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Andany Nisha - - 2013
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of HIV-1 infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in disease-associated morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection worldwide is changing, as women now represent a substantial proportion of infected adults. As more highly effective and tolerable antiretroviral regimens ...
Vieira de Moraes Luciana - - 2013
Malaria during pregnancy is a major factor in infant morbidity and mortality. In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Conroy et al. (2013) propose that C5a, a product of complement cascade activation, counteracts the placental vascular remodeling response induced by Plasmodium infection and contributes to fetal growth restriction.
Leruez-Ville Marianne - - 2013
Background. Interpretation of positive CMV IgM in the first trimester of pregnancy is ill-defined.Objectives. To quantify the risk of fetal transmission in women with positive CMV IgM in the first trimester.Population and methods. Retrospective cohort of women (2009 to 2011) tested for CMV IgG and IgM before 14 weeks of gestation. IgG avidity ...
He Mai - - 2013
Objective To determine perinatal and pregnancy outcomes of Acinetobacter baumannii infection using clinicopathologic material from pregnant women, neonates, and perinatal postmortem examinations with positive cultures. Study Design This is a retrospective record review with placental and postmortem examination. Results During a 5-year period, 40 positive cultures were found. Three pregnancies with positive cultures ...
Piratvisuth Teerha - - 2013
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy presents a unique and important challenge. Over 50% of chronic HBV carriers in endemic areas acquire infection vertically from their mothers. More importantly, over 90% of perinatally acquired infections progress to chronic HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and ...
Mutabingwa Theonest K - - 2013
Artemether-lumefantrine is a fixed-dose combination containing 20 mg artemether/120 mg lumefantrine per tablet, used for treating uncomplicated malaria in patients weighing ≥5 kg. It is the first artemisinin-based combination registered in some European countries and in the USA. It is marketed in Europe as Riamet(®) (Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) and in malaria-endemic countries as ...
Yang Rui - - 2013
Some studies suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection could reduce the clinical pregnancy rate and double the spontaneous abortion rate compared with non-infected women after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). But some other studies showed there was no difference between HPV infected and non-infected groups of ART outcomes. The ...
Tsoka-Gwegweni J M JM Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. - - 2013
South Africa has no policy to prevent malaria in pregnancy, despite the adverse effects of the disease in pregnancy. However, malaria control measures consisting of indoor residual spraying and specific antimalarial treatment have been in place since the 1970s. Information on the burden of malaria in pregnancy in South Africa ...
Ouédraogo Smaïla S Unité Mixte de Recherche 216, Mère et Enfant Face aux Infections Tropicales, Paris, France. - - 2013
We investigated the effectiveness of routine preventive measures for anemia in Beninese pregnant women during pregnancy. Anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) was common: 68.3% at first antenatal visit (ANV1), 64.7% at second antenatal visit (ANV2), and 40.6% at delivery. Parasitic infections and nutritional deficiencies were the most preventable causes. After ...
Silva Taciana Mf - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. ...
Armitage Gary C - - 2013
During pregnancy profound perturbations in innate and adaptive immunity impact the clinical course of a number of infectious diseases, including those affecting periodontal tissues. Conversely, it has been suggested that periodontal infections may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this review, a summary of the literature associated with ...
Stewart Robert D - - 2013
A recent outbreak of West Nile virus has allowed for observations as to the clinical course of this emerging pathogen during pregnancy. We present three cases of West Nile virus infection during pregnancy. Case 1 presented at term with focal subjective weakness and fever. With supportive care, her symptoms were ...
Antonelou Marilina - - 2013
A term neonate with a transient form of Behçet's disease (BD) is described. The mother had a 3-year history of BD treated with corticosteroids, which remained in remission during pregnancy. On day 1 of life, the neonate was noted to have papulopustular lesions of the labia and perineum. She remained ...
Lee Seung Mi - - 2013
Much controversy still exists about maternal-to-infant transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, specifically about the magnitude of the risk and the route and timing of such vertical transmission. This prospective cohort study examines the risk of vertical transmission of maternal HPV in each trimester of pregnancy. One hundred fifty three ...
Kashif Awadalla H - - 2013
Diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is a great challenge for clinicians because of the low density of parasites in the peripheral blood and parasite sequestration in the placenta. Nevertheless, few data on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) during pregnancy have been published. P. falciparum infections were ...
Menaca Arantza - - 2013
In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and ...
Hicham Sbai - - 2013
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. It is caused by pathogenic leptospira infection. This infection is also an uncommon cause of hepatorenal failure. Indeed, hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels and low platelet count syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are specific to the pregnant state. Leptospirosis ...
Sappenfield Elisabeth - - 2013
To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, ...
Chintapalli Suryamani - - 2013
The occurrence of fetal death is one of the tragedies that confront the physician providing obstetric care. Among the various agents associated with infections of pregnancy, viruses are the most important followed by bacteria and protozoa. Among protozoal infections in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis is reported to have a high incidence, sometimes ...
Kravetz Jeffrey - - 2013
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is asymptomatic or mild in immunocompetent people and leads to lifelong immunity, but it can have serious consequences in pregnancy. About five per 1000 non-immune pregnant women may acquire toxoplasma infection, with a 10% to 100% risk of transmission to the baby. Risks of transmission to ...
Arinaitwe Emmanuel - - 2013
Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely recommended in sub-Saharan Africa to reduce the risk of malaria and improve birth outcomes. However, there are reports that the efficacy of IPTp with SP is waning, especially in parts of Africa where antimalarial resistance to this drug has ...
Kalilani-Phiri Linda - - 2013
We conducted a clinical study of pregnant women in Blantyre, Malawi to determine the effect of the timing of malaria infection during pregnancy on maternal, infant and placental outcomes. Women were enrolled in their first or second trimester of their first or second pregnancy and followed every four weeks until ...
Owusu-Bempah Atta A Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, P.O. Box KS 1934, Kumasi, - - 2013
Female genital schistosomiasis is a significant risk factor for ectopic pregnancy and infertility in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. A case of one previous ectopic pregnancy and subsequent obstruction of the contralateral tube in a secondary subfertility patient with chronic genital schistosomiasis is presented, emphasizing the need for a detailed history and parasitic ...
Vlahos N F NF 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Aretaieion" Hospital, University of Athens, Vas. Sofias 76, 11528 Athens, - - 2013
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic hereditable disorder of the connective tissue with mainly cardiovascular manifestations, such as aortic dilatation and dissection. We describe a case of a 32-year-old Caucasian woman, clinically asymptomatic with MFS who presented for genetic consultation to prevent the transmission of disease to her offspring. She ...
Chougrani Imène I Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris Diderot University, - - 2013
The dire conditions of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and the immense benefits of antiretroviral prophylaxis in prevention of mother-to-child transmission far outweigh the potential for adverse effects and undeniably justify the rapid and widespread use of this therapy, despite incomplete safety data. Highly active antiretroviral therapy ...
Pricilla Ruby Angeline RA Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, - - 2013
Vesical calculus-complicating pregnancy is rare. This is a case report of a large vesical calculus-complicating pregnancy. The early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management of the large vesical calculus prevented complications like recurrent urinary tract infections and obstructed labor. It enabled the mother to have an uneventful vaginal delivery.
Umbers Alexandra J AJ Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. - - 2013
Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall ...
Walker Patrick G T PG MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK. - - 2013
Plasmodium falciparum placental infection during pregnancy is harmful for both mother and child. Protection from placental infection is parity-dependent, that is, acquired over consecutive pregnancies. However, the infection status of the placenta can only be assessed at delivery. Here, to better understand the mechanism underlying this parity-dependence, we fitted a ...
Takem Ebako Ndip EN Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The - - 2013
Pregnant women have a higher risk of malaria compared to non-pregnant women. This review provides an update on knowledge acquired since 2000 on P. falciparum and P.vivax infections in pregnancy. Maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy (MiP) include low maternal age, low parity, and low gestational age. The main ...
Vigliani Marguerite B MB Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, East Providence, RI 02914-5300, - - 2013
We report a case in which placental abruption occurred at 16 weeks following first trimester diagnosis and treatment for typhoid fever. Unexpectedly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) was found in fetal tissues at autopsy. Using information from the murine model of typhoid fever in pregnancy, we draw parallels between ...
Funkhouser Lisa J LJ Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. - - 2013
The sterile womb paradigm is an enduring premise in biology that human infants are born sterile. Recent studies suggest that infants incorporate an initial microbiome before birth and receive copious supplementation of maternal microbes through birth and breastfeeding. Moreover, evidence for microbial maternal transmission is increasingly widespread across animals. This ...
De Beaudrap Pierre P Epicentre, Paris, France. - - 2013
Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a major public health problem in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and has important consequences on birth outcome. Because MiP is a complex phenomenon and malaria epidemiology is rapidly changing, additional evidence is still required to understand how best to control malaria. This study followed ...
Cantu Jessica - - 2012
Influenza is a common viral infection during pregnancy associated with increased adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Pregnant women represent a unique population with increased risk for influenza morbidity and mortality. Annual immunization is an effective strategy for prevention of influenza. Despite the universal recommendations for influenza vaccination during pregnancy, 50% ...
Karaer Abdullah - - 2012
Objectives To investigate the association between selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the later occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Methods A total of 125 women with ectopic pregnancy and 125 pregnant controls were recruited between January 2003 and February 2005 at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, ...
Khattab A - - 2012
The hallmark of placental malaria (PM) due to Plasmodium falciparum infection is the accumulation of mature-stage parasites, monocytes and macrophages in the maternal vascular bed of the placenta. The mechanisms leading to morbidity and mortality in PM are incompletely understood. However, an inflammatory response in the placenta has been related ...
Morgan Terry K TK Departments of Pathology and Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Mail Code L471, Portland, OR 97239, USA. - - 2013
Pregnancy complications such as intra-amniotic infection, preeclampsia, and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) account for most cases of preterm birth (PTB), but many spontaneous PTB cases do not have a clear etiology. We hypothesize that placental insufficiency may be a potential cause of idiopathic PTB. Secondary analysis of 82 placental ...
Willis Kent - - 2012
Abstract The obesity epidemic is a problem of global importance with a profound impact on maternal-fetal health. Currently, 1 in 5 women, worldwide, are obese at time of conception. Normalizing pregravid weight may significantly reduce obstetrical complications and alter the long-term weight status of mother and child. Bariatric surgery is ...
Yi Wei W Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Ditan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, - - 2012
To evaluate the safety of lamivudine (LAM) treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy. A total of 92 pregnant women who received LAM treatment either before pregnancy or in early pregnancy were enrolled in this study. All of the pregnant women volunteered to take lamivudine during pregnancy and were ...
Ström Holst B - - 2012
Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a widespread infection among dogs that typically get latently infected after exposure and can reactivate the infection after stress. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of latent CHV infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome, and to study if there are signs ...
Beigi Richard H - - 2012
Influenza infection during pregnancy imparts disproportionate morbidity and mortality. This has been primarily noted during occasional influenza pandemics but also during seasonal epidemics. The majority of pregnant women who contract influenza appear to have a mild, self-limited course. However, influenza produces a severe life-threatening respiratory illness among a non-negligible and ...
Vasudeva Akhila - - 2013
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among women admitted to obstetric intensive care units, and it contributes significantly, both directly and indirectly, to maternal deaths. We present a case series of ARDS in pregnant women caused by non-obstetric causes. The women were treated at a tertiary hospital in southern ...
Basra Arti - - 2012
Background. Urogenital schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and routine programs for screening and treatment of pregnant women are not established. Mefloquine - currently evaluated as a potential alternative to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) against malaria in pregnancy - is known to exhibit activity against ...
Atladóttir Hjördis Ósk - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:Results of animal studies suggest that maternal immune activation during pregnancy causes deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. Infectious disease is the most common path to maternal immune activation during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of common infections, febrile episodes, and use of antibiotics reported by ...
Simioni C - - 2012
Abstract Primary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Diagnosis of maternal primary CMV infection and fetal compromise can be difficult, as well as the fact that most infected child are asymptomatic at birth, which makes binomial CMV and pregnancy challenging. The treatment ...
Smith Graeme N - - 2012
Lyme disease results from the bite of a black-legged tick, populations of which have now become established in parts of Nova Scotia, southeastern Quebec, southern Ontario from the Thousand Islands through the geographic regions on the north shore of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, southeastern Manitoba, and British Columbia's Lower ...
Conroy Andrea L - - 2012
Despite increased malaria control efforts, recent reports indicate that over 1.2 million deaths due to malaria occurred in 2010. Pregnant women represent a particularly vulnerable risk group as malaria infection can lead to life-threatening disease for the mother and fetus. With 125 million women at risk of malaria in pregnancy every ...
Nampijja Margaret M Co-infections Studies Programme, MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda. - - 2012
We tested the hypothesis that maternal worm infections in pregnancy affect infant motor and neurocognitive development, and that anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy can reverse these effects. We used measures which examine infant motor, cognitive and executive function, including inhibition. We assessed 983 Ugandan infants aged 15 months, using locally appropriate ...
Rekart Michael L - - 2012
Background. Many countries have witnessed a disturbing increase in Chlamydia trachomatis cases despite enhanced control programs. Since the goal of Chlamydia control is to prevent reproductive complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy, an understanding of recent trends in these conditions is needed to fully evaluate the effect of ...
Polilli Ennio - - 2012
Hyperimmune globulins were reported to prevent and treat fetal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy. Here, we report that infusions of standard human intravenous immunoglobulin significantly increase CMV IgG titers and avidity indexes in pregnant women, paving the way to their use for passive transfer of maternal CMV humoral immunity to ...
Castillo P - - 2012
Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (PfIE) in the capillaries of the central nervous system (CNS) is the pathognomonic feature of cerebral malaria, a condition frequently leading to death. Sequestration of PfIE in the placental intervillous spaces is the characteristic feature of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with low birthweight ...
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