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Mohaupt Markus G - - 2008
Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases. Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors. Arterial hypertension caused by volume overload is ...
Shi Lijun - - 2008
The hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis by secreting arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in response to a variety of signals, including osmotic and nonosmotic stimuli. It is well established that central cholinergic mechanisms are critical in the regulation of cardiovascular responses ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2007
Kisspeptins, including metastin, are encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and play an important role in regulating the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system via G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54, also called KiSS-1R). Normally, metastin (also called Kp-54) levels are quite low, except during pregnancy, when levels increase 1000-fold over those found ...
Rumball C W H - - 2008
The relationships between reduced size at birth, increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and increased risk of disease in adulthood are well described in singletons but are much less clear in twins. This may be because the physiological processes underlying reduced size at birth are different in singletons and ...
Vilar Lucio - - 2007
Cushing's syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature. Adrenal adenomas were found to be the commonest cause, followed by Cushing's disease. The gestation dramatically affects the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in increased hepatic production of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), increased levels ...
Prabhakar V K B - - 2008
Hyperprolactinaemia is a frequent cause of reproductive problems encountered in clinical practice. A variety of pathophysiological conditions can lead to hyperprolactinaemia; therefore, pregnancy, drug effects, hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome should be excluded before investigating for prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours. Prolactinomas are mainly diagnosed in women aged 20-40 years. They present ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2007
Transcription factor GATA-6 has been demonstrated to be expressed in the human fetal and adult adrenal cortex and has been postulated to play an important role in adrenal steroid biosynthesis. However, the status for GATA-6 expression has not been examined in detail especially in relation to adrenal development and aging. ...
Krone Nils N Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, - - 2007
Normal male sex development requires the SRY gene on the Y chromosome, the regression of Müllerian structures via anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signalling, the development of the Wolffian duct system into normal male internal genital structures consequent to testosterone secretion by the testicular Leydig cells, and finally, sufficient activation of testosterone ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2008
Complications during pregnancy and birth asphyxia lead to brain injury, with devastating consequences for the neonate. In this paper we present evidence that the steroid environment during pregnancy and at birth aids in protecting the fetus and neonate from asphyxia-induced injury. Earlier studies show that the placental progesterone production has ...
Kita Marina - - 2007
Cushing's syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare nosology with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis is common, as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. CS during pregnancy is usually associated with severe maternal and fetal complications. A high degree of clinical ...
Weng Qiang - - 2007
To elucidate the relationship between steroidogenic hormones and developing adrenal glands, we investigated the immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained from three horses at 217, 225 and 235 days of gestation. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised ...
Yawar Aasima - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with untreated Cushing's disease who had 2 spontaneous pregnancies that resulted in healthy babies on both occasions. METHODS: We present a case report with clinical, laboratory, and imaging data and discuss the literature pertaining to pregnancy in patients with Cushing's syndrome. RESULTS: A 28-year-old woman ...
O'Sullivan Jackie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The timing of parturition in most mammals is thought to be linked to a late gestational rise in corticosteroid production by the fetal adrenal gland. We hypothesised that gestational age would be prolonged in our patients with impaired cortisol production secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase ...
Glynn Laura M LM Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868, United States. - - 2007
Significant ethnic disparities exist in reproductive outcomes. A potential contributing factor may be the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and placenta during pregnancy. In the present study, levels of cortisol, ACTH and CRH were determined longitudinally from the plasma of 310 African American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women at ...
Turan Ozhan M - - 2007
To investigate the risk of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) by evaluating the fetal adrenal gland volume, hallmark of activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography. We performed 3-dimensional ultrasound examination of the fetal adrenal gland volume in 126 singleton fetuses, prospectively ...
Kalf Johanna G - - 2007
Drooling is a common and incapacitating problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) into the parotid glands seems beneficial. Injection of the submandibular glands may also be effective since these produce 70% of the daily unstimulated saliva. We randomly allocated patients to BoNT injections into the submandibular ...
Vceláková Helena - - 2007
New combined radioimmunoassay for determination of 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate (17-PregS) involving the hydrolysis of analyte by methanolysis was developed. 17-PregS, in addition to being secreted by the adrenals, is also formed by peripheral sulfoconjugation of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-Preg) or directly by hydroxylation of pregnenolone sulfate with 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20lyase. The measurement of 17-PregS can ...
de Groot Johanna - - 2007
Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress responsiveness and immunological parameters in their piglets. In the present ...
Hodyl Nicolette A - - 2007
Prenatal exposure of animals to bacterial endotoxin is an experimental model of systemic maternal infection in the human pregnancy. Previous studies in the rat have demonstrated that such exposure is associated with long term alterations to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis development. Typically, these animals display an elevated HPA response ...
Taketoh Junko - - 2007
The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the fetal expression of testicular cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17), one of the enzymes necessary for sex steroid synthesis, was studied in Wistar rats. Fetal testicular CYP17 exhibited reduced mRNA and protein levels following exposure of the dams at gestational day 15 to 1 microg/kg ...
Chen Huan-Wen - - 2007
Ovulation induction is seldom reported to cause pituitary abnormality and the physiological enlargement of the pituitary gland during pregnancy is asymptomatic. We report a woman who became pregnant after ovulation induction. She had symptomatic pituitary enlargement with a pituitary height of 2 cm on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ...
Simm Peter J - - 2007
11 beta-Hydroxylase deficiency is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, resulting in virilization, glucocorticoid deficiency and hypertension. There have been no previous reports in the literature of a successful pregnancy in a severely affected female. We report the first successful pregnancy resulting in a live birth for a female ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key mediator of endocrine, autonomic, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. The ability of CRH to induce hormonal stress responses has been used to investigate the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and consequently the activity of hypothalamic CRH neuronal systems. Indeed, CRH administration to humans ...
Smith Roger - - 2007
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the hypothalamic peptide that controls the function of the pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress. CRH is also expressed abundantly in the human placenta and is present in high concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma during late pregnancy. During pregnancy, CRH derived from the placenta is ...
MacLaughlin Severence M - - 2007
Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) results in an earlier prepartum activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis in twin compared with singleton fetuses. We have tested the hypotheses that the functional development of the fetal sheep adrenal is delayed in twins compared with singletons in early gestation and that PCUN accelerates adrenal growth and ...
Vandersmissen Tim - - 2007
In Bombyx mori, ecdysteroidogenesis by the prothoracic glands (PGs) is controlled by both prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and a factor secreted by the glands themselves. This factor, which is active both in vitro and in vivo, has been named 'autocrine factor' (AF). To find out whether or not this dual control ...
Vitoratos Nikolaos - - 2006
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a 41 amino acid peptide, is an important regulatory molecule synthesized by neurons of the parvocellular and magnocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. It acts as the major physiologic corticotropin (ACTH) secretagogue. The CRH gene is located in humans on chromosome 8. The CRH hormone family has at least ...
Federenko Ilona S - - 2006
Pregnancy is associated with considerable physiological adaptations, some of which long outlast the state of pregnancy. Although it is well documented that pregnancy produces alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the longer-term effects of pregnancy on this system have not been systematically examined in humans. Subjects in the present study were ...
Qureshi Asjid - - 2006
A 29 year old woman with difficult to control acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma responded to pegvisomant therapy and subsequently conceived with her first cycle of in-vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes, pituitary gland enlargement and deteriorating visual fields. Conservative management with elective cesarean ...
Moretti A - - 2006
The association of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and pregnancy is uncommon and life threatening for both the fetus and the mother. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to decrease maternal and fetal mortality and to differentiate the disease from the more common pre-eclampsia. While medical treatment should be started immediately after diagnosis, ...
Thomas, V. P.
This is a case of partial hypopituitarism resulting from surgery and radiation for a non- functioning pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had amenorrhea which was secondary to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and had been on L-thyroxine for central hypothyroidism. For pregnancy, ovulation was induced by gonadotrophins and this was followed by an intrauterine ...
Suri Daesman D Thyroid Study Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Mail Code 3090, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2006
Normal pregnancy is a state of hypercortisolism, making adrenal insufficiency difficult to diagnose. We sought to identify a normative, minimum-response threshold for the ACTH stimulation test in pregnancy. We hypothesized that salivary free cortisol (SaFC) would prove a more physiological and less variable measure of adrenal reserve in pregnancy than ...
Torres-Farfan Claudia - - 2006
The primate fetal adrenal reaches a large size relative to body weight followed by a rapid decrease in size in the postnatal period. We tested the hypothesis that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the primate fetal adrenal gland. We suppressed maternal melatonin by exposing eight pregnant capuchin ...
Torres-Farfan C - - 2006
In the adult mammal the circadian system, which allows predictive adaptation to daily environmental changes, comprises peripheral oscillators in most tissues, commanded by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The external environment of the fetus is provided by its mother. In primates, maternal melatonin is a candidate to entrain ...
Farrand Kirsten - - 2006
The prepartum surge in fetal plasma cortisol is essential for the normal timing of parturition in sheep and may result from an increase in the ratio of ACTH to proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the fetal circulation. In fetuses subjected to experimental induction of placental restriction, the prepartum surge in fetal cortisol ...
Moran C - - 2006
CONTEXT: Because many women with 21-hydroxylase (21-OH)-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) carry at least one allele affected by a severe mutation of CYP21, they are at risk for giving birth to infants with classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of CAH and NCAH infants ...
Power Michael L - - 2006
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an ancient regulatory molecule. The CRH hormone family has at least four ligands, two receptors, and a binding protein. Its well-known role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is only one of many. The expression of CRH and its related peptides is widespread in peripheral tissue, with ...
McDonald T J - - 2006
Experiments in several species indicate that the hippocampus influences hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In fetal sheep, simultaneous ACTH and cortisol rises over the last 30 days of gestation peak at term and are necessary for birth. We hypothesized that if the fetal hippocampal formation is functional in late gestation, loss ...
White Perrin C - - 2006
Male and female external genitalia appear identical early in gestation. Testosterone exposure at 8-12 weeks' gestation causes male differentiation. Female fetuses virilize if their adrenals secrete excessive levels of androgens, as occurs in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This can be ameliorated by administering dexamethasone to the mother. ...
Xita Nectaria - - 2006
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and chronic anovulation along with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity as frequent metabolic traits. Although PCOS manifests clinically during adolescence, emerging data suggest that the natural history of PCOS may originate in ...
Kapoor Amita - - 2006
Prenatal stress (PS) and maternal exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and stress-related behaviour. Both of these manipulations lead to increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are essential for many aspects of normal brain development, but exposure of the fetal brain to an ...
Blanco C - - 2006
Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder. We describe the case of a 30-yr-old woman presenting with symptoms and signs of mild hypercortisolism, in which ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed. Urinary cortisol excretion was elevated and circadian rhythm of cortisol was absent. ACTH levels were ...
Power Michael L - - 2006
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a potent neuropeptide, is produced by the placenta of anthropoid primates. No other mammals, including prosimian primates, are known to produce placental CRH. In humans, placental CRH appears to play an important role in the progression of pregnancy to parturition. Maternal circulating CRH begins to rise early ...
Thomas VP, Sathya B, ...
This is a case of partial hypopituitarism resulting from surgery and radiation for a non- functioning pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had amenorrhea which was secondary to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and had been on L-thyroxine for central hypothyroidism. For pregnancy, ovulation was induced by gonadotrophins and this was followed by an intrauterine ...
Weintrob Naomi - - 2006
Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (IAD) is a rare cause of adrenocortical insufficiency, especially in children, and may be an underestimated cause of neonatal death. Early postnatal diagnosis may prevent hypoglycemic seizures, Addisonian crises, and death. There are also occasional reports of prenatal diagnosis of IAD by findings on the ...
Seitz Volkhard - - 2006
AIM: The sites of haematopoiesis during human ontogeny can be correlated to the sites where haematopoiesis occurs in vertebrate phylogeny. As haematopoiesis has been described in the diencephalon and pituitary gland of water-inhabiting vertebrates we wanted to find out whether such a phenomenon also occurs in human embryos. MATERIAL AND ...
Szczepankiewicz Dawid - - 2006
Control of processes responsible for food intake and regulation of energy homeostasis during pregnancy is crucial for mother as well as for fetus development. Leptin is one of the main hormonal factors involved in regulation these processes in organisms. During pregnancy leptin regulates mother's energy balance and may also affect ...
Dacou-Voutetakis Catherine - - 2006
Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase constitutes the most frequent form of Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and is classified into classical and nonclassical (NC) forms. The type of the molecular defect determines the severity of the phenotype with a high degree of concordance for the classical genotypes but with lower concordance for the ...
Mastorakos George - - 2006
Vertebrates respond to stress with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the adrenergic and the autonomic nervous systems. The principal central nervous system regulators of the HPA axis are corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and antidiuretic hormone (AVP). Apart from in the central nervous system, CRH has been found in the ...
Hughes Ieuan - - 2006
The treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) before birth was instituted 20 years ago in an attempt to prevent virilization of the external genitalia in affected girls. Maternally administered dexamethasone, which readily crosses the placenta unaltered, is started very early in pregnancy to ensure adequate suppression of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal ...
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