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Hassouna A - - 2001
Reports on phenindione toxicity have limited its use as an oral anticoagulant. Our aim was to evaluate its risks in pregnant women. Thirty-one pregnancies in 29 women with mitral (+/-aortic) St. Jude mechanical valves were followed-up prospectively. Eighteen patients received phenindione. Eleven patients (37.9%) received in addition to phenindione 225 ...
Abramson N - - 2001
This review emphasizes pathophysiology, clinical features, assessment, and therapy for hypercoagulability. Risk factors that further increase clotting include obesity, recent surgery, pregnancy, and cancer. Clinical examples of coagulation abnormalities may occur from single or multiple abnormalities and include both inherited and acquired defects. Laboratory testing undertaken at the time of ...
- - 2001
(1) The precise risk of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy is poorly documented, particularly among women with a history of thromboembolism. (2) Anticoagulant therapy is poorly assessed in pregnant women. (3) Unfractionated heparin remains the reference for use during pregnancy, based on extensive experience and lack of teratogenicity. (4) Low ...
Arkel Y S - - 2001
The association of thrombophilia with pregnancy complications has received increasing attention. It is now apparent that thrombophilia is responsible for a large number of the serious complications of pregnancy such as venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, fetal loss, pregnancy loss, intrauterine fetal demise, and preeclampsia. The inherited thrombophilia abnormalities, factor V ...
- - 2001
(1) Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are increasingly used during pregnancy. (2) Clinical data on the use of LMWH during pregnancy are limited. They are drawn mainly from heterogeneous case series, most of which were non comparative and involved prophylaxis rather than therapy. They provide no clear conclusions as to ...
Hague W M - - 2001
For the management of acute thrombotic events in pregnancy therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) may be used, unless the shorter half-life of intravenous unfractionated heparin (UH) and predictable reversibility by protamine are important. Treatment should be continued up until delivery and into the puerperium. Pregnant women who ...
Huong D L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe a French tertiary referral center experience in the treatment of pregnancies in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Retrospective review of the data of 75 consecutive pregnancies in 47 women. RESULTS: After exclusion of induced abortions and pregnancies occurring before APS onset, the prior live birth ...
Ogueh O - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to review the outcome of pregnancy in women with thrombophilia, and investigate the possible beneficial effect of heparin therapy in these women. METHODS: We reviewed the hospital records of 126 women who were referred to the high-risk obstetrical hematology clinic between June 1996 ...
Andres R L - - 2001
Venous thromboembolism remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a thrombogenic state; therefore, clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of acute VTE. It is of paramount importance when caring for pregnant women to understand which patients are at risk for VTE and to ...
Eldor A - - 2001
Pulmonary embolism is the most common cause of maternal death during pregnancy and the puerperium in the industrialized world. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy is 0.05%-1.8%, 6 times greater than in the non-pregnant state. The risk is increased in women over 35 years and those with obesity, ...
Rowan J A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This prospective audit reports pregnancy outcomes, anticoagulation complications, and anti-Xa levels in women with mechanical heart valves who were treated with therapeutic enoxaparin plus aspirin during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Between 1997 and 1999, 11 women with mechanical heart valves were treated with enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg twice daily, and aspirin, ...
Reper P - - 2001
A 2-year-old girl admitted with third degree burns (35% TBSA) received 7 weeks poly-antibiotic therapy combined with heparin for a severe Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis with multiple metastatic abscesses (lung, skin, brain), from a suppurative thrombophlebitis of the right jugularis interna, extended to the axillary and cava superior veins. Surgical ...
Kaaja R - - 2001
We investigated the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane in pregnant women with a previous venous thromboembolic event before, during and after the use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). Twenty women were studied before starting heparin prophylaxis (before 20 weeks of gestation), during heparin prophylaxis (at 30 ...
Ochshorn Y - - 2001
Obstetric complications, such as severe pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, abruptio placentae, or stillbirth are associated with abnormally elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (betahCG). This has been attributed to placental abnormalities. Women with thrombophilias have been shown to have abnormalities of the placenta ...
Greer I A - - 2001
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is the major cause of maternal death in the UK, with recent trends showing an increase in the numbers of deaths. Underlying PTE is the problem of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). An appreciation of risk factors, particularly, thrombophilia, and signs or symptoms suggestive of thromboembolism, coupled with ...
Yamada T - - 2001
Women with antithrombin (AT) III deficiency are prone to pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism. We report 2 cases with genetically confirmed ATIII deficiency, one with a mutation in exon 3A and the other with an exon 4 deletion, in whom the pregnancies were successfully managed with prophylactic therapies for thrombosis. A 35-year-old ...
Aijaz A - - 2001
Thromboembolic disease during pregnancy has traditionally been treated with heparin. If heparin cannot be used, then treatment options remain limited. Despite the recent availability of new anticoagulation agents, data relating to their use during pregnancy is lacking. Hirudin, a relatively new anti-thrombotic agent, through animal models has been shown to ...
Mitragotri S - - 2001
PURPOSE. Heparin and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are the most commonly used anticoagulants and are administered by intravenous or subcutaneous injections. However, injections of heparin have the potential risk of bleeding complications and the requirement of close monitoring in some cases. We hypothesized that transdermal delivery of heparin may provide ...
Lee R - - 2001
Factor V Leiden is the most prevalent genetic thrombophilia in people of European descent. Since its discovery, much clinical information has been gathered regarding the distribution and prevalence of the genetic mutation, the mechanism of thrombophilia, and its association with clinical thromboembolic events. Although its association with venous thromboembolism is ...
Pineo G F - - 2001
Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which ...
Ayhan A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the fetomaternal morbidity and mortality of the pregnancies of women who conceived after cardiac valve replacement. METHODS: A consecutive series of one hundred and thirty-six pregnancies of one hundred and one patients who conceived after cardiac valve replacement were retrospectively analyzed. ...
Fausett M B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The indications for heparin use during pregnancy are expanding; however, heparin is associated with serious adverse effects including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Low-molecular-weight heparin is expensive but is associated with less frequent occurrences of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the nonpregnant population. However, the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is unknown. The ...
Eldor A - - 2001
The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy is 0.05-1.8%, six times greater than in the non-pregnant state, and pulmonary embolism remains the most common cause of maternal death. Maternal age, previous history of VTE, Caesarean section and the presence of thrombophilia, significantly increase the risk of VTE. Acquired or ...
Gammaro L - - 2001
Complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, fetal growth retardation, still-birth and fetal death are associated with an increased frequency of pro-thrombotic abnormalities. We describe a case of severe preeclampsia and multiple placental infarctions in a 28-year-old woman at 31 weeks' gestation. Despite a negative personal history for venous ...
Chan W S - - 2001
Antithrombotic therapy is required during pregnancy for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism and for the prevention of pregnancy loss in women at risk. The choice of anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy is limited to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin because the use of ...
Baxi L V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cerebral abscess in pregnancy is a rare event, with the etiology not well described. We present such a case in association with genetic thrombophilia. CASE: A 36-year-old primigravida with a prior history of bilateral popliteal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism presented in early gestation with right hemiparesis, aphasia, disseminated ...
Middeldorp S - - 2001
The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in pregnancy and during the post-partum period. The absolute risk for pregnancy-related VTE in heterozygous women with the factor V Leiden mutation is approximately 2%, but studies on this risk for homozygous women show conflicting results. In a retrospective family study, we ...
Rai R - - 2001
Activated protein C (APC) resistance, both in its congenital form, due to the factor V Leiden mutation, and in its acquired form, are important risk factors for systemic venous thrombosis. In view of the suspected thrombotic aetiology of some cases of recurrent miscarriage, the prevalence of APC resistance was determined ...
Ozsener S - - 2001
We report a patient with intracranial venous thrombosis in the third trimester of pregnancy associated with severe antithrombin-III deficiency. The evaluation of protein C, protein S and antithrombin-III levels in patients with thrombotic events during pregnancy may reveal the specific cause of the thrombotic event and thereby influence patient management
Unfried G - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Proinflammatory cytokines have been described as etiologic factors in idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. We investigated the relation between idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and polymorphisms in the gene encoding for the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, an indigenous modulator of proinflammatory immune response. DESIGN: Prospective case control study. SETTING: Academic research institution. PATIENT(S): ...
Eldor A - - 2001
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains the most common cause of maternal death during pregnancy and the puerperium. The risk is increased in women older than 35 years and those with obesity, previous VTE, operative delivery, and underlying thrombophilia. Anticoagulant therapy is indicated for short-term treatment of VTE and as thromboprophylaxis in ...
Mousa H A - - 2001
Congenital and acquired thrombophilias are the most common predisposing factors for thromboembolism, but they may also contribute to pathophysiological processes involved in recurrent pregnancy loss, fetal death, intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption, placental infarction, and pre-eclampsia. The most common thrombophilias are deficiencies of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S, ...
Hall D R - - 2001
The pregnancy outcome of 59 pregnancies in 38 women with prosthetic heart valves, managed at a tertiary referral centre from 1989-98 were reviewed. Ten women underwent valve replacement during pregnancy. The main outcome measures were major maternal complications and perinatal outcome. The maternal mortality rate for pregnancies following valve replacement ...
Harrison S J - - 2001
We report a patient who presented with a left proximal deep vein thrombosis at 25 + 5 weeks gestation. She developed a severe urticarial rash 3 weeks following initiation of therapy with Enoxaparin. The patient was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation. She was treated with subcutaneous twice-daily danaparoid ...
Bremme K - - 2001
A history of thromboembolism is associated with an increased risk of new thromboembolic events during pregnancy. Prophylaxis with heparin during pregnancy implicates long-term treatment with daily injections with either unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular mass heparin (LMMH). Prolonged treatment with heparin may result in endothelial absorption and drug accumulation. ...
Bombeli T - - 2001
There is no consensus on the dose of low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women at increased risk of thrombosis. Based upon monitoring with anti-factor Xa activity, the studies showed conflicting results suggesting either fixed dosages throughout the pregnancy or dosages adapted to the gestational age. We tested whether ...
Ueno M - - 2001
A 24-year-old woman, who had undergone an aortic valve replacement with a 21-mm St. Jude Medical mechanical aortic valve, wished to have a child. She visited our department because she was aware of the risks associated with pregnancy while undergoing anticoagulant therapy using warfarin potassium. The patient opted to undergo ...
Ruiz-Irastorza G - - 2001
Regulation of calcium homeostasis during pregnancy is complex. Clinically significant bone mass loss is infrequent; however a subset of women may develop symptomatic osteoporosis related to pregnancy. Lactation is a period of special risk for bone loss. Whatever the effect of heparin on bone loss, vertebral fractures are rare in ...
Kupferminc M J MJ The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. - - 2001
To evaluate the benefit of combined low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin and aspirin for prophylaxis in women carriers of thrombophilia who had previously suffered from severe obstetric complications. The 33 studied women had an earlier pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, intrauterine growth retardation, or intrauterine fetal death. All were subsequently ...
Yamada H - - 2001
Congenital and acquired thrombophilia are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-associated venous thrombosis and fetal loss. Two hundred eighty-nine patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion were subjected to screening examinations for the etiology of these abortions. Endocrine abnormality (28.0%), uterine abnormality (10.4%), autoimmune diseases (1.4%), antiphospholipid antibody ...
Campisi C - - 2001
This study evaluates long-term results of the treatment of peripheral lymphedemas by the microsurgical reconstructive technique of interposed vein grafts. The technique consists of the use of autologous vein grafts to reconstruct lymphatic pathways where there is a block to the lymphatic circulation of the limb, whether of congenital or ...
Simpson E L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy and the puerperium and to identify risk factors for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism. DESIGN: Cohort study and case-control study. SETTING: London, UK. POPULATION: 395,335 women with live births or pregnancies of 24 or more weeks of gestation between 1988 and 1997. ...
Ginsberg J S - - 2001
Anticoagulant therapy is indicated during pregnancy for the prevention and treatment of VTE; for the prevention and treatment of systemic embolism in patients with mechanical heart valves; and, often in combination with aspirin, for the prevention of pregnancy loss in women with APLAs or thrombophilia and previous pregnancy losses. Several ...
Meger G R - - 2001
A successful free tissue transfer of serratus anterior muscle, to provide coverage for an open ankle defect in a pregnant patient, is described. Microvascular surgery in the presence of a viable pregnancy demands considerations unique to this situation. Although rarely possible, an attempt should be made to plan surgery to ...
Saw J - - 2001
Mechanical valve thrombosis is a life-threatening event, and prevention with meticulous anticoagulation is crucial. Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state that further emphasizes the importance of adequate anticoagulation. A case of mechanical mitral valve thrombosis in a pregnant woman due to suboptimal anticoagulation is presented. Methods of anticoagulation, as ...
Laude I - - 2001
One of the frequently proposed mechanisms for pregnancy losses refers to uteroplacental thrombosis. However the contribution of classical thrombotic risk factors remains questionable and, if real, does not account for a large number of pregnancy losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of circulating procoagulant microparticles, ...
Henrich W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Postthrombotic syndrome is an important late complication after deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy. Thrombolytic agents are more efficient in preventing this condition but are rarely used in pregnant women. CASE: A 22-year-old woman at 29 weeks of gestation presented with acute iliac vein thrombosis. After application of a heparin ...
Bazzan M - - 2001
Thromboembolism is an infrequent, yet serious cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and death during pregnancy and the puerperium. Pregnancy itself increases the risk of thromboembolic complications probably owing to a combination of hypercoagulability and venous stasis due to venous dilation. Recent studies have indicated that some serious obstetric ...
Bates S M - - 2001
The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during pregnancy remain problematic. This article reviews the pathophysiology of pregnancy-related DVT and suggests diagnostic strategies, highlighting the pitfalls specific to this patient population. The treatment of DVT in pregnant patients is difficult because unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins, the ...
Nelen W L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of recurrent early pregnancy loss in the presence of elevated fasting or afterload homocysteine concentrations or homozygosity for the 677C-->T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (T/T genotype). DESIGN: Case-control studies published between January 1992 and November 1999 were identified with a MEDLINE-search. These ...
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