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McMillen I C - - 1995
It is clear that the timing of parturition is dependent on a cascade of endocrine signals from an intact fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. What is not known, however is the nature or source of the central neural stimulation which results in the stimulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) synthesis and secretion in ...
Brooks A N - - 1995
Adult reproductive ability is to a large extent determined by the appropriate development of the reproductive axis during fetal life. Studies have investigated the role of the fetal hypothalamus in the ontogeny and regulation of pituitary gonadal function during fetal development in sheep. Using immunocytochemistry, we examined the ontogeny of ...
Saenger P - - 1995
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is a rare genetic disorder of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis of unknown cause in which cholesterol cannot be converted to pregnenolone. As a result, affected individuals can make no steroid hormones, so that all affected newborns are phenotypic females, irrespective of karyotype. We studied ...
Pepe G J - - 1994
We have proposed that estrogen, via regulation of placental metabolism of maternal cortisol, regulates the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the timing of the onset of de novo cortisol production. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated that the ontogenesis of fetal adrenal steroidogenic enzymes near term could be induced ...
Hasegawa Y - - 1994
The presence of hypopituitarism and invisible pituitary stalk on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) is commonly attributed to birth trauma. Two patients with severe hypopituitarism and invisible pituitary stalk are presented. One was born by breech delivery, the other by Cesarean section. The presence of a micropenis since early infancy ...
Kupersmith M J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential risk for developing visual loss during single or multiple pregnancies in women with pituitary adenomas. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Referral center of a neuro-ophthalmology service. PATIENTS: 65 consecutive women with pituitary adenomas who had not been previously treated with surgery or radiation were monitored during ...
Speiser P W - - 1994
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of a few inherited disorders that can be managed by administering medication to the fetus via oral maternal administration. Dexamethasone given in the first trimester ameliorates genital ambiguity in the affected female fetus. Mother and fetus should be monitored during and after pregnancy for treatment-related ...
Weinreb H J - - 1994
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has no significant effect on fertility, conception, fetal viability, and delivery. Exacerbations of MS decrease during pregnancy and increase significantly during the 3 months postpartum. Pregnancy does not increase the risk of brain tumors, but physiologic changes induced by pregnancy affect the diagnosis and biologic behavior of ...
Speiser P W - - 1994
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is associated with hormonal imbalance which predisposes affected females to prenatal development of genital ambiguity. Because the disease is usually not lethal and can be treated with glucocorticoids, affected pregnancies are seldom terminated. Dexamethasone can be administered to the pregnant mother and ...
Tangalakis K - - 1994
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ACTH from the fetal pituitary is a major regulator of adrenocortical steroid hydroxylase gene expression in the ovine fetus at 0.4 (60-70 days) of gestation. Pregnant ewes at 0.4 gestation received intravenous infusions of dexamethasone (0.76 mg/h, n = 13) for ...
Arora R - - 1994
The model of unilateral ovariectomy induced ovarian compensatory hypertrophy in mated bilaterally adrenalectomized rats was used to assess the role of adrenal in conceptus development. Replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) or corticosterone (Comp. B) from day 2-14 post coitum was given with or without ip injections of estrogen (E, on ...
Young I R - - 1994
The major source of PGE2 in ovine pregnancy is the placenta, with secretion occurring bidirectionally into fetal and maternal circulations. The placental output of PGE2 appears to increase when demand on placental function is increased, suggesting that the normally observed increase in its concentration towards term is driven by the ...
de Gandarias J M - - 1994
Lys-aminopeptidase activity levels during the estrous cycle (estrous and proestrous, in the morning and afternoon) and the pregnancy (2nd, 7th, 14th and 20th day postinsemination and the parturition day), in several areas of the rat brain, were studied in this research. The selected brain regions were the frontal, parietal and ...
Conley A J - - 1994
This study examined fetal steroidogenic enzyme expression and function during pregnancy in the pig. Northern and Western analyses were performed to detect the cytochrome P450 enzyme 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase (P450c17) and that for cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), as well as 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) expression in several porcine fetal ...
White F A - - 1994
Functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma occurring concurrently with pregnancy is rare. Only four cases have been reported previously in the world literature. Here I discuss two additional cases of functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma in pregnancy. Both patients died of the illness. Despite the use of surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis remains ...
Bronshtein M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compile normative data of fetal adrenal gland measurements between 12 and 17 weeks' gestation with transvaginal ultrasonography. STUDY DESIGN: Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal adrenal length and adrenal-to-kidney length ratio calculations were performed on 100 normal fetuses at 12 to 17 weeks' gestation. The ...
Mesiano S - - 1993
We examined the in situ localization of key steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal gland sections from midgestation (17-24 weeks) human fetuses and late gestation (130-142 days; term = 165 days) rhesus monkey fetuses. The rhesus monkey fetal adrenals were used as a model for the late gestation human fetal adrenal. The ...
Gemmell R T - - 1993
The fetal anterior pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to be involved in the initiation of birth in both eutherian and marsupial mammals. Little is known about the structure and function of the posterior pituitary at birth in the marsupial. Immunocytochemistry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and radioimmunoassay were used to identify vasopressin ...
Merei J J - - 1993
We have measured the relative levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the fetal pituitary during the last 2-3 weeks of gestation. The mean POMC mRNA/18S RNA ratio in the fetal anterior pituitary was significantly greater ...
Molitch M E - - 1993
A number of changes in renal and endocrine physiology occur during pregnancy that alter hormone levels and affect a number of disease processes. Increased glomerular filtration causes an increase in hormone and substrate clearance. Increased placental steroid production causes an increase in hormone-binding globulin production, insulin resistance, and prolactinoma growth. ...
Close C F - - 1993
A 25-year-old primigravid woman presented with Cushing's syndrome at 23 weeks gestation; serum cortisol was 1090 nmol/l at 0900 h, 1230 nmol/l at 2200 h; basal urinary free cortisol excretion was 3680 nmol/24 h, and 8830 nmol/24 h after dexamethasone 8 mg daily for 48 hours; plasma ACTH was < ...
Coulter C L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathologic evaluation was performed on an infant with fetal alcohol effects. DESIGN: Coronal brain sections and representative tissue blocks stained with hematoxylin-eosin, silver stain, and immunocytochemical stains for hypothalamic and pituitary hormones were evaluated for neuropathologic abnormalities. PATIENT: A 2.5-month-old American Indian girl who had been exposed to first-trimester ...
Akiyama K - - 1993
We have studied the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase in rat pituitaries during pregnancy. Both the enzyme protein and its mRNA decreased to low levels after the onset of gestation. Both started to increase markedly during mid pregnancy reaching their maxima on day 18 and declined thereafter. The early phase of ...
Waddell B J - - 1993
The human placenta appears capable of providing trophic support for the maternal and fetal adrenal cortices. This effect could be mediated both directly, through placental secretion of ACTH1-39 and other peptides, and indirectly via placental CRH1-41 stimulation of pituitary ACTH1-39 secretion. Thus, the placenta is likely to influence the progressive ...
Couper J J - - 1993
A female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency) received prenatal dexamethasone treatment. Suppression of the fetal adrenal was initially inadequate but adequate in later pregnancy. The baby showed masculinisation without clitoral enlargement and a narrow urogenital sinus with resulting hydrometrocolpos. It is possible that dexamethasone treatment which is initially inadequate ...
Sipes S L - - 1992
Disorders of the pituitary gland such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary adenomas, and hyperprolactinemia, disorders of the thyroid gland such as Graves' disease and hypothyroidism, and diseases of the adrenal gland such as adrenocortical insufficiency and Cushing's syndrome can complicate pregnancy. The goals of this article were to provide a basic ...
Ampudia X - - 1992
Twenty-four women with high circulating prolactin became pregnant on 39 occasions, of which 32 ended in delivery. Sixteen patients showed radiological evidence of pituitary tumour, 6 exhibited a normal CT and 2 had an empty sella. The pregnancies were induced in 4 patients after successful pituitary surgery, in 3 after ...
McDonald T J - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal morphological development occurs in pituitary corticotrophs deprived of products of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), e.g. corticotropin releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin (AVP), after PVN lesions. In addition, we have attempted to ascertain if the neurophysin/AVP-positive fibers innervating the fetal ...
Ahmed M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of bromocriptine withdrawal during one or more pregnancies in patients who presented with pituitary macroprolactinomas with suprasellar extension. DESIGN: Four infertile patients presenting with a macroprolactinoma with suprasellar extension conceived during treatment with bromocriptine on 10 occasions resulting in eight full-term normal deliveries. Treatment was ...
Zerani M - - 1992
Plasma oestradiol-17 beta was measured by RIA, in female, Rana esculenta, submitted to hypophysectomy, gonadectomy, or both, and treated with mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH), homologous pituitary homogenate, or both, during the post-reproductive period. In addition, the oestradiol-17 beta release was measured in in vitro incubations of ovaries or interrenals treated ...
Myers D A - - 1992
Fetal adrenal steroid hydroxylase activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increases concurrent with the preterm rise in fetal plasma cortisol during late gestation in sheep. By placing bilateral lesions of the fetal paraventricular nuclei (PVN) we have previously demonstrated that the fetal PVN is necessary for the initiation of parturition, ...
Venkatesh B - - 1992
Administration of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, isotocin, and vasotocin to pregnant guppies during late gestation induced premature parturition. Indomethacin (10 micrograms/g body wt), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not inhibit parturition at term, suggesting that some lipoxygenase metabolites may be involved in the induction of parturition. Pituitary extract, as well as LH-RH, ...
Pang S - - 1992
Prenatal treatment of virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia in female fetuses via maternal dexamethasone (Dex) therapy (1-1.5 mg/day) from first trimester to birth was associated with excessive weight gain (47-56 pounds at 35-37 weeks gestation), Cushingoid facial features, severe striae resulting in permanent scarring, and hyperglycemic response (8-11.7 nmol/L) to oral ...
Sever D M - - 1992
Cloacae were examined from male and female salamanders representing 12 genera and 22 species in the Salamandridae. All female salamandrids possess numerous sperm storage glands, spermathecae, in the roof of the cloaca, but intergeneric variation exists in the occurrence of additional cloacal glands. Pleurodeles and Tylototriton possess both vent and ...
Crosignani P G - - 1992
The changes in plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations were studied in 176 hyperprolactinemic women over periods of 6-180 months, to evaluate the independent effects of time, drugs and pregnancy on the evolution of prolactinemia. CT scans showed pituitary adenoma in 87 (9 macroadenoma), the clinical presentations for 110 patients there amenorrhea, ...
Conley A J - - 1992
The expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P45017 alpha), and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) was studied in bovine placenta and fetal adrenal glands throughout gestation. The levels of expression of these enzymes were much lower in the placenta than in the adrenals ...
Hosoda Y - - 1992
At 35 weeks 6 days of gestational age, ultrasound evaluation of the fetal abdomen showed a mixed cystic mass in the superior pole of the left kidney. The mass was suspected to be an adrenal hemorrhage or neuroblastoma. The diagnosis was fetal neuroblastoma. Differential diagnosis enabled the fetal neuroblastoma to ...
Guilhaume B - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The association of an active Cushing's syndrome and pregnancy is a rare event which raises specific diagnostic difficulties and bears poor maternal and foetal prognoses. We report our series of 22 patients. PATIENTS: Age range was 19-34 (mean +/- SEM = 27.3 +/- 1.5) the onset of hypercorticism occurred ...
Noso T - - 1992
Two molecular forms of prolactin (PRL), glycosylated and non-glycosylated, were isolated from pituitary glands of two reptiles, alligator and crocodile. The reptilian PRLs were extracted under alkaline conditions from the precipitate obtained after pituitaries were first extracted with 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM NH4HCO3, pH 6.3. Purification was performed by ...
Reusch J E - - 1992
Lymphocytic hypophysitis (adenohypophysitis) is a rare lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland that usually occurs during pregnancy. Because of its rarity, it has seldom been diagnosed preoperatively, and no trials of therapeutic treatment have been reported to date. We describe a 29-year-old woman with a pituitary mass and visual-field defects ...
Haan E A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To present the first reported Australian case of prenatal treatment of a female fetus with congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. CLINICAL FEATURES: A couple whose son had congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency sought prenatal diagnosis and treatment in their next pregnancy. INTERVENTION: Maternal treatment with ...
deCatanzaro D - - 1992
Evidence scattered over the literatures of zoology, psychology, agricultural science, and medicine indicates that diverse stressors will interfere with pregnancy in its early stages. It is probable that the most sensitive period is around the point of intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova. Although there is some indication that conventional "stress" ...
Sandyk R - - 1992
Clinical, epidemiological, biochemical, immunological, and radiological studies suggest that the pineal gland may be implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The following communication is concerned with the association among MS, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and melatonin secretion and illustrates, based on a clinical case report, the influence of ...
Hagan P - - 1992
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Concentrations of CRF in the peripheral circulation are normally low, and increase during pregnancy due to CRF secretion by the placenta [Cunnah, Jessop, Besser & Rees (1987) J. Endocrinol. 113, 123-131], although CRF in maternal blood does not appear to ...
Buescher M A - - 1992
The occurrence of pregnancy in the face of untreated Cushing syndrome is rare because of the high incidence of ovulatory disturbances experienced by patients with the disorder. A total of 58 patients with 65 pregnancies has been reported in the literature to date. Although pituitary-dependent adrenal hyperplasia is the most ...
Jones C T - - 1992
Enkephalin-containing peptides have been followed in the circulation of fetal sheep between 118-143 days gestation. Using a combination of radioimmunoassay and hplc met5-enkephalin was found in the concentration range 60-500 pg/ml and proenkephalins containing met5-enkephalin had a concentration of 150-4000 pg/ml. The concentration of both increased towards term. The sources ...
Elster A D - - 1991
Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 38 pregnant and postpartum women and 30 nonpregnant age-matched control subjects to establish standards for pituitary gland size and shape during this period. Gland height and infundibulum width were measured on midline T1-weighted sagittal images. Gland convexity or concavity was graded qualitatively. ...
Phocas I - - 1991
A successful pregnancy of a young woman with late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH) is reported. Exogenous glucocorticoids are the most commonly used regimen in such cases both for suppression of adrenal overstimulation and avoiding masculinization of a female fetus. In our LOCAH patient methylprednisolone has been used for treatment. We ...
McDonald T J - - 1991
At present the origin of the signal(s) to initiate parturition remains unknown. Experimental studies in sheep have shown that interruption of the fetal hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal axis will prolong gestation but no studies have shown prolongation of gestation after destruction of fetal neural structures. In this study we placed bilateral lesions of ...
McConnon J K - - 1991
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is in itself rare and usually occurs in the postpartum period or the last trimester of pregnancy. It has not been described in combination with a pituitary tumor. A twenty-two year old woman, who had never been pregnant, presented with a history of nine months amenorrhea and spontaneous ...
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