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Grattan David R - - 2008
During pregnancy, neuroendocrine control of prolactin secretion is markedly altered to allow a state of hyperprolactinaemia to develop. Prolactin secretion is normally tightly regulated by a short-loop negative-feedback mechanism, whereby prolactin stimulates activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones to increase dopamine secretion into the pituitary portal blood. Dopamine inhibits prolactin ...
Wang Hui - - 2008
AIM: Fetal adrenal, which synthesizes steroid hormones, is critical to fetal growth and development. Our recent research showed that some xenobiotics could interfere with steroidogenesis and induce intrauterine growth retardation in rats. The study on the characteristics of biotransformation enzymes in fetal adrenals still seems to be important with respect ...
Refaat Marwan M - - 2008
Neuroblastomas are the fourth most common malignancy of childhood and account for most adrenal tumors in children. However, they are rarely reported in adults. We present herein an extremely rare case of adrenal neuroblastoma occurring in a 25-year-old woman during her first trimester of pregnancy. She had a spontaneous abortion ...
Ebner F H - - 2008
A 31 year old woman in her second pregnancy presented in the 31st (+4) week of gestation with progressive visual impairment of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a tuberculum sellae meningioma that was displaced upward by a markedly enlarged pituitary gland. Neuro-ophthalmological follow-up examinations showed a progressive ...
El-Kasti M M - - 2008
The elevation in baseline circulating growth hormone (GH) that occurs in pregnant rats is thought to arise from increased pituitary GH secretion, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Distribution, Fourier and algorithmic analyses confirmed that the pregnancy-induced increase in circulating GH in 3-week pregnant rats was due to a 13-fold ...
Rumball, Christopher William Henry
Events around conception such as maternal undernutrition and twinning may have effects on offspring physiology and disease risk in adulthood. Periconceptional undernutrition alters offspring physiology and adult pathology without affecting birth size, while twinning affects birth size and physiology but with inconsistent effects on adult pathology. We investigated the effects ...
Bachelot Anne - - 2008
During childhood, the main aims of the medical treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase are to prevent salt loss and virilization and to attain normal stature and normal puberty. As such, there is a narrow therapeutic window through which the intended results can be achieved. In adulthood, ...
Nguyen Ann D - - 2008
The synthesis and secretion of large quantities of the adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfoconjugate DHEA sulfate (DS), is a phenomenon that appears limited to humans and some nonhuman primates. Both hydroxylase and lyase activities of the enzyme 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) are necessary for DHEA production and are ...
Homar Vesna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The synthetic corticosteroid methylprednisolone is used for the treatment of acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease, also in pregnancy. Its use is considered to be less harmful than the effect of active disease on the fetus. Adrenal suppression in a fetus due to administration of methylprednisolone has hitherto been rarely ...
Kil Lee Sang - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Several reports have suggested that flat colorectal adenomas might exhibit a higher potential for malignancy compared to polypoid adenomas. Although the clinical importance of the shape of polyps is stressed, the controversy surrounding the malignant potential of flat adenomas continues. The aim of this study was to compare the ...
Mohaupt Markus G - - 2008
Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases. Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors. Arterial hypertension caused by volume overload is ...
Shi Lijun - - 2008
The hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis by secreting arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in response to a variety of signals, including osmotic and nonosmotic stimuli. It is well established that central cholinergic mechanisms are critical in the regulation of cardiovascular responses ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2007
Kisspeptins, including metastin, are encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and play an important role in regulating the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system via G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54, also called KiSS-1R). Normally, metastin (also called Kp-54) levels are quite low, except during pregnancy, when levels increase 1000-fold over those found ...
Rumball C W H - - 2008
The relationships between reduced size at birth, increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and increased risk of disease in adulthood are well described in singletons but are much less clear in twins. This may be because the physiological processes underlying reduced size at birth are different in singletons and ...
Vilar Lucio - - 2007
Cushing's syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature. Adrenal adenomas were found to be the commonest cause, followed by Cushing's disease. The gestation dramatically affects the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in increased hepatic production of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), increased levels ...
Prabhakar V K B - - 2008
Hyperprolactinaemia is a frequent cause of reproductive problems encountered in clinical practice. A variety of pathophysiological conditions can lead to hyperprolactinaemia; therefore, pregnancy, drug effects, hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome should be excluded before investigating for prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours. Prolactinomas are mainly diagnosed in women aged 20-40 years. They present ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2007
Transcription factor GATA-6 has been demonstrated to be expressed in the human fetal and adult adrenal cortex and has been postulated to play an important role in adrenal steroid biosynthesis. However, the status for GATA-6 expression has not been examined in detail especially in relation to adrenal development and aging. ...
Krone Nils N Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, - - 2007
Normal male sex development requires the SRY gene on the Y chromosome, the regression of Müllerian structures via anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signalling, the development of the Wolffian duct system into normal male internal genital structures consequent to testosterone secretion by the testicular Leydig cells, and finally, sufficient activation of testosterone ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2008
Complications during pregnancy and birth asphyxia lead to brain injury, with devastating consequences for the neonate. In this paper we present evidence that the steroid environment during pregnancy and at birth aids in protecting the fetus and neonate from asphyxia-induced injury. Earlier studies show that the placental progesterone production has ...
Kita Marina - - 2007
Cushing's syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare nosology with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis is common, as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. CS during pregnancy is usually associated with severe maternal and fetal complications. A high degree of clinical ...
Weng Qiang - - 2007
To elucidate the relationship between steroidogenic hormones and developing adrenal glands, we investigated the immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained from three horses at 217, 225 and 235 days of gestation. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised ...
Yawar Aasima - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with untreated Cushing's disease who had 2 spontaneous pregnancies that resulted in healthy babies on both occasions. METHODS: We present a case report with clinical, laboratory, and imaging data and discuss the literature pertaining to pregnancy in patients with Cushing's syndrome. RESULTS: A 28-year-old woman ...
O'Sullivan Jackie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The timing of parturition in most mammals is thought to be linked to a late gestational rise in corticosteroid production by the fetal adrenal gland. We hypothesised that gestational age would be prolonged in our patients with impaired cortisol production secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase ...
Glynn Laura M LM Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868, United States. - - 2007
Significant ethnic disparities exist in reproductive outcomes. A potential contributing factor may be the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and placenta during pregnancy. In the present study, levels of cortisol, ACTH and CRH were determined longitudinally from the plasma of 310 African American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women at ...
Turan Ozhan M OM Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. - - 2007
To investigate the risk of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) by evaluating the fetal adrenal gland volume, hallmark of activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography. We performed 3-dimensional ultrasound examination of the fetal adrenal gland volume in 126 singleton fetuses, prospectively ...
Kalf Johanna G - - 2007
Drooling is a common and incapacitating problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) into the parotid glands seems beneficial. Injection of the submandibular glands may also be effective since these produce 70% of the daily unstimulated saliva. We randomly allocated patients to BoNT injections into the submandibular ...
Vceláková Helena - - 2007
New combined radioimmunoassay for determination of 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate (17-PregS) involving the hydrolysis of analyte by methanolysis was developed. 17-PregS, in addition to being secreted by the adrenals, is also formed by peripheral sulfoconjugation of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-Preg) or directly by hydroxylation of pregnenolone sulfate with 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20lyase. The measurement of 17-PregS can ...
de Groot Johanna - - 2007
Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress responsiveness and immunological parameters in their piglets. In the present ...
Hodyl Nicolette A - - 2007
Prenatal exposure of animals to bacterial endotoxin is an experimental model of systemic maternal infection in the human pregnancy. Previous studies in the rat have demonstrated that such exposure is associated with long term alterations to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis development. Typically, these animals display an elevated HPA response ...
Taketoh Junko - - 2007
The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the fetal expression of testicular cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17), one of the enzymes necessary for sex steroid synthesis, was studied in Wistar rats. Fetal testicular CYP17 exhibited reduced mRNA and protein levels following exposure of the dams at gestational day 15 to 1 microg/kg ...
Chen Huan-Wen - - 2007
Ovulation induction is seldom reported to cause pituitary abnormality and the physiological enlargement of the pituitary gland during pregnancy is asymptomatic. We report a woman who became pregnant after ovulation induction. She had symptomatic pituitary enlargement with a pituitary height of 2 cm on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ...
Simm Peter J - - 2007
11 beta-Hydroxylase deficiency is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, resulting in virilization, glucocorticoid deficiency and hypertension. There have been no previous reports in the literature of a successful pregnancy in a severely affected female. We report the first successful pregnancy resulting in a live birth for a female ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key mediator of endocrine, autonomic, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. The ability of CRH to induce hormonal stress responses has been used to investigate the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and consequently the activity of hypothalamic CRH neuronal systems. Indeed, CRH administration to humans ...
Smith Roger - - 2007
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the hypothalamic peptide that controls the function of the pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress. CRH is also expressed abundantly in the human placenta and is present in high concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma during late pregnancy. During pregnancy, CRH derived from the placenta is ...
MacLaughlin Severence M - - 2007
Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) results in an earlier prepartum activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis in twin compared with singleton fetuses. We have tested the hypotheses that the functional development of the fetal sheep adrenal is delayed in twins compared with singletons in early gestation and that PCUN accelerates adrenal growth and ...
Vandersmissen Tim - - 2007
In Bombyx mori, ecdysteroidogenesis by the prothoracic glands (PGs) is controlled by both prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and a factor secreted by the glands themselves. This factor, which is active both in vitro and in vivo, has been named 'autocrine factor' (AF). To find out whether or not this dual control ...
Vitoratos Nikolaos - - 2006
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a 41 amino acid peptide, is an important regulatory molecule synthesized by neurons of the parvocellular and magnocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. It acts as the major physiologic corticotropin (ACTH) secretagogue. The CRH gene is located in humans on chromosome 8. The CRH hormone family has at least ...
Federenko Ilona S - - 2006
Pregnancy is associated with considerable physiological adaptations, some of which long outlast the state of pregnancy. Although it is well documented that pregnancy produces alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the longer-term effects of pregnancy on this system have not been systematically examined in humans. Subjects in the present study were ...
Qureshi Asjid - - 2006
A 29 year old woman with difficult to control acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma responded to pegvisomant therapy and subsequently conceived with her first cycle of in-vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes, pituitary gland enlargement and deteriorating visual fields. Conservative management with elective cesarean ...
Moretti A - - 2006
The association of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and pregnancy is uncommon and life threatening for both the fetus and the mother. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to decrease maternal and fetal mortality and to differentiate the disease from the more common pre-eclampsia. While medical treatment should be started immediately after diagnosis, ...
Thomas, V. P.
This is a case of partial hypopituitarism resulting from surgery and radiation for a non- functioning pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had amenorrhea which was secondary to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and had been on L-thyroxine for central hypothyroidism. For pregnancy, ovulation was induced by gonadotrophins and this was followed by an intrauterine ...
Suri Daesman D Thyroid Study Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Mail Code 3090, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2006
Normal pregnancy is a state of hypercortisolism, making adrenal insufficiency difficult to diagnose. We sought to identify a normative, minimum-response threshold for the ACTH stimulation test in pregnancy. We hypothesized that salivary free cortisol (SaFC) would prove a more physiological and less variable measure of adrenal reserve in pregnancy than ...
Torres-Farfan Claudia - - 2006
The primate fetal adrenal reaches a large size relative to body weight followed by a rapid decrease in size in the postnatal period. We tested the hypothesis that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the primate fetal adrenal gland. We suppressed maternal melatonin by exposing eight pregnant capuchin ...
Torres-Farfan C - - 2006
In the adult mammal the circadian system, which allows predictive adaptation to daily environmental changes, comprises peripheral oscillators in most tissues, commanded by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The external environment of the fetus is provided by its mother. In primates, maternal melatonin is a candidate to entrain ...
Farrand Kirsten - - 2006
The prepartum surge in fetal plasma cortisol is essential for the normal timing of parturition in sheep and may result from an increase in the ratio of ACTH to proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the fetal circulation. In fetuses subjected to experimental induction of placental restriction, the prepartum surge in fetal cortisol ...
Moran C - - 2006
CONTEXT: Because many women with 21-hydroxylase (21-OH)-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) carry at least one allele affected by a severe mutation of CYP21, they are at risk for giving birth to infants with classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of CAH and NCAH infants ...
Power Michael L - - 2006
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an ancient regulatory molecule. The CRH hormone family has at least four ligands, two receptors, and a binding protein. Its well-known role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is only one of many. The expression of CRH and its related peptides is widespread in peripheral tissue, with ...
McDonald T J - - 2006
Experiments in several species indicate that the hippocampus influences hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In fetal sheep, simultaneous ACTH and cortisol rises over the last 30 days of gestation peak at term and are necessary for birth. We hypothesized that if the fetal hippocampal formation is functional in late gestation, loss ...
White Perrin C - - 2006
Male and female external genitalia appear identical early in gestation. Testosterone exposure at 8-12 weeks' gestation causes male differentiation. Female fetuses virilize if their adrenals secrete excessive levels of androgens, as occurs in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This can be ameliorated by administering dexamethasone to the mother. ...
Xita Nectaria - - 2006
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and chronic anovulation along with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity as frequent metabolic traits. Although PCOS manifests clinically during adolescence, emerging data suggest that the natural history of PCOS may originate in ...
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