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Edwards, Lisa J.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 228-257). Aims to determine the impact of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and during the periconceptional and gestational periods on fetal growth, fetal blood pressure and the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis in the sheep.
Gitau R - - 2001
Paired fetal and maternal samples were obtained, at fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion, to study hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses. This confirmed that the fetus mounts an hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response to transfusion via the intrahepatic vein, which involves piercing the fetal trunk, but not to transfusion via the placental cord insertion ...
Vidal S - - 2001
Previous studies conclusively demonstrated transformation of somatotrophs into bihormonal mammosomatotrophs in gestational lactotroph hyperplasia during pregnancy. Similar transdifferentiation of somatotrophs into thyrotrophs through bihormonal intermediate thryrosomatotrophs was documented during thyrotroph hyperplasia in both rodent and human pituitaries in hypothyroidism. The cessation of the stimulation resulted in reversal of the process ...
Schwartz J - - 2001
1. Activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis waxes and wanes as a function of gestational age. 2. In a number of species, including sheep, at the end of gestation there is an increase in HPA activity, as characterized by an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoids. 3. To a certain ...
Hull K L - - 2001
GH, as its name suggests, is obligatory for growth and development. It is, however, also involved in the processes of sexual differentiation and pubertal maturation and it participates in gonadal steroidogenesis, gametogenesis and ovulation. It also has additional roles in pregnancy and lactation. These actions may reflect direct endocrine actions ...
Challis J R - - 2001
Increased uterine contractility at term and preterm results from activation and then stimulation of the myometrium. Activation can be provoked by mechanical stretch of the uterus and by an endocrine pathway resulting from increased activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cortisol, derived from the fetal adrenal in cases of intrauterine ...
Shaw G - - 2001
Among marsupials, the control of birth is best understood in the tammar wallaby. The young is tiny relative to the mother and is highly altricial. Adult female tammar wallabies weigh 5 kg, whereas the neonate weighs about 400 mg. However, despite this small size, there is clear evidence that the ...
Challis J - - 2000
Birth in most animal species is triggered by the fetus through activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Preterm birth, may be associated with precocious activation of fetal HPA function, reflecting the fetal response to an adverse intrauterine environment. There is a progressive and concurrent increase of ACTH1-39 and cortisol ...
Mathur R - - 2000
Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the most common cause of genital ambiguity in females at birth. Inhibited formation of cortisol causes increase in the release of ACTH in turn leading to overproduction of adrenal androgens. This predisposes the affected female fetus to prenatal development of genital ambiguity. A ...
Kanik K S - - 2000
A number of hormonal abnormalities are present in RA patients. A major theme of these abnormalities seems to be that deficiencies in the production or action of gonadal (estrogens and androgens) and adrenal (corticosteroids and DHEA) hormones may be involved in regulating the onset, severity, and progression of RA. Differences ...
Challis JRG - - 2000
We have examined factors concerned with the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy and the onset of uterine activity at term in an animal model, the sheep, and in primate species. We suggest that in both species the fetus exerts a critical role in the processes leading to birth, and ...
Bongiovanni M - - 2000
Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT), first described as a pleural lesion, has been reported in several extrathoracic sites over the past 10 years. We describe a SFT of the left adrenal gland incidentally discovered in a 23-year-old, 22-week pregnant woman and characterised by a rapid growth during the third trimester of ...
Dubiel M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Animal studies have shown that hypoxic fetuses redistribute their blood flow, giving preferential supply to the brain, heart and adrenal glands. The aim of this study was to establish whether blood velocity waveforms in the human fetal adrenal artery and middle cerebral artery showed signs of redistribution of fetal ...
Holloway A C - - 2000
We hypothesized that the concurrent prepartum rise in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in the plasma of fetal sheep might be attributable to altered expression of pituitary endoproteases, prohormone convertase (PC)-1, and PC-2, or to changes in pituitary expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that would influence negative feedback potential. We ...
Silver R I - - 2000
The multi-factorial etiology of hypospadias is becoming more defined with ongoing investigation. Implicated factors include testosterone biosynthesis defects, 5 alpha-reductase type 2 mutations, androgen receptor mutations (rare), IVF (progesterone administration or endocrine abnormalities associated with infertility), and environmental agents that can disrupt the male sex hormone axis. It also seems ...
Venihaki M - - 2000
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and pituitary corticotropin, is one of the first endocrine systems to develop during fetal life, probably because glucocorticoid secretion is necessary for the maturation of many essential fetal organs. Consistent with this, pregnant mice with an inactivating mutation in the Crh ...
Keller P A - - 2000
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, sometimes known as CRF) is an endogenous 41 amino acid peptide that has been implicated in the onset of pregnancy, the 'fight or flight' response, in addition to a large number of physiological disorders. Recently, medicinal chemists have developed a number of potent and selective compounds ...
Deauseault D - - 2000
Parturition is initiated in sheep by an increase in the activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Prostaglandins, known to augment the activity of this endocrine axis, have long been proposed as involved in the initiation of paturition. We have previously demonstrated that endogenously produced prostanoids augment the activity of ...
Ross J T - - 2000
We have investigated the effect of intrafetal cortisol administration, before the normal prepartum cortisol surge, on the expression of 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 2 mRNA in the fetal adrenal. We also determined whether increased fetal cortisol concentrations can stimulate growth of the fetal adrenal gland or increase expression of ...
Purinton S C - - 2000
Ovine parturition is initiated by increases in fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity which, in turn, increase placental estrogen biosynthesis and ultimately increase uterine contractility. In addition to their action in the uterus, estrogens in fetal plasma augment fetal corticotropin (ACTH) secretion. In late gestation, estrone sulfate is more abundant in ...
Jurenka R A - - 2000
Hydrocarbons were extracted from the surface of the cuticle and from the hemolymph of adult female gypsy moths. GC and GC/MS analysis indicated that the cuticular hydrocarbons with chain lengths >21 carbons were the same as those found in the hemolymph. These consisted of mostly saturated straight chain hydrocarbons with ...
Neal J M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To report a successful pregnancy in a 43-year-old woman with acromegaly and treatment during pregnancy with the somatostatin analogue octreotide, to review the physiologic aspects of acromegaly during pregnancy, and to discuss treatment options. METHODS: A case report is presented, and the current literature is reviewed. RESULTS: In a ...
Ogueh O - - 2000
The use of antenatal dexamethasone to mature the fetal lung in pregnancies likely to deliver before 34 weeks is almost universal. It reduces the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn and results in an overall improvement in neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although considered to be generally safe, there ...
Kjaer I - - 2000
The sella turcica and pituitary gland in a human fetus (18 weeks gestation) with unilateral oro-ocular cleft combined with unilateral cleft lip and palate are described histologically. In this fetus the sella turcica was not a normal sella but a caudally open funnel. The adenopituitary gland tissue was positioned ectopically ...
Mastorakos G - - 2000
During pregnancy, placenta-derived CRH increases exponentially in the plasma. Circulating levels of CRH-binding protein decrease considerably in the last trimester of pregnancy, resulting in further elevation of bioavailable plasma CRH. The adrenal glands during pregnancy gradually become hypertrophic because of the increase in ACTH, which parallels that of CRH. Thus, ...
Hawkins P - - 2000
Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may alter development of fetal organ systems. We have demonstrated previously that fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to exogenous corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) + arginine vasopressin (AVP), or adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), are reduced in fetuses of mildly undernourished ewes. To examine ...
Vidal Sergio - - 2000
The aim of the present study was to determine the microvascular angioarchitecture in the lateral and central portions of the anterior lobe as well as of the posterior lobe. The possible association between vascularity and age, sex, and pregnancy was also examined. In addition the vascular density of incidental microadenomas ...
Mow C - - 1999
We report on the rare finding of pituitary tissue, including both adenohypophysis and neurohypophsis, in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary removed from a 26 year old female at the time of cesarean section. Immunocytochemistry of the ectopic anterior pituitary component showed pregnancy-related changes that have previously only been ...
Perlitz Y - - 1999
Acute adrenal dysfunction during pregnancy is rare. Nevertheless, adrenal insufficiency can present as an adrenal crisis, and may be life threatening. There is a wide range of clinical symptoms and signs, and the differential diagnosis is challenging. A full adrenal and pituitary evaluation, both structural and hormonal, must be performed ...
Kreze A A - - 1999
Pregnancy in conjunction with primary aldosteronism is an unusual occurrence. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with mild hypertension and hypokalemia as manifestations of primary aldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the left adrenal gland during pregnancy. Although the diagnosis was straightforward, the patient refused to undergo the ...
Kjaer K W - - 1999
The sella turcica region, including the clivus and the pituitary gland, was studied histologically in five human fetuses with Meckel syndrome (MS). All cases had malformed sella turcica and malformed clivus with irregularly shaped notochordal remnants. We consider that these three characteristics are constant phenotypic traits in MS. The adenohypophysis ...
Leavitt M G - - 1999
Throughout gestation, the primate fetal adrenal gland is comprised of the fetal zone, which expresses the P-450 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17,20 lyase (P-450c17) enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of C19 steroids used for placental estrogen production. The development of the transitional zone comprised of cortical cells that express the P-450c17 and the 3beta-hydroxysteroid ...
Ozbey N - - 1999
Recent findings revealed that the clinical features of lymphocytic hypophysitis are more complicated than previously thought. It is rarely described in the first trimester of pregnancy and signs of meningeal irritation are infrequently reported. In this study, a pregnant woman in her first trimester of pregnancy with clinical and radiological ...
Parker C R CR - - 1999
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is produced in prodigious quantities by the human adrenal, principally as the 3-sulfoconjugate DHEA sulfate (DS) during intrauterine life. The fetal zone and neocortex cells of the fetal adrenal express large amounts of DHEA sulfotransferase and minimal amounts, at least until very near the end of gestation, of ...
Cerame B I - - 1999
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of autosomal recessive disorders of cortisol biosynthesis, which in the majority of cases result from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Another enzymatic defect causing CAH is 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. In both forms, the resulting excessive androgen secretion causes genital virilization of the female fetus. For over 10 yr female ...
Miller W L - - 1999
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common cause of genital virilization in female infants resulting from inappropriate fetal adrenal androgen secretion. Some investigators have advocated treating pregnant women who are at risk for carrying a CAH fetus with dexamethasone to suppress fetal adrenal androgen synthesis. ...
Parker C R CR - - 1999
In extracts of anterior pituitary tissue obtained at autopsy of fetal, infant, and adult humans, five molecular forms of immunoreactive ACTH (ACTHi) were detected that had apparent molecular weights of approximately 4044, 30-34, 24-28, 16-18, and 4.5 kilodaltons (K). The relative proportion of each molecular form of ACTHi was similar ...
Aydin Y - - 1999
Enlargement of preexisting pituitary adenomas during pregnancy is well documented, but this phenomenon is unusual for nonendocrine pituitary tumors such as craniopharyngiomas. Only six cases of craniopharyngioma have been reported as presenting during pregnancy. The authors describe a 19-year-old woman who presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea caused by an intrasellar ...
Billiar R B - - 1999
We have shown that ACTH receptor mRNA expression and steroidogenesis were increased in the transitional zone and decreased in the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal in the second half of gestation. Thus, we proposed that there is a divergence in ACTH receptor-mediated zone-specific steroidogenesis within the fetal adrenal ...
Fang S B - - 1999
We report a case of adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn first detected by sonography at a menstrual age of 21 weeks 4 days. An echogenic mass was noted above the right kidney. The mass became larger and hypoechoic on follow-up sonograms after birth. The mass was also seen on abdominal ...
Ingram J N - - 1999
Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled ...
Bergman A - - 1999
Results obtained at postmortem examinations of 159 Baltic grey seals during the 20-year period 1977-1996 are presented. The investigation was initiated due to a serious reduction of the Baltic grey and ringed seal populations. Earlier, reduced reproductive ability with occlusions and stenoses of the uterus, as well as a disease ...
Lo J C - - 1999
Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, especially those patients with the salt-losing form, have decreased fertility rates. Pregnancy experience in this population is limited. We report the pregnancy outcomes and serial measurements of maternal serum steroid levels in four women with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, three of whom ...
Burton P J - - 1999
Target cell metabolism of glucocorticoids is now recognized as an important modulator of ligand access to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This metabolism occurs via two distinct 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) enzymes (types 1 and 2) that catalyze interconversion of active glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) and their inactive 11-keto products (cortisone and ...
Harrington J L - - 1999
Although adrenal tumors detected during pregnancy are extraordinarily rare, the pathophysiologic repercussions of untreated adrenal neoplasms are enormous to both mother and fetus. From our computer-based registry of pregnant patients from 1975 through 1996 (n = 30,246), four cases of adrenal neoplasms associated with pregnancy were identified (0.013%), analyzed, and ...
Wood C E - - 1999
Parturition is a process which, when set into motion, occurs to completion. This review concerns the control of parturition in ruminants. Parturition is an endocrine event, dependent upon the activation of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In sheep and other ruminants, increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol induce the activity ...
Hobel C J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy in the second and third trimester there is a progressive rise in plasma CRH thought to be secreted by the placenta. Plasma CRH-BP inactivates CRH, which may prevent its peripheral action on the maternal pituitary and myometrium. In the last few weeks of pregnancy CRH-BP decreases, thereby ...
Garner P R - - 1998
The congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of inherited enzymatic defects of adrenal steroid biosynthesis. Deficiencies of each enzyme required in the steroid biosynthesis pathway are known, and these deficiencies are all inherited as autosomal recessive disorders. During pregnancy, maternal and fetal problems are confined to women who have ...
Molitch M E - - 1998
Pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary disorder affecting pregnancy, and prolactinomas are the most common of the hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Hyperprolactinemia must be corrected to allow ovulation and fertility. Bromocriptine has been shown to be safe for use during early gestation. There is less than a 2% risk of ...
Coulter C L - - 1998
Previous studies in the primate fetal adrenal gland have indicated that the gland is comprised of three functional zones: 1) the inner fetal zone (FZ), which has the enzymes necessary for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) production beginning early in gestation; 2) the transitional zone (TZ), which possesses enzymes necessary for cortisol ...
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