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Kalantaridou S N - - 2010
The stress system has suppressive effects on female and male reproductive function. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of stress, has been identified in the female and male reproductive system. Reproductive CRH participates in various reproductive functions that have an inflammatory component, where it serves as an autocrine and paracrine ...
Krull Ina - - 2010
Pituitary apoplexy in pregnancy is rare. Its clinical features may range from unspecific complaints to panhypopituitarism resulting even in coma and death. Therefore, alertness to signs and symptoms of acute loss of pituitary function in pregnancy is mandatory. We report a woman in her 7th week of her first gestation ...
Pollack Rachel Pessah - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) diagnosed and treated surgically during the third trimester of pregnancy and resulting in delivery of a healthy baby boy. METHODS: We present a detailed case report, and we review and evaluate the English-language literature on CS during pregnancy. RESULTS: ...
Sarathi Vijaya - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on pheochromocytoma in pregnancy (PIP) published during the 11-year period 1998 through 2008. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE data sources from 1998 through 2008 using the search terms "pheochromocytoma" and "pregnancy" and reviewed case reports of PIP published in English. RESULTS: We identified 54 case reports ...
Jansson Caroline - - 2010
The aim was to describe midwives' and nurses' experiences when women are diagnosed with a missed miscarriage during a routine ultrasound scan in pregnancy weeks 18-20. A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and 13 semi-structured interviews were used for data collection from these three domains: midwives at an ...
Bidet Maud - - 2010
Objective: In contrast to subfertility often reported in women suffering from the classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, fertility in nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) has been rarely studied. Our objective was to evaluate fertility in NC-CAH women. Material and Methods: We studied 190 NC-CAH women (161 ...
Lunghi L - - 2010
For many years glucocorticoids have been used world-wide in pregnant women for treatment of a variety of medical disorders, from bronchial asthma to systemic lupus erythematosous, to renal transplant. More recently their administration has been successfully addressed to the prevention of congenital fetal diseases. In some of these, such as ...
Karaca Z - - 2010
Major hormonal changes emerge during pregnancy. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs with altered anatomy and physiology. The pituitary gland is enlarged as a result of lactotroph hyperplasia. Due to physiological changes in the pituitary and target hormone levels, binding globulins, and placental hormones, hormonal evaluation ...
Braun Thorsten - - 2009
Fetal exposure to elevated levels of bioactive glucocorticoids early in gestation, as in suspected cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, may result in adverse neurological events. Fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal development and function may be involved. We investigated immediate and long-term effects of maternal dexamethasone (DEX) administration early in pregnancy on fetal growth ...
Buss Claudia - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intraindividual changes in cortisol responsiveness over pregnancy and the length of human gestation. Pregnancy-related changes in the cortisol awakening response (CAR), which is a measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, were assessed prospectively in 101 pregnant women at 16.8 +/- ...
Brunton Paula J - - 2009
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine stress response system. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) play a key role in coordinating responses of this system to stressors. The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), mimicking infection, robustly activates these CRH neurons via a noradrenergic input arising from ...
Rask E - - 2009
Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is rare, and rather than being of pituitary origin most patients exhibit ACTH-independent adrenal hypercortisolism. In some cases the syndrome has spontaneously resolved post partum, suggesting the presence of a pregnancy-associated stimulatory factor(s). We describe a case with aberrant adrenal LH/hCG receptors in a large adrenal ...
Connor Kristin L - - 2009
In sheep, maternal periconceptional undernutrition precociously activates fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in a high proportion of animals, resulting in preterm birth. We investigated whether the effects of periconceptional undernutrition were mediated through genes encoding enzymes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis and in placental production and metabolism of steroids and prostaglandins. Singleton-bearing ewes ...
Terhune Kyla P - - 2009
Pregnancy and Cushing's syndrome rarely coexist. When they do, it is generally the result of the presence of an adrenal adenoma. Because of significantly increased morbidity and mortality in both the mother and fetus when hypercortisolism is present, it is imperative that it be treated when recognized. This treatment can ...
Khoury Khalil - - 2009
CONTEXT: Mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene often cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). In this disorder an impairment of steroid synthesis leads to adrenal and gonadal insufficiencies with a particular female genital phenotype in both human karyotypes. Pregnancy in LCAH has not been yet reported. OBJECTIVE: ...
Sharma Jai Bhagwan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To observe the maternal and perinatal outcome in pituitary tumor (macro- and micro-adenoma) during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a total of 19 cases of pituitary tumor group 1 (10 macroadenoma), and group 2 (9 microadenoma), during pregnancy over last 3 years in our unit were evaluated for ...
Chui Michael Herman - - 2009
Transient pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome (CS) is extremely rare, with only several cases reported in the literature. Ectopic LH/hCG-receptors (LHCGR) in the adrenal gland have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. We report the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of a patient with pregnancy-induced CS. A ...
Okafor U V - - 2009
A middle aged primigravida was managed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria for a pituitary macroadenoma. She was admitted at 33 weeks gestational age following a history of blurred vision and generalized headache, worse on bending down. After neurological consultation and investigations, a diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma ...
Kedzia Andrzej - - 2009
The aim of this work was evaluation of expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a receptor in somatotrops and in neuronal cells of brain tissue in the process of human fetal ontogenesis. Relations were also looked for between GHRH and SS in the pituitary and in the CNS neurones of the studied ...
Okafor Uv - - 2009
A middle aged primigravida was managed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria for a pituitary macroadenoma. She was admitted at 33 weeks gestational age following a history of blurred vision and generalized headache, worse on bending down. After neurological consultation and investigations, a diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma ...
Russell John A - - 2008
In late pregnancy, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is less responsive to a range of psychological and physical stressors as a result of reduced central drive to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Most stressors activate the brain stem noradrenergic system, which innervates the majority of networks ...
Zelena Dóra - - 2009
Anomalies in hormonal and neurotransmitter status during perinatal period can lead to lifespan alterations in the central nervous system. Vasopressin is present early in the brain and has various mitogenic, metabolic and physiological actions, e.g. in water homeostasis or in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore we examine ...
Kakuta Takatoshi - - 2008
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the common and important abnormalities of mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients. In this study we investigated the relationship between the weight of individual parathyroid glands (PTG) and their secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Sixty-four PTGs in 16 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy (PTx) at our hospital were ...
Zubair Mohamad - - 2008
The nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 is essential for development of the adrenal cortex and the gonads, which derive from a common adrenogonadal primordium. The adrenal cortex subsequently forms morphologically distinct compartments: the inner (fetal) and outer (definitive or adult) zones. Despite considerable effort, the mechanisms that mediate the differential development of ...
Gaston-Massuet Carles C Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, - - 2008
Hesx1 has been shown to be essential for normal pituitary development. The homeobox gene Six3 is expressed in the developing pituitary gland during mouse development but its function in this tissue has been precluded by the fact that in the Six3-deficient embryos the pituitary gland is not induced. To gain ...
Fowden A L - - 2008
Delivery of viable young requires co-ordination of fetal maturation with the onset of labour at term. In turn, this depends on a cascade of fetal and maternal endocrine events. The sequence of these events is broadly similar in most mammals but there are differences in placental hormone synthesis and in ...
Ghezzi Angelo - - 2008
Complex neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the immune response can be recognized in all autoimmune diseases. Such mechanisms develop through endocrine loops and feedback processes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis and the hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal gland axis. Females are not only more susceptible to autoimmune diseases, but are also more exposed to relevant variations ...
Geller David S - - 2008
Primary aldosteronism is a leading cause of secondary hypertension (HTN), but the mechanisms underlying the characteristic renin-independent secretion of aldosterone remain unknown in most patients. We report a new familial form of aldosteronism in a father and two daughters. All were diagnosed with severe HTN refractory to medical treatment by ...
Caturegli Patrizio - - 2008
Pituitary autoimmunity encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from histologically proven forms of lymphocytic hypophysitis to the presence of pituitary antibodies in apparently healthy subjects. Hypophysitis is a rare but increasingly recognized disorder that typically presents as a mass in the sella turcica. It mimics clinically and radiologically other non-functioning ...
Gersting Jason - - 2008
Maturation of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is critical for the timely somatic development of the fetus and readiness for birth. Recently, we proposed that prostaglandin generation within the fetal central nervous system is critical for the modulation of hypotension-induced fetal ACTH secretion. The present study was designed to test the ...
Katsantonis John C - - 2008
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a progressively evolving multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology. Beyond skin, several other organs can also be affected with a severity of involvement that is often heterogeneous. We describe a 53-year-old female patient who was admitted urgently to the hospital almost collapsed, because of numerous bleeding deep ...
Hagenfeldt K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Low pregnancy rate has been reported in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and little information on pregnancy and children is known. METHODS: In a Swedish study, 62 adult women with CAH, aged 18-63 years, and 62 age-matched controls were followed-up. Medical records, including those concerning pregnancies and deliveries, ...
Murray P G - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The presence of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (EPP) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with hypopituitarism with one or more hormone deficiencies. We aimed to identify risk factors for having multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) compared to isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) in patients with an EPP. ...
Holt Richard I G - - 2008
Hyperprolactinaemia is the commonest endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and can lead to both short-term sexual dysfunction and galactorrhoea, and long-term loss of bone mineral density. Prolactin is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland under the influence of dopamine, which exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion. Physiological ...
Lau S L - - 2008
Numerous case reports of pregnancy in acromegaly exist, however detailed descriptions of changes in placental and pituitary GH and IGF-I throughout gestation are rare. A 19-yr-old female presented to this institution with signs and symptoms of a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Following transphenoidal hypophysectomy, she had 3 unplanned pregnancies, despite ongoing ...
Buhimschi Catalin S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Fetal adaptation to stress is regulated in part by the pituitary-adrenocortical system. The stress hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol have opposing effects: cortisol suppresses while DHEAS enhances immune functions. We sought to estimate the impact of intraamniotic inflammation on fetal adrenal gland volume and cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio (fetal ...
Grattan David R - - 2008
During pregnancy, neuroendocrine control of prolactin secretion is markedly altered to allow a state of hyperprolactinaemia to develop. Prolactin secretion is normally tightly regulated by a short-loop negative-feedback mechanism, whereby prolactin stimulates activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones to increase dopamine secretion into the pituitary portal blood. Dopamine inhibits prolactin ...
Wang Hui - - 2008
AIM: Fetal adrenal, which synthesizes steroid hormones, is critical to fetal growth and development. Our recent research showed that some xenobiotics could interfere with steroidogenesis and induce intrauterine growth retardation in rats. The study on the characteristics of biotransformation enzymes in fetal adrenals still seems to be important with respect ...
Refaat Marwan M - - 2008
Neuroblastomas are the fourth most common malignancy of childhood and account for most adrenal tumors in children. However, they are rarely reported in adults. We present herein an extremely rare case of adrenal neuroblastoma occurring in a 25-year-old woman during her first trimester of pregnancy. She had a spontaneous abortion ...
Ebner F H - - 2008
A 31 year old woman in her second pregnancy presented in the 31st (+4) week of gestation with progressive visual impairment of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a tuberculum sellae meningioma that was displaced upward by a markedly enlarged pituitary gland. Neuro-ophthalmological follow-up examinations showed a progressive ...
El-Kasti M M - - 2008
The elevation in baseline circulating growth hormone (GH) that occurs in pregnant rats is thought to arise from increased pituitary GH secretion, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Distribution, Fourier and algorithmic analyses confirmed that the pregnancy-induced increase in circulating GH in 3-week pregnant rats was due to a 13-fold ...
Rumball, Christopher William Henry
Events around conception such as maternal undernutrition and twinning may have effects on offspring physiology and disease risk in adulthood. Periconceptional undernutrition alters offspring physiology and adult pathology without affecting birth size, while twinning affects birth size and physiology but with inconsistent effects on adult pathology. We investigated the effects ...
Bachelot Anne - - 2008
During childhood, the main aims of the medical treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase are to prevent salt loss and virilization and to attain normal stature and normal puberty. As such, there is a narrow therapeutic window through which the intended results can be achieved. In adulthood, ...
Nguyen Ann D - - 2008
The synthesis and secretion of large quantities of the adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfoconjugate DHEA sulfate (DS), is a phenomenon that appears limited to humans and some nonhuman primates. Both hydroxylase and lyase activities of the enzyme 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) are necessary for DHEA production and are ...
Homar Vesna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The synthetic corticosteroid methylprednisolone is used for the treatment of acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease, also in pregnancy. Its use is considered to be less harmful than the effect of active disease on the fetus. Adrenal suppression in a fetus due to administration of methylprednisolone has hitherto been rarely ...
Kil Lee Sang - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Several reports have suggested that flat colorectal adenomas might exhibit a higher potential for malignancy compared to polypoid adenomas. Although the clinical importance of the shape of polyps is stressed, the controversy surrounding the malignant potential of flat adenomas continues. The aim of this study was to compare the ...
Mohaupt Markus G - - 2008
Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases. Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors. Arterial hypertension caused by volume overload is ...
Shi Lijun - - 2008
The hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis by secreting arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in response to a variety of signals, including osmotic and nonosmotic stimuli. It is well established that central cholinergic mechanisms are critical in the regulation of cardiovascular responses ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2007
Kisspeptins, including metastin, are encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and play an important role in regulating the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system via G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54, also called KiSS-1R). Normally, metastin (also called Kp-54) levels are quite low, except during pregnancy, when levels increase 1000-fold over those found ...
Rumball C W H - - 2008
The relationships between reduced size at birth, increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and increased risk of disease in adulthood are well described in singletons but are much less clear in twins. This may be because the physiological processes underlying reduced size at birth are different in singletons and ...
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