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Labadzhyan Artak A Division of Endocrinology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Thyrotoxicosis presenting during pregnancy is a common clinical problem and can be challenging to differentiate between physiologic patterns of thyroid dysfunction during gestation and intrinsic hyperthyroidism. This review provides a summary of the differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, diagnostic options, potential adverse effects of maternal thyrotoxicosis to the fetus, and treatment ...
Grattan Michael J MJ 1Division of Cardiology,Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry,University of - - 2014
Objectives: This study tested whether mothers with maternal hypothyroidism have increased odds of CHD in their offspring, and examined the relationship between CHD, maternal thyroid function, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Background: Maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk for foetal demise and prematurity and can have a negative impact on ...
Abeillon-du Payrat Juliette J Hospices Civils de LyonLyon, FranceFédération d'EndocrinologieService d'Endocrinologie PédiatriqueService de Médecine NucléaireService de Gynécologie-ObstétriqueService de NéonatalogieService de BiochimieGroupement Hospitalier Est, F-69003 Lyon, FranceService de BiochimieService d'EndocrinologieCentre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69310 Lyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine Lyon-EstUniversité Lyon 1, Lyon, FranceFaculté de PharmacieLyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine et de Maïeutique Lyon Sud - Charles MérieuxLyon, FranceCARMEN INSERM U1060Lyon, FranceINSERM U1052Lyon, FranceService de Biostatistiques162 Avenue Lacassagne, 69003 Lyon, France Hospices Civils de LyonLyon, FranceFédération d'EndocrinologieService d'Endocrinologie PédiatriqueService de Médecine NucléaireService de Gynécologie-ObstétriqueService de NéonatalogieService de BiochimieGroupement Hospitalier Est, F-69003 Lyon, FranceService de BiochimieService d'EndocrinologieCentre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69310 Lyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine Lyon-EstUniversité Lyon 1, Lyon, FranceFaculté de PharmacieLyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine et de Maïeutique Lyon Sud - Charles MérieuxLyon, FranceCARMEN INSERM U1060Lyon, FranceINSERM U1052Lyon, FranceService de Biostatistiques162 Avenue Lacassagne, 69003 Lyon, France Hospices Civils de LyonLyon, FranceFédération d'EndocrinologieService d'Endocrinologie PédiatriqueService de Médecine NucléaireService de Gynécologie-ObstétriqueService de NéonatalogieService de BiochimieGroupement Hospitalier Est, F-69003 Lyon, FranceService de BiochimieService d'EndocrinologieCentre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69310 Lyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine Lyon-EstUniversité Lyon 1, Lyon, FranceFaculté de PharmacieLyon, FranceFaculté de Médecine et de Maïeutique Lyon Sud - Charles MérieuxLyon, FranceCARMEN INSERM U1060Lyon, FranceINSERM U1052Lyon, FranceService de Biostatistiques162 Avenue Lacassagne, 69003 Lyon, France - - 2014
Hyperthyroidism occurs in 1% of neonates born to mothers with active or past Graves' disease (GD). Current guidelines for the management of GD during pregnancy were based on studies conducted with first-generation thyroid-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) assays. This retrospective study was conducted in order to specify the second-generation TBII threshold ...
Delshad Hossein H Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran. - - 2014
Some hormonal and metabolic changes may stimuli normal or neoplastic thyroid cells. Thyroid tumors discovered during pregnancy present unique challenges to both the clinician and the mother. The aim of this article is to compare American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines to Endocrine Society guidelines for management of thyroid tumors during ...
Chen Liang-Miao LM Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 108 Wansong Road, Rui'an, 325200, Zhejiang, - - 2014
We investigated whether thyroid autoantibody status influences pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women, by comparing abnormal pregnancy outcome rates between those who tested positive for thyroid autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and those who tested autoantibody-negative (Ab(-)). Euthyroid pregnant women (n = 7,641) underwent tests for serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). The ...
Chan Shiao S Centre for Women's & Children's Health, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK; Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Birmingham, - - 2014
Normal physiological changes of pregnancy warrant the need to employ gestation specific reference ranges for the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in fetal growth and neurodevelopment which are dependent on adequate supply of maternal thyroid hormones from early gestation onwards. The prevention of significant adverse ...
Truijens Sophie Em - - 2014
The HAPPY study is a large prospective longitudinal cohort study in which pregnant women (N [almost equal to] 2,500) are followed during the entire pregnancy and the whole first year postpartum. The study collects a substantial amount of psychological and physiological data investigating all kinds of determinants that might interfere ...
Hwang Wonjung W Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
Thyroid storm is a critical complication of molar pregnancy. However, early diagnosis of it is difficult because it is a rare complication and usually presents nonspecific findings. In this case report, we present a woman with molar pregnancy who had persistent tachycardia and hypertension. She was diagnosed initially with preeclampsia ...
Jouyandeh Zahra Z Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2014
Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy is associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Early treatment of thyroid disorders can effectively reduce the risk of such complications. The results of different clinical trials have demonstrated that screening pregnant women for thyroid dysfunctions is cost-effective and should be encouraged. However, there is ...
Alikhan Mir M Department of Pathology, Biological Sciences Division, The University of Chicago, 5841S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Although patients with medullary thyroid cancer are known to present with paraneoplastic hormone production, this is much less common with papillary thyroid cancer. We present a patient with the cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid cancer in association with familial adenomatous polyposis who developed a positive pregnancy test in the ...
Medici Marco M The Generation R Study Group (M.M., T.I.M.K., S.S.-T., R.G., V.W.V.J.) and Departments of Internal Medicine (M.M., T.I.M.K., Y.B.d.R., W.E.V., T.J.V., R.P.P.), Epidemiology (R.G., A.H., V.W.V.J.), and Immunology (H.H.), Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology (S.S.-T., W.V., E.A.P.S.), Pediatrics (R.G., S.M.P.F.d.M.K.-S., J.J.B.-S., H.T., V.W.V.J.), Clinical Chemistry (Y.B.d.R.), and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (H.T.), Erasmus Medical Center, Sophia Children's Hospital, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Context: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are associated with a wide range of maternal and fetal complications, and only a few risk factors are known for the development of these disorders during pregnancy. Conflicting and limited data are available on the relationship between thyroid (dys)function and the risk of hypertensive disorders ...
Gentile Salvatore S Mental Health Center Cava de' Tirreni-Vietri sul Mare- ASL Salerno , Italy +39 089 4455439 ; +39 089 4455440 ; - - 2014
Introduction: Aripiprazole (ARI) is a second-generation antipsychotic acting as a dopamine-serotonin system stabilizer and partial agonist at D2 receptors. The drug is indicated in several and severe psychiatric disorders which are particularly frequent in women during the childbearing age. Area covered: A systematic review of studies investigating the reproductive safety ...
Varsier N N Orange, Issy les Moulineaux, France. WHIST Joint Laboratory between Institut Mines-Telecom and Orange, - - 2014
This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the ...
Dukes Kimberly A KA DM-STAT, Inc., Malden, - - 2014
The Safe Passage Study is a large, prospective, multidisciplinary study designed to (1) investigate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and stillbirth, and (2) determine the biological basis of the spectrum of phenotypic outcomes from exposure, as modified by environmental and genetic factors that increase ...
Hermansen Tone Kristine TK a The Cognitive Developmental Research Unit, Department of Psychology , University of Oslo , Oslo , - - 2014
The aim of this review is to integrate research on the pharmacological mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the following effects on fetal brain development and child cognitive function seen in children with prenatal exposure to SSRIs. As antidepressants are transferred from the mother to the fetus through ...
Olivier Jocelien D A JD Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Gender Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Behavioral Physiology, Center for Behavior and Neurosciences, University Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
During pregnancy the risk for a woman to develop a depressive episode is as high as 20%. Antenatal depression is not harmless for the developing child as several changes, including neurodevelopmental alterations, have been reported. Sometimes it is unavoidable to treat a pregnant mother with antidepressants, especially when she is ...
Luo Mei-Ling ML School of Public Health, Central South University , Changsha , China - - 2014
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the main substances contained in fireworks. Previous studies suggested that CO may have protective effect on the development of hypertension of pregnancy. Method: The authors conducted a prospective cohort study in Liuyang, Hunan, China between January 2010 and December 2011. Demographic and life-style ...
Kirkan Tulay Sati TS Department of Psychiatry, Bolge Treatment and Research Hospital, Erzurum, - - 2014
This was a follow-up study to determine postpartum depression (PPD) and its causes in a population previously evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study sample consisted of pregnant women who were evaluated in the first trimester and 360 women who were re-evaluated in the postpartum period. Detailed sociodemographic ...
Shah Syed Ghulam Sarwar SG School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel - - 2014
Objectives: To review empirical research on adverse health and pregnancy outcomes associated with physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) from shortwave (SWD) and microwave (MWD) diathermy devices. Methods: A systematic review of peer reviewed literature published from 1990 to 2010 in the English language searched in eight ...
Taylor Peter N PN Thyroid Research Group, Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, - - 2014
Objective: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with impaired cognitive development. Perchlorate decreases thyroidal iodine uptake, potentially reducing thyroid hormone production. It is unclear whether perchlorate exposure in early life affects neurodevelopment. Design: Historical cohort analysis. Patients: During 2002-2006, 21,846 women at gestational age <16 weeks recruited from antenatal clinics in Cardiff, ...
Zhao Fei F 501 DW Brooks Dr., Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine; Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exposure timing could play an important role in the effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) on early pregnancy. This study examined the sensitivity of different exposure periods from weaning to gestation day 4.5 (D4.5) to 50 ppb diethylstilbestrol (DES, a test EEDC) diet on embryo implantation and potential recovery ...
Xie Chuanbo C Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA ...
Zheng Guanchao G State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, - - 2014
To better understand the relationship between prenatal exposure to heavy metals and trace elements and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, we investigated the status of heavy metals and trace elements level in a Chinese population by collecting umbilical cord blood. Umbilical cord blood heavy metals and trace elements concentrations ...
Fauchet Floris F EA 3620 Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France; Unité de Recherche Clinique, AP-HP, Hôpital Tarnier, Paris, - - 2014
The main goal of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of maternal zidovudine (ZDV) administrations during pregnancy and labor and to evaluate its impact on fetal concentrations and exposures. A total of 195 HIV-infected pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 16-59 years were included, 273 maternal and 79 cord blood ...
Zhao Yan Y School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2014
BACKGROUND:No study has examined the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR). This study aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to phthalates was associated with increased risk of IUGR.METHODS:A total of 126 mother-newborn pairs, including 42 IUGR cases and 84 control newborns and their mothers, were enrolled ...
Wollenhaupt Martina M Pharmaceutical Development Safety and Risk Management, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, - - 2014
Influenza infection places pregnant women at greater risk of morbidity and hospitalization. The use of oseltamivir to treat influenza increased markedly in all population groups during the A/H1N1pdm09 pandemic, including pregnant women. Given this increase in exposure, a reassessment of the safety of oseltamivir in pregnancy was conducted. The Roche ...
Feng Jianghua J Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were ...
Poon Shirley - - 2014
I have a patient recently confirmed to be 6 weeks pregnant. For the past 6 months she has been treated for an opioid addiction with buprenorphine-naloxone combination. Should I be concerned about her exposure to this drug combination up to this point of the pregnancy? Should I switch her medication ...
Mandelbrot Laurent L Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Louis Mourier, Service de Gynécologie-Obstetrique, Colombes, France Université Paris-Diderot, Paris, France - - 2014
Placental transfer of the HIV protease inhibitor darunavir was investigated in 5 term human cotyledons perfused with darunavir (1000 ng/ml) in the maternal-fetal direction. The mean fetal transfer rate (FTR) (fetal/maternal concentration at steady state from 30 to 90 min) was 15.0% ± 2.1% and clearance index (darunavir FTR/antipyrine FTR) ...
Pycke Benny - - 2014
Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use ...
Sinclair Susan S University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA; INC Research LLC, Wilmington, NC, - - 2014
The International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry monitored for a signal of a substantial increase in the frequency of major congenital malformations associated with lamotrigine exposures in pregnancy over an 18-year period. Key methodological lessons are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the Registry were assessed using quantifiable methodological and operational parameters ...
Subramanian Kaviarasan K Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy results in an array of structural and functional abnormalities called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol dysregulates the exquisite coordination and regulation of gestational adaptations at the level of the uterine vasculature. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge-like alcohol results in uterine vascular dysfunction and impairs ...
Zhao Fei F Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine; Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program; University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2014
This study investigated potential cumulative effects of multiple pregnancy and multigenerational exposure to dietary ZEA (0, 0.8, 4, or 20ppm) on female puberty and reproduction in C57BL/6J mice. Multiple pregnancies did not significantly affect litter size or offspring puberty. Significant effects were observed in 20ppm ZEA-treated females: advanced puberty onset ...
Shelton Janie F JF Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, - - 2014
Gestational exposure to several common agricultural pesticides can induce developmental neurotoxicity in humans, and has been associated with developmental delay and autism. To evaluate whether residential proximity to agricultural pesticides during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or developmental delay (DD) in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics ...
Dougan M M MM Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, - - 2014
Background/Objectives:In animal studies, exposure to multi-vitamins may be associated with obesity in the offspring; however, data in humans is sparse. We therefore examined the association between prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity.Subjects/Methods:We investigated the association between prenatal vitamin intake and obesity among 29 160 mother-daughter dyads in the ...
Hu Xiaona X Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of - - 2014
Because of increased total red blood cell mass and the demands of the fetus, iron requirements are greater during pregnancy than at most other times. Previous experiments in nonpregnant women have shown that iron deficiency (ID) can reduce circulating thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels; therefore, we hypothesized that ID before pregnancy ...
Corbel T T INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse, France; Université de Toulouse, INPT, ENVT, EIP, UPS, F-31076 Toulouse, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The widespread human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor interfering with developmental processes, raises the question of the risk for human health of BPA fetal exposure. In humans, highly variable BPA concentrations have been reported in the feto-placental compartment. However the human fetal exposure to BPA still remains ...
Ferguson Kelly K KK Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, United - - 2014
Preterm birth is a significant public health problem, affecting over 1 in 10 live births and contributing largely to infant mortality and morbidity. Everyday exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates could contribute to prematurity, and may be modifiable. In the present study we examine variability in phthalate exposure across ...
Hewitt Amy J AJ Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L - - 2014
Maternal-fetal signaling is critical for optimal fetal development and postnatal outcomes. Chronic ethanol exposure alters programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in a myriad of neurochemical and behavioral alterations in postnatal life. Based on a recent study which showed that human intra-partum fetal stress increased fetal secretion of ...
Zhang Tao T School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingang West Street, Guangzhou 510275, China. - - 2014
In this study, we estimated the body burden (BB) of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a fetus at the time of delivery, and elimination of PFASs in female adults during pregnancy; and explored the isomer branching pattern-related placental transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The mean BB of PFASs were 3980 ng ...
Mozurkewich Ellen L EL Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, MSC 10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Buprenorphine and methadone are opioid-receptor agonists used as opioid substitution therapy during pregnancy to limit exposure of the fetus to cycles of opioid withdrawal and reduce the risk of infectious comorbidities of illicit opioid use. As part of a comprehensive care plan, such therapy may result in improved access to ...
Holbrook Bradley D BD Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, MSC10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed ...
Meyer Marjorie M Fletcher Allen Health Care and the University of Vermont, 111 Colchester Avenue, Burlington, VT 05401, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Chronic opioid therapy during pregnancy is perilous, but not simply because of neonatal effects: it is perilous because women are at particular risk for misprescription, misuse, dependence, overdose, and death. Opioids may be teratogens and should be avoided in the periconception period. Accidental childhood poisoning and purposeful teen experimentation are ...
Gray Bobbe Ann - - 2014
Psychoactive bath salts (PABS) comprise a group of highly dangerous designer drugs showing a sharp escalation in reported U.S. exposures from 2010 through 2012, following rapid spread of the drug in Europe. Since a federal ban on the major ingredients in October 2011, numbers have declined. However, evidence from the ...
Lim H H University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, - - 2014
Results of previous studies of occupational exposure to ionising radiation (IR) and birth defects are inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association between maternal and paternal occupational exposure to ionising radiation (IR) and birth defects using a larger sample than previous studies. We studied 27 809 case mothers and ...
Strain Jj J Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, - - 2014
This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation's Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and ...
Hutton Jill J Houston, Texas, USA; The Woman's Hospital of Texas. Electronic address: - - 2014
While it is commonly accepted that rubella is well-controlled, a recent reemergence of both pertussis and measles might also predict a reemergence of rubella. This study was designed to estimate the current incidence of rubella exposure in pregnancy. This was a prospective, descriptive study, conducted in Houston, Texas, at The ...
Rappazzo Kristen M KM Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
Particulate matter < 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB). We classified preterm births into four categories (20-27, 28-31, 32-34, and 35-36 weeks completed gestation) and estimated risk differences (RD) for each category in association with a 1-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure during ...
Moisiadis Vasilis G VG Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, - - 2014
The lifelong health of an individual is shaped during critical periods of development. The fetus is particularly susceptible to internal and external stimuli, many of which can alter developmental trajectories and subsequent susceptibility to disease. Glucocorticoids are critical in normal development of the fetus, as they are involved in the ...
Kahn Linda G LG Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, - - 2014
Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants ...
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