Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 698
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Noso T - - 1992
Two molecular forms of prolactin (PRL), glycosylated and non-glycosylated, were isolated from pituitary glands of two reptiles, alligator and crocodile. The reptilian PRLs were extracted under alkaline conditions from the precipitate obtained after pituitaries were first extracted with 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM NH4HCO3, pH 6.3. Purification was performed by ...
Reusch J E - - 1992
Lymphocytic hypophysitis (adenohypophysitis) is a rare lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland that usually occurs during pregnancy. Because of its rarity, it has seldom been diagnosed preoperatively, and no trials of therapeutic treatment have been reported to date. We describe a 29-year-old woman with a pituitary mass and visual-field defects ...
Haan E A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To present the first reported Australian case of prenatal treatment of a female fetus with congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. CLINICAL FEATURES: A couple whose son had congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency sought prenatal diagnosis and treatment in their next pregnancy. INTERVENTION: Maternal treatment with ...
deCatanzaro D - - 1992
Evidence scattered over the literatures of zoology, psychology, agricultural science, and medicine indicates that diverse stressors will interfere with pregnancy in its early stages. It is probable that the most sensitive period is around the point of intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova. Although there is some indication that conventional "stress" ...
Sandyk R - - 1992
Clinical, epidemiological, biochemical, immunological, and radiological studies suggest that the pineal gland may be implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The following communication is concerned with the association among MS, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and melatonin secretion and illustrates, based on a clinical case report, the influence of ...
Hagan P - - 1992
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Concentrations of CRF in the peripheral circulation are normally low, and increase during pregnancy due to CRF secretion by the placenta [Cunnah, Jessop, Besser & Rees (1987) J. Endocrinol. 113, 123-131], although CRF in maternal blood does not appear to ...
Buescher M A - - 1992
The occurrence of pregnancy in the face of untreated Cushing syndrome is rare because of the high incidence of ovulatory disturbances experienced by patients with the disorder. A total of 58 patients with 65 pregnancies has been reported in the literature to date. Although pituitary-dependent adrenal hyperplasia is the most ...
Jones C T - - 1992
Enkephalin-containing peptides have been followed in the circulation of fetal sheep between 118-143 days gestation. Using a combination of radioimmunoassay and hplc met5-enkephalin was found in the concentration range 60-500 pg/ml and proenkephalins containing met5-enkephalin had a concentration of 150-4000 pg/ml. The concentration of both increased towards term. The sources ...
Elster A D - - 1991
Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 38 pregnant and postpartum women and 30 nonpregnant age-matched control subjects to establish standards for pituitary gland size and shape during this period. Gland height and infundibulum width were measured on midline T1-weighted sagittal images. Gland convexity or concavity was graded qualitatively. ...
Phocas I - - 1991
A successful pregnancy of a young woman with late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH) is reported. Exogenous glucocorticoids are the most commonly used regimen in such cases both for suppression of adrenal overstimulation and avoiding masculinization of a female fetus. In our LOCAH patient methylprednisolone has been used for treatment. We ...
McDonald T J - - 1991
At present the origin of the signal(s) to initiate parturition remains unknown. Experimental studies in sheep have shown that interruption of the fetal hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal axis will prolong gestation but no studies have shown prolongation of gestation after destruction of fetal neural structures. In this study we placed bilateral lesions of ...
McConnon J K - - 1991
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is in itself rare and usually occurs in the postpartum period or the last trimester of pregnancy. It has not been described in combination with a pituitary tumor. A twenty-two year old woman, who had never been pregnant, presented with a history of nine months amenorrhea and spontaneous ...
Graves T K - - 1991
A Holstein fetus was delivered by Caesarean section at a gestational age of 441 days. The pituitary pars distalis was aplastic and the adrenal and thyroid glands were severely hypoplastic. Arrested or retarded cartilage cell maturation resulted in absence or minimal development of epiphyseal ossification centers, delayed ossification of carpal ...
Bitton R N - - 1991
A 27-year-old woman presented to our institution in her seventh month of pregnancy with complaints of headache and visual field disturbance. Workup revealed bitemporal hemianopia, a markedly enlarged pituitary gland on computed tomography scan, and biochemical evidence of partial hypopituitarism. At surgery, a biopsy specimen of the pituitary gland was ...
Feigenbaum S L - - 1991
Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis is a nonneoplastic, autoimmune cause of pituitary enlargement and insufficiency. Forty-eight of the 50 reported cases have occurred in women, nearly all in association with pregnancy. Left undiagnosed and untreated, it can progress to pituitary insufficiency and death. Histologic studies show characteristic changes of autoimmune disease with lymphocytic ...
Jacobs R A - - 1991
Parturition in sheep is initiated by the fetus through activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is associated with increased concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in the fetal circulation during the final 10-15 days of pregnancy. Premature parturition and a precocious elevation in fetal plasma CBG are ...
Stelmach M - - 1991
A young woman presented in the third trimester of pregnancy with a rapid onset of bitemporal hemianopia and reduced visual acuity caused by an unusual steroid responsive suprasellar tumor. A computerized tomography scan revealed a 2-cm suprasellar mass which was thought to be a tuberculum sellae meningioma. Surgery was delayed ...
Coulter C L - - 1991
We have investigated the effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) replacement after fetal hypophysectomy on the pattern of localization of enkephalin-containing peptides (enkephalins) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the fetal sheep adrenal. We have also investigated the relative roles of the fetal pituitary and adrenal cortex in determining the extent of ...
Smith R - - 1991
Plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and corticotrophin releasing hormone or factor (CRF) all rise progressively as pregnancy advances, and fall postnatally. The placenta produces large amounts of CRF in the third trimester and this is released into the maternal circulation. Present evidence suggests that it stimulates the maternal pituitary ...
Thorburn G D - - 1991
It is proposed that in sheep, during the last third of gestation, a progressive increase in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by the fetal trophoblast activates the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to an increase in fetal cortisol concentrations. High cortisol levels increase placental 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity causing a decrease ...
Guédeney X - - 1991
Digoxin-like inhibitors of Na+,K(+)-ATPase have been implicated in several pathophysiological problems in the perinatal period. Aqueous endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) was extracted from 9 different organs of a 24-week-old human fetus whose mother died after paraquat poisoning. The results indicate that this endogenous DLIS has a wide distribution in ...
Owiny J R - - 1991
Few in vivo studies have been done to characterize the effects of cocaine on the maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy. We, therefore, administered cocaine (2 mg.kg-1) intravenously to 6 fetal sheep at 127-138 days of gestation. There was a transient reduction in fetal arterial pO2 with a concomitant ...
Otani S - - 1991
A hyperprolactinemic infertile woman with a pituitary microadenoma, who was resistant to bromocriptine as a method of bringing on pregnancy, succeeded in having a normal pregnancy and delivery with Hachimi-jio-gan treatment. This paper reports that the patient did not succeed in pregnancy in spite of 16 months of bromocriptine treatment, ...
Da Motta L A - - 1991
A case of patient with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenal adenoma who conceived twice in the course of the disease is described. Pregnancy is known to be rare in these patients. When first seen she had some manifestations of Cushing's syndrome, but follow-up was lost prior to complete investigation. ...
Pricolo V E - - 1990
This report discusses our experience with two patients who had unilateral adrenalectomy during pregnancy as treatment for Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenal adenoma. Previously only five patients with this clinical problem who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy during pregnancy had been reported. We have reviewed the world literature on Cushing's syndrome ...
Myers D A - - 1990
The effect of bilateral splanchnic nerve (SPLX) section in fetal sheep [116-121 days gestational age (dGA)] on subsequent adrenocortical function was investigated. Fetal cortisol release was stimulated by 1) ACTH-(1-24) administration (100 ng/min for 15 min) at 126-129 and at 132-135 dGA, and 2) nitroprusside-induced hypotension (50% reduction in fetal ...
Beckers A - - 1990
It is now well established that during the second half of normal pregnancy, the human placenta secretes its specific GH variant (placental GH) in increasing amounts up to delivery. During the same period, pituitary GH secretion is progressively suppressed. The present study was aimed at clarifying the physiology of GH ...
Huhtaniemi I T - - 1990
The different compartments of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and gonads, probably start their embryonic development independently, and become fully interactive as the last link o f their maturation. The developing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis offers a good model for studies on the mechanisms of regulation of fetal hormonal ...
Yap A S - - 1990
We report a case of acromegaly diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. Bromocriptine (7.5 mg per day) corrected visual field defects and suppressed prolactin secretion but did not reduce fasting growth hormone levels. We propose that suppression of physiologic lactotroph hyperplasia by bromocriptine may permit noninvasive management of pituitary ...
de Aragao A H - - 1990
The growth of the adrenal gland was studied in 60 brazilian fetuses (12-37 weeks post-conception). The right adrenal gland was quantitatively evaluated; its weight, length and thickness were correlated to the fetal body weight, to the Crown-Pump length and to the gestational age by the allometric method (LogY = kLogX ...
Droste S - - 1990
Bilateral renal agenesis is a fetal malformation incompatible with extrauterine life. Accurate prenatal diagnosis is essential for patient counseling. False-negative diagnoses have been reported and were attributed to the sonographic misidentification of apparently hypertrophied fetal adrenal glands as fetal kidneys. To study the relationship between renal agenesis and adrenal size, ...
Coulter C L - - 1990
We have measured the content of enkephalin-containing peptides (ENK-containing peptides) in adrenal gland extracts from fetal sheep between 68-142 days gestation and from adult sheep. We investigated whether there are changes in the post-translational processing of ENK-containing peptides in the fetal sheep adrenal gland with increasing gestational age. ENK-containing peptides ...
Anapliotou M G - - 1990
Adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation (1 mg, i.m.) was assessed by measuring cortisol (Cort) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) at 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes and progesterone (P), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), delta 4-androstenedione (delta 4A), and testosterone (T) at 0, 60, and 90 minutes post-ACTH in 30 women with ...
Davis J R - - 1990
This brief review has attempted to portray the complex involvement of prolactin in pregnancy. Pituitary prolactin production and lactotroph proliferation are markedly affected by oestrogens and pregnancy. Enlargement of pre-existing prolactinomas may occur during pregnancy induced with dopamine agonist drugs, and this can be a major clinical problem with larger ...
Albrecht E D - - 1990
We have reported that ACTH stimulation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) formation by the baboon fetal adrenal at midgestation was suppressed by estrogen. Because fetal adrenal regulation changes with advancing gestation, the action of estrogen on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis may also be dependent on the degree of fetal adrenal maturation. We examined ...
Yamada M - - 1990
The relationship between spontaneous pregnancy of hyperprolactinemic patients after a first pregnancy induced by treatment and their serum prolactin levels was examined. Of the 100 patients with hyperprolactinemia studied, 74 became pregnant after treatment; namely, 20 transsphenoidal adenomoidectomy for pituitary prolactinoma (group 1), 26 on treatment with bromocriptine for pituitary ...
Burton P B - - 1990
Using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the first 34 amino acids of human parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), we have localized PTHrP throughout the uro-genital tract of the human fetus aged between 8 and 40 weeks. Staining was present in the developing mesonephros, metanephros, gonads and in both the adrenal cortex ...
Pickard J - - 1990
Fertility and childbearing rarely occur in Cushing's syndrome because amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, infertility, and abortions characterize the disease. Currently, a total of 53 cases of Cushing's syndrome and pregnancy have been reported. When Cushing's syndrome occurs during pregnancy, approximately 56 per cent of the cases are associated with adrenal cortical adenoma ...
Pepe G J - - 1990
Significant advances in our understanding of the regulation of fetal adrenal growth, differentiation, and steroidogenesis have been made in the past several years. In vitro studies employing molecular biological techniques have demonstrated that the placenta and several fetal tissues synthesize growth factors and/or oncogene-related products, which have the capacity to ...
Nader S - - 1990
In conclusion, the physiologic changes that occur in the pituitary during pregnancy make women harboring pituitary tumors more vulnerable to tumor complications, namely tumor expansion resulting in either visual defects or hormone deficiencies. Fortunately, vast experience with the most common of these tumors (prolactinomas) allows us to make specific recommendations ...
Loeuille G A - - 1990
A mother at risk for 21-hydroxylase deficiency was treated with oral dexamethasone (0.5 mg 12 hourly) from early pregnancy, in an attempt to prevent in utero virilization in case of a female fetus. Fetal karyotype was 46,XX, and because of a possible intra HLA recombination, treatment was continued to term. ...
Seron-Ferre M - - 1990
The rhesus monkey fetal adrenal secretion of mineralocorticoids was studied in vitro. Superfusion of fetal adrenal minces (n = 6) demonstrated that the fetal adrenal secretes aldosterone as well as desoxycorticosterone, 18 hydroxydesoxy corticosterone, and 18 hydroxycorticosterone. Addition of 250 ng/ml ACTH to the superfusion medium did not result in ...
Antolovich G C - - 1990
In this study we have applied the technique of hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection (HPD) to the fetal sheep at 108-112 days of gestation. The pituitary is surgically disconnected from the hypothalamus by the removal of the neural component of the median eminence above the level of the portal circulation. This procedure results ...
Gaillard D A - - 1990
Four hundred and fifty pairs of adrenals were studied from human fetuses ranging in age from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation (menstrual age). They were collected from spontaneous and medical abortions. The adrenal weight increased from 0.2 to 1.5 g during the second trimester. The left adrenal was significantly ...
Yang K - - 1990
The concentrations of ACTH and cortisol both rise in the plasma of fetal lambs during late pregnancy, reflecting maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and providing the stimulus for parturition. The failure of rising cortisol to suppress plasma ACTH may be due to altered sensitivity of glucocorticoid negative feedback. To ...
Miller C J - - 1990
This study describes the morphology of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) adrenal gland in the perinatal period. Adrenals of fetal monkeys had a broad central zone of large eosinophilic cells (fetal zone) surrounded by a subcapsular band of small dark cells (definitive zone). Adrenals of stillborn and neonatal monkeys had ...
Nowak M - - 1990
Pregnancy in hamsters evoked a prompt increase in adrenal weight, with the highest value at day 5 and a subsequent fall toward the end of gestation. The surface densities of mitochondrial cristae and smooth endoplasmic reticulum did not display significant changes in the course of gestation, while 11 beta-hydroxylase and ...
Boshier D P - - 1989
This, the first linear morphometric analysis of the epigenesis of the fetal mammalian adrenal cortex, has shown that in the fetal sheep during the latter two thirds of gestation and in the newborn lamb, there are two periods of rapid growth separated by a period of much reduced growth. The ...
Sasaki A - - 1989
To clarify the physiological role of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we measured plasma CRH, ACTH, and cortisol throughout pregnancy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH levels and ACTH responsiveness to synthetic CRH were also quantified in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Maternal plasma CRH levels, which increased progressively during pregnancy, correlated well with ...
Chan-Cua S - - 1989
We report on two genotypic females with complete masculinization of the external genitalia secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. One patient had the salt-losing variant, and the other had the simple virilizing or nonsalt-losing variant. One was evaluated neonatally during an adrenal crisis and misidentified as male; ...
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