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Dourey Antoine - - 2010
The objectives were to investigate the relationships between endometrial cytology (EC) and interval from calving to first ovulation, and pregnancy in dairy cows, and that between uterine fluid and EC. On day 25 postpartum, 39 dairy cows were grouped based on EC, as having low (⩽8%) or high (>8%) polymorphonuclear ...
Hata T - - 2011
Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of the placenta during pregnancy. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes the morphology, anatomy, location, implantation, anomaly, size, and color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment of the placenta. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of ...
Bracken H - - 2011
To test the feasibility and efficacy of an approach that foregoes the routine use of ultrasound for the determination of eligibility for medical termination of pregnancy. Prospective trial. Ten termination of pregnancy clinics in the USA. A total of 4484 women seeking termination of pregnancy with mifepristone-misoprostol. Women provided estimates ...
Ishimoto Hitoshi - - 2011
Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is ...
Pundir Jyotsna - - 2010
Approximately 15% of couples are affected with subfertility, of which up to 20% remain unexplained. Uterine cavity abnormalities can be a contributing cause of subfertility and recurrent implantation failure. Uterine cavity assessment has been suggested as a routine investigation in the evaluation of subfertile women. Traditionally, hysterosalpingography has been the ...
Sakai Satoko - - 2011
Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a recently recognized endocrine disorder characterized by low peak GH levels during provocative tests. The AGHD has a negative impact on bone mineral density, skeletal muscle strength, physical capacity and psychosocial well-being. Furthermore, the girls with GHD have delayed pubertal development, and in adulthood ...
O'Shaughnessy Peter J PJ College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Veterinary Research Facility, Bearsden Road, Glasgow, UK. - - 2011
The testes are essential endocrine regulators of fetal masculinization and male development and are, themselves, subject to hormonal regulation during gestation. This review focuses, primarily, on this latter control of testicular function. Data available suggest that, in most mammalian species, the testis goes through a period of independent function before ...
Collado Ferrer María - - 2010
A 17-year-old-female at 39 weeks gestation, presented with pelvic pain, proteinuria and a decrease in fetal heart rate. Timely caesarean section was performed. The postoperative course was complicated by acute renal failure, acute pancreatitis, acute liver failure, anemia, thrombocytopenia, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), prolonged coagulopathy, hyperbilirubinemia, ecclampsia, and psychosis. ...
Kaneshiro Bliss - - 2011
Medical abortion studies have traditionally relied on ultrasound to confirm gestational age, intrauterine location and abortion completion. However, the routine dependence on ultrasound can limit access to safe services for women living in low resource settings that are often most in need of safe abortion care. This review discusses the ...
Kulier Regina - - 2011
The use of ultrasound (US) is common in some settings before an abortion procedure. However, its positive effect on the safety or efficacy (ability to complete abortion) of the procedure has not been established. Our aim was to determine whether the use of pre-procedure US improves safety and/or efficacy of ...
Brunton Paula J - - 2011
In rats, late pregnancy is associated with suppressed hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a variety of stressful stimuli. The result is reduced corticosterone secretion following stress, which is considered to give some protection to the fetuses from adverse glucocorticoid programming and limits the catabolic effect of corticosterone, hence minimizing maternal ...
Caron Philippe - - 2010
CONTEXT: Few data are available on pregnancy outcomes in women with acromegaly. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective multicenter study. PATIENTS: The study included 46 women with GH-secreting pituitary microadenomas (n = 7) or macroadenomas (n = 39). Their mean age was 31.7 yr (±4.5 yr). Incomplete transsphenoidal surgical resection ...
Fisher Rebecca E - - 2010
A growing number of studies indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal development and neonatal health. In this study, late gestating sheep (day 135) were challenged systemically with saline (0.9%) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (400 ng/kg x 3 consecutive days, or 1.2 microg/kg x 1 ...
Liang Gai - - 2011
Prenatal ethanol exposure has been well documented to be one of the etiological factors responsible for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previous studies have shown that chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy elevated the basic level of corticosterone in fetus. However, the potential mechanisms behind them are still unclear. The aim of ...
Kalantaridou S N - - 2010
The stress system has suppressive effects on female and male reproductive function. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of stress, has been identified in the female and male reproductive system. Reproductive CRH participates in various reproductive functions that have an inflammatory component, where it serves as an autocrine and paracrine ...
Krull Ina - - 2010
Pituitary apoplexy in pregnancy is rare. Its clinical features may range from unspecific complaints to panhypopituitarism resulting even in coma and death. Therefore, alertness to signs and symptoms of acute loss of pituitary function in pregnancy is mandatory. We report a woman in her 7th week of her first gestation ...
Pollack Rachel Pessah - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) diagnosed and treated surgically during the third trimester of pregnancy and resulting in delivery of a healthy baby boy. METHODS: We present a detailed case report, and we review and evaluate the English-language literature on CS during pregnancy. RESULTS: ...
Sarathi Vijaya - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on pheochromocytoma in pregnancy (PIP) published during the 11-year period 1998 through 2008. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE data sources from 1998 through 2008 using the search terms "pheochromocytoma" and "pregnancy" and reviewed case reports of PIP published in English. RESULTS: We identified 54 case reports ...
Jansson Caroline - - 2010
The aim was to describe midwives' and nurses' experiences when women are diagnosed with a missed miscarriage during a routine ultrasound scan in pregnancy weeks 18-20. A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and 13 semi-structured interviews were used for data collection from these three domains: midwives at an ...
Bidet Maud M Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, - - 2010
In contrast to subfertility often reported in women suffering from the classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, fertility in nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) has been rarely studied. Our objective was to evaluate fertility in NC-CAH women. We studied 190 NC-CAH women (161 probands + 29 first ...
Lunghi L - - 2010
For many years glucocorticoids have been used world-wide in pregnant women for treatment of a variety of medical disorders, from bronchial asthma to systemic lupus erythematosous, to renal transplant. More recently their administration has been successfully addressed to the prevention of congenital fetal diseases. In some of these, such as ...
Karaca Z - - 2010
Major hormonal changes emerge during pregnancy. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs with altered anatomy and physiology. The pituitary gland is enlarged as a result of lactotroph hyperplasia. Due to physiological changes in the pituitary and target hormone levels, binding globulins, and placental hormones, hormonal evaluation ...
Braun Thorsten - - 2009
Fetal exposure to elevated levels of bioactive glucocorticoids early in gestation, as in suspected cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, may result in adverse neurological events. Fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal development and function may be involved. We investigated immediate and long-term effects of maternal dexamethasone (DEX) administration early in pregnancy on fetal growth ...
Buss Claudia - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intraindividual changes in cortisol responsiveness over pregnancy and the length of human gestation. Pregnancy-related changes in the cortisol awakening response (CAR), which is a measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, were assessed prospectively in 101 pregnant women at 16.8 +/- ...
Brunton Paula J - - 2009
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine stress response system. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) play a key role in coordinating responses of this system to stressors. The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), mimicking infection, robustly activates these CRH neurons via a noradrenergic input arising from ...
Rask E - - 2009
Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is rare, and rather than being of pituitary origin most patients exhibit ACTH-independent adrenal hypercortisolism. In some cases the syndrome has spontaneously resolved post partum, suggesting the presence of a pregnancy-associated stimulatory factor(s). We describe a case with aberrant adrenal LH/hCG receptors in a large adrenal ...
Connor Kristin L - - 2009
In sheep, maternal periconceptional undernutrition precociously activates fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in a high proportion of animals, resulting in preterm birth. We investigated whether the effects of periconceptional undernutrition were mediated through genes encoding enzymes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis and in placental production and metabolism of steroids and prostaglandins. Singleton-bearing ewes ...
Terhune Kyla P - - 2009
Pregnancy and Cushing's syndrome rarely coexist. When they do, it is generally the result of the presence of an adrenal adenoma. Because of significantly increased morbidity and mortality in both the mother and fetus when hypercortisolism is present, it is imperative that it be treated when recognized. This treatment can ...
Khoury Khalil - - 2009
CONTEXT: Mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene often cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). In this disorder an impairment of steroid synthesis leads to adrenal and gonadal insufficiencies with a particular female genital phenotype in both human karyotypes. Pregnancy in LCAH has not been yet reported. OBJECTIVE: ...
Sharma Jai Bhagwan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To observe the maternal and perinatal outcome in pituitary tumor (macro- and micro-adenoma) during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a total of 19 cases of pituitary tumor group 1 (10 macroadenoma), and group 2 (9 microadenoma), during pregnancy over last 3 years in our unit were evaluated for ...
Chui Michael Herman - - 2009
Transient pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome (CS) is extremely rare, with only several cases reported in the literature. Ectopic LH/hCG-receptors (LHCGR) in the adrenal gland have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. We report the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of a patient with pregnancy-induced CS. A ...
Okafor U V - - 2009
A middle aged primigravida was managed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria for a pituitary macroadenoma. She was admitted at 33 weeks gestational age following a history of blurred vision and generalized headache, worse on bending down. After neurological consultation and investigations, a diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma ...
Kedzia Andrzej - - 2009
The aim of this work was evaluation of expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a receptor in somatotrops and in neuronal cells of brain tissue in the process of human fetal ontogenesis. Relations were also looked for between GHRH and SS in the pituitary and in the CNS neurones of the studied ...
Okafor Uv - - 2009
A middle aged primigravida was managed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria for a pituitary macroadenoma. She was admitted at 33 weeks gestational age following a history of blurred vision and generalized headache, worse on bending down. After neurological consultation and investigations, a diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma ...
Russell John A - - 2008
In late pregnancy, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is less responsive to a range of psychological and physical stressors as a result of reduced central drive to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Most stressors activate the brain stem noradrenergic system, which innervates the majority of networks ...
Zelena Dóra - - 2009
Anomalies in hormonal and neurotransmitter status during perinatal period can lead to lifespan alterations in the central nervous system. Vasopressin is present early in the brain and has various mitogenic, metabolic and physiological actions, e.g. in water homeostasis or in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore we examine ...
Kakuta Takatoshi - - 2008
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the common and important abnormalities of mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients. In this study we investigated the relationship between the weight of individual parathyroid glands (PTG) and their secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Sixty-four PTGs in 16 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy (PTx) at our hospital were ...
Zubair Mohamad - - 2008
The nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 is essential for development of the adrenal cortex and the gonads, which derive from a common adrenogonadal primordium. The adrenal cortex subsequently forms morphologically distinct compartments: the inner (fetal) and outer (definitive or adult) zones. Despite considerable effort, the mechanisms that mediate the differential development of ...
Gaston-Massuet Carles C Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, - - 2008
Hesx1 has been shown to be essential for normal pituitary development. The homeobox gene Six3 is expressed in the developing pituitary gland during mouse development but its function in this tissue has been precluded by the fact that in the Six3-deficient embryos the pituitary gland is not induced. To gain ...
Fowden A L - - 2008
Delivery of viable young requires co-ordination of fetal maturation with the onset of labour at term. In turn, this depends on a cascade of fetal and maternal endocrine events. The sequence of these events is broadly similar in most mammals but there are differences in placental hormone synthesis and in ...
Ghezzi Angelo - - 2008
Complex neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the immune response can be recognized in all autoimmune diseases. Such mechanisms develop through endocrine loops and feedback processes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis and the hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal gland axis. Females are not only more susceptible to autoimmune diseases, but are also more exposed to relevant variations ...
Geller David S - - 2008
Primary aldosteronism is a leading cause of secondary hypertension (HTN), but the mechanisms underlying the characteristic renin-independent secretion of aldosterone remain unknown in most patients. We report a new familial form of aldosteronism in a father and two daughters. All were diagnosed with severe HTN refractory to medical treatment by ...
Caturegli Patrizio - - 2008
Pituitary autoimmunity encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from histologically proven forms of lymphocytic hypophysitis to the presence of pituitary antibodies in apparently healthy subjects. Hypophysitis is a rare but increasingly recognized disorder that typically presents as a mass in the sella turcica. It mimics clinically and radiologically other non-functioning ...
Gersting Jason - - 2008
Maturation of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is critical for the timely somatic development of the fetus and readiness for birth. Recently, we proposed that prostaglandin generation within the fetal central nervous system is critical for the modulation of hypotension-induced fetal ACTH secretion. The present study was designed to test the ...
Katsantonis John C - - 2008
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a progressively evolving multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology. Beyond skin, several other organs can also be affected with a severity of involvement that is often heterogeneous. We describe a 53-year-old female patient who was admitted urgently to the hospital almost collapsed, because of numerous bleeding deep ...
Hagenfeldt K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Low pregnancy rate has been reported in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and little information on pregnancy and children is known. METHODS: In a Swedish study, 62 adult women with CAH, aged 18-63 years, and 62 age-matched controls were followed-up. Medical records, including those concerning pregnancies and deliveries, ...
Murray P G - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The presence of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (EPP) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with hypopituitarism with one or more hormone deficiencies. We aimed to identify risk factors for having multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) compared to isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) in patients with an EPP. ...
Holt Richard I G - - 2008
Hyperprolactinaemia is the commonest endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and can lead to both short-term sexual dysfunction and galactorrhoea, and long-term loss of bone mineral density. Prolactin is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland under the influence of dopamine, which exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion. Physiological ...
Lau S L - - 2008
Numerous case reports of pregnancy in acromegaly exist, however detailed descriptions of changes in placental and pituitary GH and IGF-I throughout gestation are rare. A 19-yr-old female presented to this institution with signs and symptoms of a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Following transphenoidal hypophysectomy, she had 3 unplanned pregnancies, despite ongoing ...
Buhimschi Catalin S CS Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. - - 2008
Fetal adaptation to stress is regulated in part by the pituitary-adrenocortical system. The stress hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol have opposing effects: cortisol suppresses while DHEAS enhances immune functions. We sought to estimate the impact of intraamniotic inflammation on fetal adrenal gland volume and cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio (fetal stress ...
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