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Results 351 - 400 of 705
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Illés A - - 1996
The authors report a case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast presenting during pregnancy in a 24-year-old woman. After the delivery of a healthy premature infant by Caesarean section, polychemotherapy was employed. The efficacy of the treatment could not be evaluated since the patient died within a very ...
Yoshizaki T - - 1996
The treatment of sialolithiasis is discussed in this report. Generally, stones within the distal salivary duct are easily removed by transoral ductotomy, although proximal stones are usually treated by excision of the salivary gland and its duct. Since 1980, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been in clinical use for ...
Saoud C J - - 1996
In sheep, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Increased hypothalamic secretion of these peptides at the end of gestation initiates parturition in this species. We hypothesized that CRF and/or AVP content in the fetal hypothalamus increases late in gestation and that this content was ...
Bakker J M - - 1995
The effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on the mature immune and neuroendocrine system are known to be reversible. However, prenatal GC exposure may have irreversible consequences on the development of the newborn. In this study, possible long-lasting effects of short-term prenatal GC treatment were examined on the developing thymus, spleen ...
Christie A E - - 1995
The crustacean stomatogastric ganglion, which is situated in the ophthalmic artery, can be modulated by both intrinsically released molecules and hormones. In the crab Cancer borealis, over a dozen neuroactive compounds have been identified in the input axons that project into the stomatogastric neuropil. However, little is known about the ...
Van Rijswijk A W - - 1995
The absolute and relative adrenal mass as well as histological sections of the adrenals of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) (n = 76; 36 ewes and 39 rams) were studied over a period of 12 months. No significant difference was found in the absolute mass of the adrenals of rams and ewes. ...
Pepe G J - - 1995
It is clear that steroid hormones of placental and fetal adrenal origin have critically important roles in regulating key physiological events essential to the maintenance of pregnancy and development of the fetus for extrauterine life. Thus, progesterone has suppressive actions on lymphocyte proliferation and activity and on the immune system ...
Baron F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas are rare, especially during pregnancy. We report a patient who presented in the early second trimester, was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism, and was treated successfully by adrenalectomy. CASE: A 17-year-old black nulliparous woman was found to have a blood pressure (BP) of 150/82 mmHg when she ...
Kjaer I - - 1995
The normal prenatal development of the human pituitary gland and the gland-supporting sella turcica has recently been investigated. The sella turcica area constitutes a developmental boundary area in the cranial base. Posterior to the area the cranial base has developed close to the notochord, and anterior to the region the ...
Patel M C - - 1995
The classical cause of postpartum hypopituitarism is Sheehan's syndrome, in which an obstetric catastrophe is associated with hypotension. However, with improvements in obstetric care, the most common cause now may be lymphocytic hypophysitis. Five women with postpartum hypopituitarism, whose symptoms occurred during or immediately after pregnancy, had detailed endocrine and ...
McDonald M A - - 1995
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is one of the rare causes of hypopituitarism and intrasellar mass observed almost exclusively in women. A temporal relationship to pregnancy has been identified in many but not all of the 34 reported cases. Intra-operative differentiation from non-secretory macroadenoma is important, as resection of the anterior lobe is ...
Jönsson J - - 1995
The transplacental transfer, irreversible binding, and ultrastructural lesions in the fetal adrenal cortex were studied following single injections of the persistent DDT-metabolite 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE (MeSO2-DDE) in pregnant C57B1 mice. Tape-section autoradiograms of fetuses on gestation days 12 to 17 revealed a high and tissue-specific accumulation of MeSO2-DDE-14C-derived radioactivity in the fetal ...
Hadden D R - - 1995
In normal pregnancy, the maternal adrenal gland adapts to the physiologic changes necessary to sustain gestation. These changes protect the fetus and the mother, allowing for increased shunting of nutrients to the fetus and protection of immunologic rejection. The adrenal disorders pertinent to pregnancy include overactive and underactive secretion of ...
Prager D - - 1995
A number of morphologic and physiologic changes accompany pregnancy such as an increase in lactotrophs and prolactin production, and a decrease in gonadotropins and GH. The hormonal milieu can affect patients with prolactinomas, especially macroadenomas, to cause an increase in size in a minority of patients. Complications are treated with ...
Han X - - 1995
An increase in fetal adrenal cortisol output signals the onset of parturition in many animal species but, in the fetal horse, plasma concentrations of cortisol remain low for much of late pregnancy, with a rise occurring only very close to the time of birth (term 320-360 days). Immunohistochemistry was used ...
Wu S S - - 1995
Parturition in primates is hypothesized to be precipitated by aromatization of fetal adrenal androgens to estrogens in the placenta. We immunocytochemically localized androgen receptor (AR) in the hypothalamus and pituitary of late gestation fetal baboons. AR immunostaining was: strongest in lateral hypothalamic, arcuate, lateral mammillary, supra-mammillary and paraventricular (small neuronal ...
Muglia L - - 1995
The body responds to stress by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid production in the adult regulates carbohydrate and amino-acid metabolism, maintains blood pressure, and restrains the inflammatory response. In the fetus, exogenous glucocorticoids accelerate maturation of lung and gastrointestinal enzyme systems and promote hepatic ...
Wintour E M - - 1995
It is now known that in some species (sheep, cow, pig, llama) the fetal adrenal cortex is capable of secreting cortisol both early and late in gestation, but not during some, variable, intermediate time period. In the sheep the fetal adrenal can secrete cortisol, and respond quickly to ACTH, both ...
Jenkin G - - 1995
Initial studies on inhibin, activin and follistatin focussed on their role as regulators of adult gonadal function via feedback regulation of anterior pituitary hormones and via intragonadal control of steroid hormones. The discovery of isoforms of follistatin which are either secreted or retained on the cell surface and which bind ...
McMillen I C - - 1995
It is clear that the timing of parturition is dependent on a cascade of endocrine signals from an intact fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. What is not known, however is the nature or source of the central neural stimulation which results in the stimulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) synthesis and secretion in ...
Brooks A N - - 1995
Adult reproductive ability is to a large extent determined by the appropriate development of the reproductive axis during fetal life. Studies have investigated the role of the fetal hypothalamus in the ontogeny and regulation of pituitary gonadal function during fetal development in sheep. Using immunocytochemistry, we examined the ontogeny of ...
Saenger P - - 1995
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is a rare genetic disorder of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis of unknown cause in which cholesterol cannot be converted to pregnenolone. As a result, affected individuals can make no steroid hormones, so that all affected newborns are phenotypic females, irrespective of karyotype. We studied ...
Pepe G J - - 1994
We have proposed that estrogen, via regulation of placental metabolism of maternal cortisol, regulates the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the timing of the onset of de novo cortisol production. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated that the ontogenesis of fetal adrenal steroidogenic enzymes near term could be induced ...
Hasegawa Y - - 1994
The presence of hypopituitarism and invisible pituitary stalk on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) is commonly attributed to birth trauma. Two patients with severe hypopituitarism and invisible pituitary stalk are presented. One was born by breech delivery, the other by Cesarean section. The presence of a micropenis since early infancy ...
Kupersmith M J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential risk for developing visual loss during single or multiple pregnancies in women with pituitary adenomas. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Referral center of a neuro-ophthalmology service. PATIENTS: 65 consecutive women with pituitary adenomas who had not been previously treated with surgery or radiation were monitored during ...
Speiser P W - - 1994
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of a few inherited disorders that can be managed by administering medication to the fetus via oral maternal administration. Dexamethasone given in the first trimester ameliorates genital ambiguity in the affected female fetus. Mother and fetus should be monitored during and after pregnancy for treatment-related ...
Weinreb H J - - 1994
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has no significant effect on fertility, conception, fetal viability, and delivery. Exacerbations of MS decrease during pregnancy and increase significantly during the 3 months postpartum. Pregnancy does not increase the risk of brain tumors, but physiologic changes induced by pregnancy affect the diagnosis and biologic behavior of ...
Tangalakis K - - 1994
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ACTH from the fetal pituitary is a major regulator of adrenocortical steroid hydroxylase gene expression in the ovine fetus at 0.4 (60-70 days) of gestation. Pregnant ewes at 0.4 gestation received intravenous infusions of dexamethasone (0.76 mg/h, n = 13) for ...
Speiser P W PW Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY - - 1994
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is associated with hormonal imbalance which predisposes affected females to prenatal development of genital ambiguity. Because the disease is usually not lethal and can be treated with glucocorticoids, affected pregnancies are seldom terminated. Dexamethasone can be administered to the pregnant mother and ...
Arora R - - 1994
The model of unilateral ovariectomy induced ovarian compensatory hypertrophy in mated bilaterally adrenalectomized rats was used to assess the role of adrenal in conceptus development. Replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) or corticosterone (Comp. B) from day 2-14 post coitum was given with or without ip injections of estrogen (E, on ...
Young I R - - 1994
The major source of PGE2 in ovine pregnancy is the placenta, with secretion occurring bidirectionally into fetal and maternal circulations. The placental output of PGE2 appears to increase when demand on placental function is increased, suggesting that the normally observed increase in its concentration towards term is driven by the ...
de Gandarias J M - - 1994
Lys-aminopeptidase activity levels during the estrous cycle (estrous and proestrous, in the morning and afternoon) and the pregnancy (2nd, 7th, 14th and 20th day postinsemination and the parturition day), in several areas of the rat brain, were studied in this research. The selected brain regions were the frontal, parietal and ...
Conley A J - - 1994
This study examined fetal steroidogenic enzyme expression and function during pregnancy in the pig. Northern and Western analyses were performed to detect the cytochrome P450 enzyme 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase (P450c17) and that for cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), as well as 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) expression in several porcine fetal ...
White F A - - 1994
Functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma occurring concurrently with pregnancy is rare. Only four cases have been reported previously in the world literature. Here I discuss two additional cases of functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma in pregnancy. Both patients died of the illness. Despite the use of surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis remains ...
Bronshtein M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compile normative data of fetal adrenal gland measurements between 12 and 17 weeks' gestation with transvaginal ultrasonography. STUDY DESIGN: Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal adrenal length and adrenal-to-kidney length ratio calculations were performed on 100 normal fetuses at 12 to 17 weeks' gestation. The ...
Mesiano S - - 1993
We examined the in situ localization of key steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal gland sections from midgestation (17-24 weeks) human fetuses and late gestation (130-142 days; term = 165 days) rhesus monkey fetuses. The rhesus monkey fetal adrenals were used as a model for the late gestation human fetal adrenal. The ...
Gemmell R T - - 1993
The fetal anterior pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to be involved in the initiation of birth in both eutherian and marsupial mammals. Little is known about the structure and function of the posterior pituitary at birth in the marsupial. Immunocytochemistry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and radioimmunoassay were used to identify vasopressin ...
Merei J J - - 1993
We have measured the relative levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the fetal pituitary during the last 2-3 weeks of gestation. The mean POMC mRNA/18S RNA ratio in the fetal anterior pituitary was significantly greater ...
Molitch M E - - 1993
A number of changes in renal and endocrine physiology occur during pregnancy that alter hormone levels and affect a number of disease processes. Increased glomerular filtration causes an increase in hormone and substrate clearance. Increased placental steroid production causes an increase in hormone-binding globulin production, insulin resistance, and prolactinoma growth. ...
Close C F - - 1993
A 25-year-old primigravid woman presented with Cushing's syndrome at 23 weeks gestation; serum cortisol was 1090 nmol/l at 0900 h, 1230 nmol/l at 2200 h; basal urinary free cortisol excretion was 3680 nmol/24 h, and 8830 nmol/24 h after dexamethasone 8 mg daily for 48 hours; plasma ACTH was < ...
Coulter C L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathologic evaluation was performed on an infant with fetal alcohol effects. DESIGN: Coronal brain sections and representative tissue blocks stained with hematoxylin-eosin, silver stain, and immunocytochemical stains for hypothalamic and pituitary hormones were evaluated for neuropathologic abnormalities. PATIENT: A 2.5-month-old American Indian girl who had been exposed to first-trimester ...
Akiyama K - - 1993
We have studied the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase in rat pituitaries during pregnancy. Both the enzyme protein and its mRNA decreased to low levels after the onset of gestation. Both started to increase markedly during mid pregnancy reaching their maxima on day 18 and declined thereafter. The early phase of ...
Waddell B J - - 1993
The human placenta appears capable of providing trophic support for the maternal and fetal adrenal cortices. This effect could be mediated both directly, through placental secretion of ACTH1-39 and other peptides, and indirectly via placental CRH1-41 stimulation of pituitary ACTH1-39 secretion. Thus, the placenta is likely to influence the progressive ...
Couper J J - - 1993
A female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency) received prenatal dexamethasone treatment. Suppression of the fetal adrenal was initially inadequate but adequate in later pregnancy. The baby showed masculinisation without clitoral enlargement and a narrow urogenital sinus with resulting hydrometrocolpos. It is possible that dexamethasone treatment which is initially inadequate ...
Sipes S L - - 1992
Disorders of the pituitary gland such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary adenomas, and hyperprolactinemia, disorders of the thyroid gland such as Graves' disease and hypothyroidism, and diseases of the adrenal gland such as adrenocortical insufficiency and Cushing's syndrome can complicate pregnancy. The goals of this article were to provide a basic ...
Ampudia X - - 1992
Twenty-four women with high circulating prolactin became pregnant on 39 occasions, of which 32 ended in delivery. Sixteen patients showed radiological evidence of pituitary tumour, 6 exhibited a normal CT and 2 had an empty sella. The pregnancies were induced in 4 patients after successful pituitary surgery, in 3 after ...
McDonald T J - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal morphological development occurs in pituitary corticotrophs deprived of products of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), e.g. corticotropin releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin (AVP), after PVN lesions. In addition, we have attempted to ascertain if the neurophysin/AVP-positive fibers innervating the fetal ...
Ahmed M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of bromocriptine withdrawal during one or more pregnancies in patients who presented with pituitary macroprolactinomas with suprasellar extension. DESIGN: Four infertile patients presenting with a macroprolactinoma with suprasellar extension conceived during treatment with bromocriptine on 10 occasions resulting in eight full-term normal deliveries. Treatment was ...
Zerani M - - 1992
Plasma oestradiol-17 beta was measured by RIA, in female, Rana esculenta, submitted to hypophysectomy, gonadectomy, or both, and treated with mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH), homologous pituitary homogenate, or both, during the post-reproductive period. In addition, the oestradiol-17 beta release was measured in in vitro incubations of ovaries or interrenals treated ...
Myers D A - - 1992
Fetal adrenal steroid hydroxylase activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increases concurrent with the preterm rise in fetal plasma cortisol during late gestation in sheep. By placing bilateral lesions of the fetal paraventricular nuclei (PVN) we have previously demonstrated that the fetal PVN is necessary for the initiation of parturition, ...
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