Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 686
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Lo K W - - 1998
We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome complicating pregnancy presented with acute heart failure, hypertension and glucose intolerance. A left adrenal adenoma was removed at 24 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was ended with an emergency lower-segment Caesarean section at 31 weeks of gestation because of severe pre-eclampsia and HELLP ...
Dinç H - - 1998
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to clarify and further characterize the changes in height, length, width, volume, and shape in the normal pituitary gland and in width in the infundibulum during pregnancy and the first 6 months post partum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranial MR imaging was performed in 78 women who ...
Bergant A M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this investigation were to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol before, during and after delivery searching for an endocrine intercorrelation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to correlate these findings with obstetrical variables. METHODS: Blood was sampled from 50 women with singleton pregnancies at ...
Badawy S Z - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of pregnancy and bromocriptine treatment on prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors in women undergoing infertility treatment for prolactinomas. METHODS: The records of 17 patients with prolactinomas were reviewed. Data regarding age, prepregnancy baseline and postpartum serum prolactin levels, and radiologic studies including CT or MRI were ...
Lecomte P - - 1997
It is difficult to achieve pregnancy in hyperprolactinaemic patients in whom prolactin inhibiting agents are ineffective. Medical treatment with bromocriptine, lisuride and the new agent CV 205-502 (quinagolide) was unsuccessful in normalizing hyperprolactinaemia in a 28 year-old woman to treat anovulatory infertility. Repeated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was normal, with ...
Wood C E - - 1997
Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) augments hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in both fetal and adult animals. We have proposed that TxA2 acts as a neuromodulator within the brain to stimulate the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the hypophyseal-portal blood. We performed the present experiments to identify immunoreactive ...
Mesiano S - - 1997
The unique characteristics of the primate (particularly human) fetal adrenal were first realized in the early 1900s when its morphology was examined in detail and compared with that of other species. The unusual architecture of the human fetal adrenal cortex, with its unique and disproportionately enlarged fetal zone, its compact ...
Han X - - 1997
In sheep, increased output of cortisol from the fetal adrenal gland is critical to organ maturation and parturition. Cortisol synthesis is determined in part by the activity of P450(C17) enzyme. We have used immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting to examine the distribution of P450(C17) in the ovine fetal adrenal during gestation, ...
Webb J C - - 1997
Pregnancy is rarely complicated by aldosteronism. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who became pregnant soon after primary aldosteronism was diagnosed. Only antihypertensive medication and oral potassium supplementation were required in addition to routine prenatal care. A healthy female infant was delivered at term. In this case, no ...
Ehrhart-Bornstein M - - 1997
The development of the human fetal adrenals starts in the 6th week gestational age and adrenal C19 steroid production becomes of major importance for the maintenance of the pregnancy. Therefore, in the present study, human fetal adrenals at 6 weeks of gestational age were immunostained for 17 alpha-hydroxylase, the key ...
Naaman Répérant E - - 1997
In mammalian species, the fetal adrenal gland plays a key role during late gestation since fetal glucocorticoids are involved in the maturation of the fetus and in the adaptation of the neonate to extra-uterine life. Moreover, in domestic ruminants as well as in the pig, the onset of parturition is ...
Guizetti B - - 1996
The fetal development of the human parotid gland was studied by means of serial sections of human embryos and fetuses ranging from 19 mm to 67 mm CRL. Analysis of computer assisted 3-dimensional reconstructions and anatomical drawings leads to the following observations: 1. The parotid gland anlage is found at ...
Garner P R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAHs) and their management during pregnancy. METHODS: Pathways of steroid biosynthesis and inherited deficiencies of required enzymes are reviewed, and applications to prenatal diagnosis and treatment of affected fetuses are discussed. RESULTS: The CAHs are a group of inherited enzymatic ...
Coulter C L - - 1996
Cortisol, produced by the primate fetal adrenal, regulates the maturation of organ systems necessary for extrauterine life. During most of primate pregnancy, however, the fetal adrenal lacks the enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3 beta HSD), which is essential for cortisol synthesis. Therefore, we used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques ...
Hashimoto M - - 1996
We describe a case of diabetes insipidus (DI) due to a pituitary tumor in a 33-year-old pregnant woman who developed a sudden onset of polyuria (over 8 l/day) and polydipsia at 30 weeks of gestation. Her plasma concentration of vasopressin (AVP) was low compared with high serum osmolality (298 mOsm/kg), ...
Murotsuki J - - 1996
To test the hypothesis that long-term hypoxemia causes premature activation of the fetal pituitary-adrenal function, we embolized the fetal side of the placenta in pregnant sheep and examined the changes in concentrations of immunoreactive adrenocorticotropic hormone (irACTH), cortisol, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in fetal plasma, and levels and localization of ...
Morange I - - 1996
Resistance to bromocriptine, defined as the absence of normalization of prolactin (PRL) levels despite a 15-30 mg daily dose of bromocriptine during at least 6 months, has been observed in 5-17% of the prolactinomas according to the literature. The recent availability of a new potent dopamine agonist, quinagolide, prompted us ...
Matthews S G - - 1996
Development of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required for normal fetal life and subsequent neonatal health. Activation of the fetal pituitary gland results in the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoids promote maturation of several organ systems, are important in responses of the fetus to ...
Davies W A - - 1996
We have proposed that estrogen, via regulation of the placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) enzyme(s) catalyzing the oxidation of cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone, regulates the baboon fetal pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the onset of de novo production of cortisol by the fetus near term. In support of this ...
Molitch M E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To review the recommended management of pituitary tumors that occur in pregnant patients. METHODS: Studies from the literature and personal experience are summarized, and guidelines for optimal maternal and fetal outcome are suggested. RESULTS: Tumors are the most common pituitary disorder affecting pregnant patients. Hyperprolactinemia must be corrected to ...
Simonetta G - - 1996
We have postulated that sympathetic neurones may be one source of circulating enkephalins in the fetus. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of increasing gestational age on the content of the enkephalin-containing peptides in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of the fetal sheep during late gestation. We have also investigated ...
Simonetta G - - 1996
It has been suggested that a pituitary-derived or -dependent factor may suppress enkephalin peptide synthesis in the central noradrenaline- containing cells of the sheep adrenal medulla in late gestation. We have investigated the effect of thyroxine (T4) replacement after fetal hypophysectomy on the localisation of enkephalin peptides within the peripheral ...
Ciccarelli E - - 1996
A prolactin-secreting pituitary tumour is the most frequent cause of hyperprolactinaemia that commonly occurs in clinical practice. Prolactinomas occur more frequently in women than in men and may differ in size, invasive growth and secretory activity. At presentation, macroadenomas are more frequently diagnosed in men. Specific immunohistochemical stains are necessary ...
Brochu M - - 1996
Plasma aldosterone levels increase markedly during pregnancy, but not in proportion to the rise in plasma renin activity (PRA). We have developed a reliable in vitro method to investigate aldosterone secretion during pregnancy. With this method, we have assessed the potency and effectiveness of ACTH and potassium to stimulate this ...
Magiakou M A - - 1996
The third trimester of human pregnancy is characterized by a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, possibly driven by progressively increasing circulating levels of placental CRH and gradually decreasing levels of CRH-binding protein. The postpartum period, on the other hand, is characterized by an increased vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations (postpartum "blues," depression, and ...
Shanis B S - - 1996
A woman presented with a pituitary macroadenoma with extensive suprasellar extension. Her initial response to bromocriptine therapy was good, allowing subsequent trans-sphenoidal surgical treatment. The tumor grew during pregnancy despite continued bromocriptine therapy, but it returned to prepregnancy size postdelivery. There have been conflicting reports regarding the growth of pituitary ...
Coulter C L - - 1996
We determined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and beta-methasone on the growth and development of the adrenal gland of the fetal rhesus monkey in vivo between 121-128 days of gestation. The adrenal to body weight ratio was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in EGF-treated fetuses (0.988 +/- 0.046 ...
Trauffer P M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Adrenal cysts are rare tumors that have a female: male predominance of 2-3:1. They are, however, rarely encountered during pregnancy but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flank pain. CASE: A 33-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 3013, was transferred to a tertiary care center at 14 weeks' ...
Tumlinson J H - - 1996
In a gland located near the tip of their abdomens, Manduca sexta females produce a pheromone blend comprised of hexadecanal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)- and (E)-11-hexadecenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal, and (E,E,Z)- and (E,E,E)-10,12,14-hexadecatrienal. These aldehydes are produced and released by evaporation from the surface of the gland only during a discrete period ...
Yatham L N - - 1996
Prolactin and cortisol responses to fenfluramine (60 mg PO) challenge were examined in 20 subjects (10 manic patients and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) to ascertain the "net" central serotonin (5-HT) activity in mania. There was no difference in baseline prolactin or cortisol levels between manic patients and healthy ...
Lockwood C J - - 1996
There is little information available concerning the ontologic development of the human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis nor of the potential interactions among fetal, maternal and placental-derived HPA axis hormones. This study evaluated levels of these hormones in matched maternal and fetal pairs during the second half of uncomplicated pregnancies. Immunoassays were ...
Illés A - - 1996
The authors report a case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast presenting during pregnancy in a 24-year-old woman. After the delivery of a healthy premature infant by Caesarean section, polychemotherapy was employed. The efficacy of the treatment could not be evaluated since the patient died within a very ...
Yoshizaki T - - 1996
The treatment of sialolithiasis is discussed in this report. Generally, stones within the distal salivary duct are easily removed by transoral ductotomy, although proximal stones are usually treated by excision of the salivary gland and its duct. Since 1980, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been in clinical use for ...
Saoud C J - - 1996
In sheep, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Increased hypothalamic secretion of these peptides at the end of gestation initiates parturition in this species. We hypothesized that CRF and/or AVP content in the fetal hypothalamus increases late in gestation and that this content was ...
Bakker J M - - 1995
The effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on the mature immune and neuroendocrine system are known to be reversible. However, prenatal GC exposure may have irreversible consequences on the development of the newborn. In this study, possible long-lasting effects of short-term prenatal GC treatment were examined on the developing thymus, spleen ...
Christie A E - - 1995
The crustacean stomatogastric ganglion, which is situated in the ophthalmic artery, can be modulated by both intrinsically released molecules and hormones. In the crab Cancer borealis, over a dozen neuroactive compounds have been identified in the input axons that project into the stomatogastric neuropil. However, little is known about the ...
Van Rijswijk A W - - 1995
The absolute and relative adrenal mass as well as histological sections of the adrenals of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) (n = 76; 36 ewes and 39 rams) were studied over a period of 12 months. No significant difference was found in the absolute mass of the adrenals of rams and ewes. ...
Pepe G J - - 1995
It is clear that steroid hormones of placental and fetal adrenal origin have critically important roles in regulating key physiological events essential to the maintenance of pregnancy and development of the fetus for extrauterine life. Thus, progesterone has suppressive actions on lymphocyte proliferation and activity and on the immune system ...
Baron F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas are rare, especially during pregnancy. We report a patient who presented in the early second trimester, was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism, and was treated successfully by adrenalectomy. CASE: A 17-year-old black nulliparous woman was found to have a blood pressure (BP) of 150/82 mmHg when she ...
Kjaer I - - 1995
The normal prenatal development of the human pituitary gland and the gland-supporting sella turcica has recently been investigated. The sella turcica area constitutes a developmental boundary area in the cranial base. Posterior to the area the cranial base has developed close to the notochord, and anterior to the region the ...
Patel M C - - 1995
The classical cause of postpartum hypopituitarism is Sheehan's syndrome, in which an obstetric catastrophe is associated with hypotension. However, with improvements in obstetric care, the most common cause now may be lymphocytic hypophysitis. Five women with postpartum hypopituitarism, whose symptoms occurred during or immediately after pregnancy, had detailed endocrine and ...
McDonald M A - - 1995
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is one of the rare causes of hypopituitarism and intrasellar mass observed almost exclusively in women. A temporal relationship to pregnancy has been identified in many but not all of the 34 reported cases. Intra-operative differentiation from non-secretory macroadenoma is important, as resection of the anterior lobe is ...
Jönsson J - - 1995
The transplacental transfer, irreversible binding, and ultrastructural lesions in the fetal adrenal cortex were studied following single injections of the persistent DDT-metabolite 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE (MeSO2-DDE) in pregnant C57B1 mice. Tape-section autoradiograms of fetuses on gestation days 12 to 17 revealed a high and tissue-specific accumulation of MeSO2-DDE-14C-derived radioactivity in the fetal ...
Hadden D R - - 1995
In normal pregnancy, the maternal adrenal gland adapts to the physiologic changes necessary to sustain gestation. These changes protect the fetus and the mother, allowing for increased shunting of nutrients to the fetus and protection of immunologic rejection. The adrenal disorders pertinent to pregnancy include overactive and underactive secretion of ...
Prager D - - 1995
A number of morphologic and physiologic changes accompany pregnancy such as an increase in lactotrophs and prolactin production, and a decrease in gonadotropins and GH. The hormonal milieu can affect patients with prolactinomas, especially macroadenomas, to cause an increase in size in a minority of patients. Complications are treated with ...
Han X - - 1995
An increase in fetal adrenal cortisol output signals the onset of parturition in many animal species but, in the fetal horse, plasma concentrations of cortisol remain low for much of late pregnancy, with a rise occurring only very close to the time of birth (term 320-360 days). Immunohistochemistry was used ...
Wu S S - - 1995
Parturition in primates is hypothesized to be precipitated by aromatization of fetal adrenal androgens to estrogens in the placenta. We immunocytochemically localized androgen receptor (AR) in the hypothalamus and pituitary of late gestation fetal baboons. AR immunostaining was: strongest in lateral hypothalamic, arcuate, lateral mammillary, supra-mammillary and paraventricular (small neuronal ...
Muglia L - - 1995
The body responds to stress by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid production in the adult regulates carbohydrate and amino-acid metabolism, maintains blood pressure, and restrains the inflammatory response. In the fetus, exogenous glucocorticoids accelerate maturation of lung and gastrointestinal enzyme systems and promote hepatic ...
Wintour E M - - 1995
It is now known that in some species (sheep, cow, pig, llama) the fetal adrenal cortex is capable of secreting cortisol both early and late in gestation, but not during some, variable, intermediate time period. In the sheep the fetal adrenal can secrete cortisol, and respond quickly to ACTH, both ...
Jenkin G - - 1995
Initial studies on inhibin, activin and follistatin focussed on their role as regulators of adult gonadal function via feedback regulation of anterior pituitary hormones and via intragonadal control of steroid hormones. The discovery of isoforms of follistatin which are either secreted or retained on the cell surface and which bind ...
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