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Results 201 - 250 of 696
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Nguyen Phuong N - - 2003
Pregnane steroids have sedative and neuroprotective effects on the brain as a result of interactions with the steroid-binding site of the GABAA receptor. To determine whether the fetal brain is able to synthesize pregnane steroids de novo from cholesterol, we measured the expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and ...
Wood Charles E - - 2003
In sheep, the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the initiation of parturition. We have reported that estradiol dramatically increases the activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Sulfoconjugated estrogens are known to circulate in high concentrations in fetal plasma. We have reported the expression and abundant activity ...
Sandman Curt A - - 2003
Maternal peptides from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis rise during human pregnancy. The effects of circulating maternal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and beta-endorphin (BE) on human fetal behavior was determined in 135 women during their 32nd week of gestation. Fetal behavior was measured by assessing heart rate habituation to a series of repeated ...
Enemar Anders - - 2003
A detailed description is given of a surgical technique for selectively removing the pituitary anlage from the intrauterine fetal rat as an alternative to the more generally applied fetal hypophysectomy by decapitation. Fetuses on the 17th day of gestation were approached through a narrow opening in the uterine wall and ...
Chiodini I - - 2003
Dopamine-agonists have significantly increased the number of pregnancies in women with micro- and macro-prolactinomas, as ovulation can be restored in the great majority of these patients. Thus, the main questions regard the possible consequences of high estrogen levels on tumor volume and the possible effects of D2-agonists on fetal development. ...
Vizner B - - 2002
The lymphocytic hypophysitis, appearing in women during the third trimester of pregnancy or early post-partum period, is a rare cause of hypopituitarism and pituitary enlargement. A 39 year-old woman presented in the 37th week of pregnancy with bilateral heteronymous quadrantanopsia, CT indicative of tumorous mass and symptoms of hypopituitarism with ...
Langlois Dominique - - 2002
The development and function of the primate adrenal cortex are characterized by rapid growth, high steroidogenic activity, and a particular morphological appearance. The fetal adrenal glands grow rapidly and exponentially and at term are similar in weight to adult adrenals. From birth to 1 year their mass is reduced as ...
Goto M - - 2002
Aberrant adrenocortical function during the first trimester of human fetal development underlies the severe virilization of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) deficiency. Although valuable information of human adrenocortical development after 12 weeks gestation is available, less is known earlier in pregnancy. In our studies, the adrenal ...
Chang Chiung-Hsin - - 2002
To assess the normal fetal adrenal gland volume during normal gestation, we performed a prospective study on 119 normal fetuses with gestational age ranging from 21 to 40 weeks using a 3-D ultrasound (US) volume scanner with a pure cross-sectional design. Polynomial regression analysis was calculated to find the best-fit ...
Trainer Peter J - - 2002
Pregnancy results in major changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn influence fetal growth and the timing of labor. From the beginning of the second trimester maternal cortisol secretion increases, and in late pregnancy the placenta, in large part mediated through corticotroph-releasing hormone, plays a crucial role in ...
Mah Peak Mann - - 2002
Hyperprolactinemia is the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A prolactinoma is the most common cause of chronic hyperprolactinemia once pregnancy, primary hypothyroidism, and drugs that elevate serum prolactin levels have been excluded. Patients can present with hypogonadism, infertility, galactorrhea, osteopenia, and mass effects of the tumor. When ...
Edwards L J - - 2002
We have previously demonstrated that maternal undernutrition during either the 'periconceptional' (i.e. from 60 days (d) before until 7 d after mating) or 'gestational' periods (i.e. from 8 d after mating until the end of pregnancy) have differential effects on the subsequent development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and on ...
Wy L A - - 2002
Cushing's syndrome occurring during pregnancy is frequently due to an adrenal neoplasm. Adrenal gland tumors occasionally respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). We report a case of Cushing's syndrome during and following pregnancy due to an adrenal carcinoma which expressed the LH/hCG receptor. The presence of ...
Fincham J - - 2002
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from a deficiency in one or other of the five enzymes of cortisol biosynthesis. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) and this may be manifest clinically in the neonatal period as a life threatening salt-wasting ...
Rowe J G - - 2002
Recognizing a change in our workload and variabilities in referral patterns, we reviewed our previous activity from 1994 to 2000 retrospectively and examined prospectively formal referrals to the Unit in 2001. Arteriovenous malformations still constitute 30% of referrals and treatments, although as a proportion of our workload, this has declined. ...
Blackhurst G - - 2002
TSH-secreting pituitary tumours are rare but difficult to treat due to a combination of refractory hyperthyroidism and low surgical cure rates. We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who, despite twin pregnancy, became euthyroid and had dramatic tumour shrinkage on octreotide treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first ...
Butler Timothy G - - 2002
The developing embryo and fetus respond to a range of intrauterine stressors, but the effect of chronic intrauterine stress on the programmed development of pituitary corticotrophs has not been investigated. We have used a pregnant sheep model in which the embryonic environment at conception has been surgically perturbed by uterine ...
Howe D C - - 2002
The obese gene product leptin, originally characterised as an adipocyte hormone coordinating the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to starvation, is expressed in fetal adipocytes and placental trophoblast cells and is present in the fetal circulation. Concentrations of leptin in fetal blood correlate with fetal bodyweight and fat mass. In post-natal ...
Xiao Daliao - - 2002
During pregnancy, maternal plasma cortisol concentrations approximately double. Given that cortisol plays an important role in the regulation of vascular reactivity, the present study investigated the potential role of cortisol in potentiation of uterine artery (UA) contractility and tested the hypothesis that pregnancy downregulated the cortisol-mediated potentiation. In vitro cortisol ...
Challis John R G - - 2002
Increased uterine contractility at term and preterm results first from activation and then stimulation of the myometrium. Activation can be provoked by mechanical stretch of the uterus, and by an endocrine pathway resulting from increased activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In sheep fetuses, increased cortisol output during pregnancy regulates ...
Rae M T - - 2002
The aims of this study were to determine which hormones may have a role in the expression of maternal undernutrition effects on reproductive function, in both the developing fetus and the adult offspring. This was undertaken by measuring the effects of long-term maternal undernutrition on metabolic hormone profiles and pituitary ...
Young Sharla F SF Department of Physiology/Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, - - 2002
Responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is decreased during pregnancy. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if responsiveness at the level of individual corticotrophs to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) is decreased during pregnancy in sheep. Anterior pituitaries (APs) were collected from pregnant and nonpregnant ...
Edwards L J - - 2002
Evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental studies has shown that a suboptimal intrauterine environment during early pregnancy can alter fetal growth and gestation length and is associated with an increased prevalence of adult hypertension and cardiovascular disease. It has been postulated that maternal nutrient restriction may act to reprogram the ...
Coulter C L - - 2002
During fetal life, it is critical that there is coordinate regulation of the growth, zonation and differentiation of the fetal adrenal cortex to ensure that cells in key tissues and organs are exposed in a programmed temporal sequence to the actions of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are essential for maturation of key ...
Mapes Samantha - - 2002
The developmental expressions of cytochrome b5 (b5), 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were examined in primate fetal adrenals by immunocytochemistry from 50-160 d gestation. The expression of b5 was evident at 50 d in the developing fetal zone (FZ), but decreased markedly through midgestation, then increased ...
O'Dwyer D T - - 2002
The first target autoantigen to have been identified in lymphocytic hypophysitis is a 49 kDa protein, identified as alpha-enolase. Pituitary autoimmunity is strongly associated with pregnancy and we have shown that pituitary autoantibodies from patients with peripartum lymphocytic hypophysitis also recognise enolase in the placenta. Enolase exists in different forms ...
Laurent V - - 2002
The serine protease prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), principally involved in the processing of polypeptide hormone precursors in neuroendocrine tissues, requires interaction with the neuroendocrine protein 7B2 to generate an enzymatically active form. 7B2 null mice express no PC2 activity and release large quantities of uncleaved ACTH, resulting in a lethal ...
Hull K L - - 2002
It is now well established that exogenous GH promotes sexual maturation and reproductive function. The possibility that this may reflect physiological actions of endogenous GH has, however, rarely been considered. Correlative changes in GH secretion and reproductive state (puberty, pregnancy, lactation, menopause and ovarian cycles) are thus the primary focus ...
Bronstein Marcello Delano - - 2002
The development of efficacious surgical and medical therapies for pituitary adenomas as well as the improvement of hormone therapy for ovulation induction has made pregnancy possible for women harboring pituitary tumors. However, gestational risks due to the possibility of tumor growth during pregnancy, mainly in women with macroadenomas, raise a ...
Kalachanis I - - 2002
The authors describe a case of a 35-year-old man with 5-year duration infertility. History, clinical examination, and laboratory tests have established the diagnosis of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in improvement of sperm quality, and 4 months later a pregnancy was achieved. Two ...
Phillips D I - - 2001
1. Epidemiological studies have shown that small size at birth is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and its risk factors, including hypertension and type 2 diabetes. 2. It is suggested that these observed links between low birthweight with disease result from an imbalance between fetal nutrient ...
Lo C Y - - 2002
Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is rare because of the suppressive effect of excessive glucocorticoid on the female reproductive system. Adrenal adenoma is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy. Surgical treatment by unilateral adrenalectomy was preferred during pregnancy before the advent of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. We describe two patients ...
Liu C - - 2001
We report a pregnant woman with a large macroprolactinoma successfully treated with cabergoline after a suboptimal response to bromocriptine. A 7 week pregnant woman with a history of a prolactinoma presented to the endocrine clinic with the complaints of headaches and nausea. She had a prolactin level of 65 microg/L ...
Cudd T A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that in utero ethanol exposure results in changes in fetal and maternal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol during the third trimester equivalent, by using a chronically instrumented fetal sheep model. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received saline or ethanol intravenously 3 consecutive days per week from day 109 ...
Krimholtz M J - - 2001
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an uncommon condition that typically occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy or in the postpartum period. Presentation is of an anterior pituitary mass with varying degrees of pituitary dysfunction. We present a case in which there was dramatic resolution of the pituitary lesion on sequential MRI ...
Fraser M - - 2001
Responsiveness of the fetal sheep adrenal gland to adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) increases in late pregnancy, resulting in increased glucocorticoid production. Development of this responsiveness is an important determinant of fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and depends, in part, on the potential for ACTH binding to adrenal tissue. In the present study, we have ...
Whittle W L - - 2001
Birth in many animal species and in humans is associated with activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the fetus and the increased influence of glucocorticoids on trophoblast cells of the placenta and fetal membranes. We suggest that in ovine pregnancy glucocorticoids directly increase fetal placental prostaglandin production, and indirectly increase prostaglandin ...
McLean M - - 2001
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the hypothalamic peptide that controls function of the pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress, is expressed in abundance in the human placenta and is present in high concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma during late pregnancy. A number of lines of evidence now imply a role for ...
Narasaka T - - 2001
Steroid hormones secreted by fetal adrenocortical cells are considered to be a requirement for a fetus to maintain intrauterine life, but, to date, the regulation of steroid hormone secretion has not been studied in detail in the human fetal adrenal gland. In this study, we examined the immunolocalization of steroidogenic ...
Lo J C - - 2001
Although low fertility rates have traditionally been reported among women with classic CAH and especially among women with the salt-wasting variant, more recent data suggest that fertility rates are significantly improved, largely owing to earlier treatment of CAH, improved compliance with therapy, and surgical advances in genital reconstruction. Furthermore, ovulation ...
Karunakaran S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Microprolactinomas have been reported to resolve spontaneously after pregnancy and there have been suggestions that oestrogen therapy increases the size of microprolactinomas. Little is known, however, about the effect of the menopause in patients previously known to be hyperprolactinaemic. The aim of this study was to find out if ...
Parc Y R - - 2001
To determine the prevalence of adenomas in ileal pouches from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and to determine whether a correlation exists between the presence of pouch adenomas and duodenal adenomas and the site of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation. Restorative proctocolectomy can markedly reduce the risk of ...
Hána V - - 2001
A 17-year-old primigravid woman presented with Cushing's syndrome. Typical clinical symptoms and signs developed at the beginning of pregnancy. By week 17 of gestation, plasma cortisol diurnal rhythm was absent and there was a paradoxical increase in plasma cortisol after a 1-mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. Basal urinary free cortisol ...
Murphy H - - 2001
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a well-recognized, but uncommon, cause of azoospermia and infertility in men. Commonly this is due to undertreatment of excessive adrenal androgen secretion which suppresses gonadotrophin stimulation of the testes. A less common complication of CAH is development of adrenal tissue within the testes; this is ...
Edwards, Lisa J.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 228-257).
Edwards, Lisa J.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 228-257). Aims to determine the impact of maternal undernutrition during late gestation and during the periconceptional and gestational periods on fetal growth, fetal blood pressure and the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis in the sheep.
Gitau R - - 2001
Paired fetal and maternal samples were obtained, at fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion, to study hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses. This confirmed that the fetus mounts an hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response to transfusion via the intrahepatic vein, which involves piercing the fetal trunk, but not to transfusion via the placental cord insertion ...
Vidal S - - 2001
Previous studies conclusively demonstrated transformation of somatotrophs into bihormonal mammosomatotrophs in gestational lactotroph hyperplasia during pregnancy. Similar transdifferentiation of somatotrophs into thyrotrophs through bihormonal intermediate thryrosomatotrophs was documented during thyrotroph hyperplasia in both rodent and human pituitaries in hypothyroidism. The cessation of the stimulation resulted in reversal of the process ...
Schwartz J - - 2001
1. Activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis waxes and wanes as a function of gestational age. 2. In a number of species, including sheep, at the end of gestation there is an increase in HPA activity, as characterized by an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoids. 3. To a certain ...
Hull K L - - 2001
GH, as its name suggests, is obligatory for growth and development. It is, however, also involved in the processes of sexual differentiation and pubertal maturation and it participates in gonadal steroidogenesis, gametogenesis and ovulation. It also has additional roles in pregnancy and lactation. These actions may reflect direct endocrine actions ...
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