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Chamoux E - - 2005
The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, body homeostasis and secondary sexual characters, emerges from a tightly regulated development of a zone-specific secretion pattern during fetal life. Its development during fetal life is critical for the well being of pregnancy, the initiation of delivery, and even for ...
Preest Marion R - - 2005
The typical stress response in reptiles involves the release of corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Elevated maternal concentrations of corticosterone in mammals during pregnancy may have deleterious effects on offspring fitness, and recent work has shown a suppression of the hormonal response to stress during pregnancy in rats. Little is ...
Siawrys Gabriela - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the detection and location of long form leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in different area of hypothalamus and pituitary in the pig during early pregnancy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Expression of OB-Rb was examined by RT-PCR in the different area of hypothalamus: medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), ...
Handl Claudia H - - 2005
In the molluscan class Solenogastres, different types of foregut glands vary in number, structure, and location within the foregut. The present article describes their anatomy and cytology and intends to clarify their confused terminology. Pharyngeal glands, esophageal glands, and the more complex dorsal and ventrolateral foregut glands can be distinguished. ...
Miller Caela - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the paraganglion sympathetic system. All of the previously reported cases have described surgical resection during the antepartum period. CASE: At 14 weeks of gestation, a multiparous patient was diagnosed with an extra-adrenal dopaminergic pheochromocytoma. A decision was made ...
Fallo F - - 2005
Adrenal incidentalomas detected during pregnancy are very rare, and the natural history of these tumors during gestation is unknown. We report a case of a pregnant woman with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously, who was followed-up during gestation and underwent adrenalectomy shortly after delivery. This allowed the evaluation of both ...
Reimsnider Sharon K - - 2005
Placental production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases in fetal sheep as term approaches. It has been suggested that placental PGE2 may act as a hormone to activate the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Alternatively, we have proposed that local generation of prostaglandins in the fetal brain and/or pituitary might play a ...
Lindsay John R - - 2005
Pregnancy dramatically affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to increased circulating cortisol and ACTH levels during gestation, reaching values in the range seen in Cushing's syndrome (CS). The cause(s) of increased ACTH may include placental synthesis and release of biologically active CRH and ACTH, pituitary desensitization to cortisol feedback, or enhanced ...
Owen Dawn - - 2005
The fetus may be exposed to increased endogenous glucocorticoid or synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation. Approximately 7% of pregnant women in Europe and North America are treated with synthetic glucocorticoid to promote lung maturation in fetuses at risk of preterm delivery. Very little is known about the mechanisms by which ...
See Ting-Ting - - 2005
Sheehan's syndrome is caused by pregnancy-related hemorrhage leading to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary gland and hypopituitarism. Spontaneous pregnancy in Sheehan's syndrome is very rare. We report the case of a patient with Sheehan's syndrome who suffered from anterior pituitary insufficiency, but with sparing of gonadotropic function. The patient ...
Gavrilova-Jordan Larisa - - 2005
Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage of the adrenal gland that occurs in the absence of trauma or anticoagulant therapy. The incidence of this condition in pregnancy is unknown. We describe a patient with spontaneous unilateral adrenal hemorrhage that occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy. She was successfully ...
Lindsay John R - - 2005
Cushing's syndrome (CS) occurs rarely during pregnancy. We investigated and treated four patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy over a 15-yr period at the National Institutes of Health. Except for preservation of menses before conception, our patients presented with typical clinical features, increased urinary free cortisol, and loss of ...
Wood Charles E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The hormonal interactions between the placenta and the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are reviewed. METHODS: This review addresses data obtained from the chronically catheterized fetal sheep, drawing relevant comparisons to human fetuses. RESULTS: In the sheep, and perhaps in primate species, parturition is initiated by an increase in the ...
Sanson Gorm - - 2005
In the semi-domesticated blue fox, handling stress may influence reproductive performance and increase perinatal pup loss. Ovarian and adrenal steroids were analysed in faecal samples collected from mid-gestation through the first week of lactation in 40 female blue foxes to characterize hormone patterns during this important reproductive period. Daily faecal ...
Tsagarakis S - - 2005
Adequate ADH secretion, adrenal and thyroid functions are vital during the acute and post-acute phases of TBI. Deficiencies of these functions as a result of TBI are increasingly recognized. During the acute phase of TBI the incidence of severe DI is 2.9%; the incidence of less severe forms of DI ...
Albrecht Eugene D - - 2005
In the present study, we determined whether endogenous estrogen, the levels of which increase with advancing pregnancy, regulates growth and development of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained at mid- (d 100) and late (d 165, term is 184 d) gestation from untreated baboons and on ...
González-Mariscal G - - 2004
To investigate the participation of prolactin in nest-building and maternal behaviour in rabbits, we administered (from pregnancy day 26 to parturition) rabbit prolactin (rbPRL; or vehicle) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to primiparous animals injected with bromocriptine subcutaneously (s.c.). Control females (given vehicle s.c. and i.c.v.) built a maternal nest (of straw and ...
Rainey William E - - 2004
Human pregnancy is marked by alterations in several endocrine systems--perhaps most notably, the striking increase in steroid hormone production by the adrenals of the fetus and mother. Morphologically and physiologically, the human fetal adrenal glands are remarkable organs. In proportion to the adult organs, the adrenal cortex is the largest ...
Foyouzi Nastaran - - 2004
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is central to mammalian reproductive function, including conception, pregnancy maintenance, parturition, and breastfeeding. Pregnancy is associated with substantial physiologic changes within this endocrine axis to meet the demands of pregnancy, which include support of the fetus (volume support, nutritional and oxygen supply, clearance of fetal waste), protection ...
McMillen I C - - 2004
It is well established in the sheep, that the normal timing of parturition is dependent on a prepartum activation of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis. We have recently demonstrated for the first time that embryo number, embryo sex, and alterations in the environment of the early embryo, including exposure to maternal ...
Matthews S G - - 2004
The fetus may be exposed to increased endogenous glucocorticoid or synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation. Indeed, 7-10% of pregnant women in Europe and North America are treated with synthetic glucocorticoid to promote lung maturation in fetuses at risk of preterm delivery. Such therapy is effective in reducing respiratory complications. However, ...
Rainey William E - - 2004
During most of gestation, the fetal adrenal gland is almost solely dedicated to the production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). This specialized ability of the fetal adrenal is unique to primates and occurs because of a specialized fetal zone that composes the bulk of the fetal adrenal gland. Morphologically and physiologically, ...
Chiodini I - - 2004
Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKR) is considered as a possible treatment for patients affected by unsuccessfully surgically treated pituitary adenoma or not suitable for surgery. The disadvantages of this technique seem to be the length of time to the onset of remission, which is known to be at least of 6 months, ...
de Heide L J M - - 2004
Pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy is a rare but serious event with significant morbidity and even possible mortality if not recognised in time. A 26-year-old woman was admitted with sudden onset of severe headache, vomiting, disturbed consciousness and photophobia. MRI showed a pituitary apoplexy. Adrenal insufficiency with circulatory shock was present ...
Andrews Z B - - 2004
The major hypothalamic control over prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibitory by means of dopamine released from tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones. We have previously shown a dissociation between activity of TIDA neurones and prolactin secretion during late pregnancy, suggesting involvement of additional regulatory factors. The aim of ...
Coulter Catherine L - - 2004
1. The main aim of the present review is to summarize recent experimental data from human and non-human primate models that have identified factors essential for adrenal development and other factors that may determine the regulation of the specific structural organization and function of the adrenal gland. 2. The fetal ...
Colberg Claudia - - 2004
Antenatal glucocorticoids routinely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation in human pregnancy at risk of preterm delivery decrease synaptic density and complex electrocortical activity in the fetal sheep brain at 0.87 gestation. We examined whether the effects of betamethasone on synaptic density depend on maturation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and ...
Kalantaridou Sophia N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a complex, mostly inhibitory, effect on the female reproductive system. In addition, the principal regulator of this axis, the hypothalamic neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptors have been identified in most female reproductive tissues, including the ovary, uterus, and placenta. Furthermore, CRH is ...
Martinelli P - - 2004
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN 2A) is an inherited dominant syndrome characterised by medullary thyroid carcinoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism due to specific RET proto-oncogene mutations. Fertile MEN 2A women are at risk of complicated pregnancy because of unrecognised pheochromocytoma and transmission of RET mutation to the progeny. This condition ...
Esser T - - 2004
We report the prenatal findings of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in two consecutive fetuses of one family. The first pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks' gestation due to the presence of a complex heart anomaly. The adrenal glands appeared enlarged on prenatal ultrasound examination and autopsy confirmed CAH. The parents ...
Kutzler Michelle A - - 2004
Women who are at risk of preterm delivery are treated with antenatal steroids to facilitate fetal lung maturation. During this period, there is a potential for fetal or maternal hypoxemia to occur. Fetal responses to hypoxemia in sheep are well documented. However, less is known regarding maternal responses to hypoxemia. ...
Saisto Terhi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Women suffering from fear of labor have reduced pain tolerance during a cold pressor test (CPT) during and after pregnancy. METHODS: We compared levels of norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and beta-endorphin before and during the CPT up to 60 min in 20 normotensive women with and 20 without fear ...
Irmak M K - - 2004
Human fetal adrenal development is characterized by rapid growth, high steroidogenic activity, and a distinct morphology, including a unique cortical compartment known as the fetal zone. For most of gestation, the predominant fetal zone accounts for 80-90% of the cortical volume and is the primary site of growth and steroidogenesis, ...
Kitajima Yoshimitsu - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in a woman with hypopituitarism from a suprasellar germinoma is rare. CASE: A 27-year-old woman presented with panhypopituitarism from a suprasellar germinoma. She had diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, adrenal cortex dysfunction, and hypogonadotropic ovarian failure. When treated with thyroxin, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin, ...
Roels Hendrik - - 2003
Norbert Goormaghtigh was born in Ostend on February 14, 1890 and died in Sint-Martens-Latem (Belgium) on January 2, 1960. He was chief of pathology in Ghent from 1923 and became well known for his studies on the structure of the adrenal gland. He started his studies on the kidney and ...
Kalantaridou Sophia N - - 2003
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as its receptors, have been identified in most female reproductive tissues, including the uterus, placenta, and ovary. Endometrial CRH may participate in decidualization, implantation, and early maternal tolerance; placental CRH may participate in the physiology of pregnancy and ...
Mastorakos George - - 2003
The principal modulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Corticotropin-releasing hormone is not exclusively produced in the hypothalamus. Its presence has been demonstrated at peripheral inflammatory sites. Ovulation and luteolysis bear characteristics of an aseptic inflammation. CRH was found in the theca and stromal ...
Costedoat-Chalumeau N - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Mothers with anti-SSA/Ro antibodies who have had a previous fetus with congenital heart block (CHB) have a risk of recurrence estimated to be up to 16%. OBJECTIVE: To improve the management of these "high risk patients" by determining (a) whether or not prophylactic treatment is efficient; (b) whether or ...
Braems Geert - - 2003
The development of diseases in later life, such as diabetes type II, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, is linked to abnormal intrauterine conditions that reduce birth weight. Obviously, fetal development can be disturbed so profoundly, that fetal programming is changed permanently. We have examined the effects of hypoxia, or more precisely ...
Douglas Alison J - - 2003
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis secretory responses to stress were compared in female virgin, late pregnant, parturient, and lactating mice. The basal plasma ACTH concentration was not different in pregnancy or lactation compared with virgins, but corticosterone concentration and corticosteroid-binding globulin capacity were greatly elevated in late pregnancy. Secretory responses to novel environment ...
Molitch Mark E - - 2003
Tumors vary in how they affect pregnancy depending upon the hormone secreted. Some hormone oversecretion syndromes must be controlled to allow pregnancy to proceed without undue maternal and fetal morbidity (Cushing's disease and hyperthyroidism) whereas treatment during pregnancy for other tumors is not necessary. Surveillance for tumor growth during pregnancy ...
Ambrosi B - - 2003
Although primary adrenal failure is considered a rare condition, recent epidemiological studies indicate a rising incidence of the disease owing to the increase of autoimmune disorders. Addison's disease may be a life-threatening condition and the occurrence of pregnancy has been considered as a dangerous event. Nowadays, adrenal insufficiency during pregnancy ...
Nicopoullos J D M - - 2003
In the majority of the 25% of couples in which a male factor is responsible for their infertility, no identifiable pathology is found. It is unusual to be faced with an etiology that is readily amenable to successful treatment without the eventual dependence on assisted reproductive techniques for pregnancy. The ...
Gondim J - - 2003
A 29-year-old woman with a prolactin microadenoma was under good control with bromocriptine (BCP) therapy until she became pregnant, when the treatment was stopped. During the third trimester of pregnancy the patient presented a unilateral visual loss and intermittent headaches. BCP was restarted and one week later she developed a ...
Kim Hwi Gon - - 2003
Cushing s syndrome in pregnant women is rare and difficult to be diagnosed because of the syndrome's association with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea and the changes in cortisol metabolism during normal pregnancy. Cushing syndrome in pregnancy is usually confused with complicated pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or gestational diabetes, and its rarity ...
Stikkelbroeck Nike M M L - - 2003
Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency appears to be reduced. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reported evidence about subfertility in women with CAH and to review the causes of reduced fertility. Compared with a non-CAH female population, pregnancy and live-birth ...
Nguyen Phuong N - - 2003
Pregnane steroids have sedative and neuroprotective effects on the brain as a result of interactions with the steroid-binding site of the GABAA receptor. To determine whether the fetal brain is able to synthesize pregnane steroids de novo from cholesterol, we measured the expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and ...
Wood Charles E - - 2003
In sheep, the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the initiation of parturition. We have reported that estradiol dramatically increases the activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Sulfoconjugated estrogens are known to circulate in high concentrations in fetal plasma. We have reported the expression and abundant activity ...
Sandman Curt A - - 2003
Maternal peptides from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis rise during human pregnancy. The effects of circulating maternal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and beta-endorphin (BE) on human fetal behavior was determined in 135 women during their 32nd week of gestation. Fetal behavior was measured by assessing heart rate habituation to a series of repeated ...
Enemar Anders - - 2003
A detailed description is given of a surgical technique for selectively removing the pituitary anlage from the intrauterine fetal rat as an alternative to the more generally applied fetal hypophysectomy by decapitation. Fetuses on the 17th day of gestation were approached through a narrow opening in the uterine wall and ...
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