies on coordinated interactions among transcriptional, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Here we describe these mechanisms in the context of the differentiation of placental cells (trophoblasts) and synthesize current knowledge about how ...
Jiang Yi-zhou - - 2010
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, mediates many biological processes, including fetal development. In this study, we examined AhR protein expression in human placentas from normal (N) and severe preeclamptic (sPE) pregnancies, as well as human fetal tissues from the second trimester of pregnancy, using immunohistochemistry and/or ...
Swieca A - - 2010
During pregnancy the activity of AMP-deaminase in developing human placenta gradually decreases, being in homogenates of mature, term placenta (approximately 40 week of gestation) one fourth to one third of that in homogenates of immature (approximately 25 week of gestation) organ. The gradual decrease of activity correlates inversely with the ...
Beagley J C - - 2010
Retained fetal membranes (RFM) in cattle have adverse effects on fertility and production. Understanding the pathophysiology and causes of RFM is important for managing this disease. The hormonal processes that lead to normal placental separation are multifactorial and begin before parturition. A variety of risk factors, including early or induced ...
Oyinloye Olalekan I - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of persistence of transverse lie detected earlier in pregnancy and associated predisposing factors using follow-up ultrasound (US). A longitudinal study was carried out from January 2004 to august 2004 at Federal Medical centre, Lokoja, Nigeria. All singleton pregnancies, with ultrasound ...
Bouwman M G - - 2010
There are only a few reports on the histology of placental tissue of pregnancies from mothers with Fabry disease. Fabry disease is a lysosomal disorder caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. Extensive glycosphingolipid (GSL) accumulation in fetal and maternal placenta tissue obtained from a Fabry mother and her affected male newborn ...
Hull Andrew D - - 2010
Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall. Where placenta accreta is present, the failure of the placenta to separate normally from the uterus after delivery is accompanied by severe postpartum hemorrhage. The best outcomes in placenta accreta are in prenatally diagnosed electively delivered cases. ...
Dembinski Jörg J Clinic of Pediatrics, Klinikum Itzehoe, Academic Teaching Hospital of Universitätsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf UKE / Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein UKSH +49 0 4821 772 2201 ; +49 0 4821 772 2209 ; - - 2010
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in utero causing fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a potentially life-threatening event for the fetus. Postexpositional non-invasive diagnosis is based on maternal IgG/IgM response and detection of viral genome in maternal blood. Serologic testing directs prenatal follow-up. Fetal infection is confirmed by polymerase ...
Haas Dorothea D University Children's Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany. - - 2010
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the developing forebrain in humans. The HPE phenotype is extremely variable and the etiology is heterogeneous. Among a variety of embryological toxins that can induce HPE, inhibitors, and other pertubations of cholesterol biosynthesis have been shown to be important factors, most ...
Provansal Magali - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To determine the fertility and obstetric outcomes after conservative management of placenta accreta. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study of all identified cases of placenta accreta from 1993 to 2007 in 2 tertiary university hospitals in France. For patients treated conservatively, maternal and fetal morbidity, reproductive function, fertility, and ...
Kim Hong Rye - - 2010
An understanding of bovine placental gene expression is essential for the study of animal reproductive physiology. Recent reports have found that placental abnormalities occur frequently in cloned bovines and mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying bovine placenta function remain unclear. Here, we present a preliminary description of the bovine placenta ...
Khong T Y - - 2010
AIMS: To ascertain the incidence and to review the obstetric and neonatal correlates of placental haemosiderosis. Secondly, to determine if placental haemosiderosis is due to blood contamination during placental handling. METHODS: One hundred consecutive singleton placentas with and 113 consecutive singleton placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies without an indication for pathological ...
Rogers Beverly Barton BB Department of Pathology, Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. - - 2010
There is controversy about whether pathologic abnormalities are associated with pregnancies complicated by factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 105 placentas delivered to mothers heterozygous for FVL mutation to determine if there are pathologic changes suggestive of hypoxia or thrombosis, which correlate with ...
Renfree M B - - 2010
The placenta is the most varied organ within the Mammalia. There are many similarities, as well as some differences, between the marsupial embryo and those of eutherian mammals. The most striking difference is the lack of the inner cell mass in the blastocyst which consists solely of a single layer ...
Lee Soo Bong - - 2010
Inadequate invasion of the uterus by cytotrophoblasts is speculated to result in pregnancy-induced disorders such as preeclampsia. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern appropriate invasion of cytotrophoblasts are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that under low-oxygen conditions (2.5% oxygen), 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a metabolite of estradiol and is generated by ...
Feeley L - - 2010
Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in ...
Iñiguez G - - 2010
In humans, a direct relationship between IGF-I cord blood levels and birth weight has been demonstrated. To determine the placental IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IR mRNA and protein contents in full-term pregnancies from appropriate for gestational age (AGA), small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) newborns, we ...
Hunt Joan S - - 2010
Molecules with immunological functions abound in hemochorial mammalian placentas where maternal blood and tissues are in direct contact with fetal placental cells. For the most part, investigators have focused on the possibility that these molecules are primarily in place for the purpose of preventing maternal immune mechanisms from attacking the ...
Warshak Carri R - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of prenatal diagnosis and delivery planning on outcomes in patients with placenta accreta. METHODS: A review was performed of all patients with pathologically confirmed placenta accreta at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center from January 1990 to April 2008. Cases were divided into ...
Wada Yoshiko - - 2010
Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway during pregnancy contributes to several pathologic pregnancies, such as hypertension, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction, but its effects on the fetus have not been fully examined. To determine how inhibition of the VEGF signaling pathway affects the fetal vascular development ...
Zadrozna Monika - - 2010
Disturbed trophoblast turnover, a key process in placental physiology, may lead to a number of pregnancy-associated pathologies. This study examines PCNA expression and describes and quantifies morphological changes during trophoblast turnover in preterm placentas and term placentas complicated by IUGR. The number ofCTF cells increased two-fold in preterm and IUGR ...
Rolfo Alessandro - - 2010
The pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a serious pregnancy disorder, is still elusive and its treatment empirical. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is crucial for placental development and early detection of aberrant regulatory mechanisms of HIF-1 could impact on the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. HIF-1α stability is controlled by O(2)-sensing enzymes including ...
Solanky N - - 2010
Poor folate status during pregnancy can lead to elevated maternal plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) with associated pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, suggesting placental metabolism of Hcy might be an important determinant in influencing fetal development. The metabolic pathways for Hcy in placenta are not well defined. In this ...
Marczylo Timothy H - - 2010
Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide), a bioactive lipid, is reported to play a role in pregnancy maintenance and parturition. Our aims were to (1) evaluate AEA levels at the human maternal:fetal interface and (2) validate the use of solid-phase extraction of AEA from tissues. AEA was analyzed in cord and maternal blood, amniotic ...
Zelig Craig M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether pretreatment of fetal or maternal placental vasculature with 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-P) attenuates the vasoactive effect of the thromboxane mimetic U46619. STUDY DESIGN: Two cotyledons were obtained from each placenta studied. For the first 5 placentas, the fetal artery of 1 ...
Sofiah S - - 2009
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical risk factors, accuracy of antenatal ultrasound for diagnosis, and the effect of these on pregnancy outcome. It is a retrospective study looking at cases which had hysterectomy following vaginal or caesarean section deliveries from 1993 to 2005. Data regarding the ...
Benitez M A - - 2009
This study was designed to assess the effect of Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure during pregnancy in rats and their correlation with metallothionein (MT). Rats were exposed to either 10 ppm Cd or 300 ppm Pb through drinking water during pregnancy. Both metals were measured in placenta, fetus brain ...
Chang K T E - - 2009
Formal pathological examination of the placenta provides valuable information to the obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatrician and family. This article aims to provide the clinician with an overview of the significance of placental examination in relation to common or important pathological processes, and the utility of information obtained therein in explaining adverse ...
Furukawa Satoshi - - 2011
In order to investigate the effect of placental size on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IURG), we examined the morphology and alterations in the expression of glucose transporter in the placentas of rats exposed to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). 6-MP was administered orally at 0 and 60 mg/kg/day on gestation day (GD) 9, ...
Chinni Elena - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are multifactorial diseases, whose pathogenesis is largely unknown. A significant relationship between haemostasis and angiogenesis in placentae from uneventful pregnancies was previously shown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA expression of haemostasis (TF, TFPI, TFPI-2, PAI-2, Anx V, TM) and angiogenesis (Ang-1, Ang-2, PlGF, ...
Ansar Afia - - 2009
Morbidly adherent placenta in a nulliparous woman is a rare phenomenon. An unusual case of a 20 years old primigravida presented in emergency with unstable haemodynamics and abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation is reported. She was found to have complete placental invasion and haemoperitoneum on laparotomy. Although there ...
Tissot van Patot Martha C - - 2010
We have previously demonstrated placentas from laboring deliveries at high altitude have lower binding of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) to DNA than those from low altitude. It has recently been reported that labor causes oxidative stress in placentas, likely due to ischemic hypoxic insult. We hypothesized that placentas of high-altitude ...
W??och Stanis??aw - - 2009
The human placenta, characterized by the processes of passive transport and facilitated diffusion, contains numerous active transport proteins, usually located in the microvilli of the syncytiotrophoblast or in the endothelium of the capillaries of the villi. These proteins use either the energy from ATP hydrolysis or other mechanisms resulting, among ...
Hsu Te-Yao - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in human placenta from normal and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Academic Medical Center. Forty normal pregnant women at 37.0 +/- 0.89 weeks' gestation ...
Shokry Mahmoud - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Here we test the hypothesis that "the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 proteins is altered in preeclamptic placentas compared to placentas of normal pregnancy." PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study includes preeclamptic placentas (40 women with preeclampsia) from a singleton pregnancy and placentas of normal pregnancies (control ...
Gagnon Robert - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of vasa previa and the risk factors and associated condition, to identify the various clinical presentations of vasa previa, to describe the ultrasound tools used in its diagnosis, and to describe the management of vasa previa. OUTCOMES: Reduction of perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term ...
Iwasawa Yuki - - 2009
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator and thought to play an important role in pregnancy. Plasma LPA is produced by autotaxin (ATX), and ATX activity in plasma increases during pregnancy paralleled with gestational weeks and decreases to near the non-pregnant level soon after delivery. However, the source of ...
Zanotti-Fregonara Paolo - - 2009
18F-FDG is the most widely used PET radiopharmaceutical. Nevertheless, no data for 18F-FDG uptake in the human placenta have been reported. We recently reported on embryo dosimetry in a woman who underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan during early pregnancy. In the present work we attempt an in vivo quantification of ...
Mericq V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids may determine fetal growth and the programing of later disorders. Availability of the glucocorticoids in the placenta is regulated by the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSDs) enzymes. To date, there are discrepancies with regard to cortisol (F) cord blood levels in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation ...
Yin T T - - 2009
We test the experimental hypothesis that early changes in the ultrasound appearance of the placenta reflect poor or reduced placental function. The sonographic (Grannum) grade of placental maturity was compared to placental function as expressed by the morphometric oxygen diffusive conductance of the villous membrane. Ultrasonography was used to assess ...
Hall David R - - 2009
Abruptio placentae is an important cause of vaginal bleeding in the latter half of pregnancy. The key factor in the pathophysiology is hemorrhage at the decidual-placental interface. Small episodes may escape clinical detection, but severe grades impact significantly on fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality, with the most frequent complications ...
Wang Joyce - - 2009
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and -A2 (PAPPA and PAPPA2) are proteases that cleave IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and thereby increase the bioavailability of growth factors. PAPPA has long been recognized as a marker of fetal genetic disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, although PAPPA2 is also highly expressed in human ...
Burton G J - - 2009
During the course of 9 months, the human placenta develops into a highly vascular organ. Vasculogenesis starts during the third week post-conception. Hemangioblastic cell cords differentiate in situ from mesenchymal cells in the villous cores, most probably under the influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) secreted by the overlying ...
Rahi Mea Melissa - - 2009
Human placenta, particularly the blood-placenta barrier, with various transporters has crucial role to protect the fetus and, on the other hand, to facilitate movement of compounds towards the fetal circulation. This study aimed to characterize the role of basal transporters of the syncytiotrophoblast, which appear to be yet less studied, ...
Reiter Russel J - - 2009
This brief review summarizes new findings related to the reported beneficial effects of melatonin on reproductive physiology beyond its now well-known role in determining the sexual status in both long-day and short-day seasonally breeding mammals. Of particular note are those reproductive processes that have been shown to benefit from the ...
Olomu I Nicholas - - 2009
The purpose of this work was to examine the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum in the placenta and perinatal outcomes in extreme preterm deliveries and to explore the influence of bacteria coinfection on perinatal outcomes in U urealyticum-positive placentas. Under sterile conditions, a piece of chorion from 866 singleton deliveries before ...
Metz Torri - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Uterine torsion has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes ranging from fetal distress to maternal death. Uterine torsion has also been reported in otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies. CASES: We report 2 cases of uterine torsion with abnormal anterior placentation identified at cesarean section, which had previously been disguised ...
Suzuki Shunji - - 2010
We examined the incidence of abnormally shaped placentae such as circumvallate placenta and succenturiate lobes of placenta and their complications in twin compared with singleton pregnancies. A retrospective cohort study was performed with 592 (174 monochorionic and 418 dichorionic) twin and 11,311 singleton pregnancies managed at our hospital between 2000 ...
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