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von Mandach Ursula - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the osteoporotic risk of short-term low-dose heparin plus bedrest in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective case-control study, 10 pregnant women on bedrest receiving prophylactic unfractionated heparin 10,000 IU per day for 7-46 days pre-study and 28 days per-study were compared with 6 normal pregnant controls of ...
Garon Jack E - - 2003
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is used in the treatment of various thrombotic disorders. The clinical indications, pharmacology, and complications of therapy are reviewed. The indications for the need for monitoring include renal failure, obesity, pregnancy, and pediatric use. Monitoring focuses on the anti-Xa properties of LMWH. The two major ...
Chowdary Dondapati - - 2003
Mutations in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and coagulation factors II and V genes have been found at high frequencies in European and American Caucasian populations and are associated with increased risk for thrombophilia, premature coronary artery disease, and a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hispanic populations in the United States ...
Tincani A - - 2003
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) has been widely recognized as a risk factor for the recurrence of both thrombosis and pregnancy losses; however the optimal treatment of patients is debatable. The aim of this paper was to establish a consensus among experts on the treatment of APS in pregnancy. A questionnaire that ...
Drife James - - 2003
Venous thomboembolism (VTE) causes only about 2% of maternal deaths in the developing world but is a leading cause of direct maternal deaths in developed countries. Pregnancy increases the risk of VTE through venous stasis, changes in blood coagulability and damage to vessels. Early diagnosis of VTE depends crucially on ...
Kumar K S D - - 2003
Hyperhomocysteinaemia, a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss, is related either to a hereditary defect within the methionine-homocysteine pathway or it might be acquired as a result of deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate (B(9)). Because hyperhomocysteinaemia seems to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, the current study ...
Pathan Mohammed - - 2003
This review details the evidence that the risk of stroke is increased in the peripartum and postpartum period rather than the entire 9 months of pregnancy. In women with prior stroke, available evidence suggests that the excess risk of a stroke recurrence in pregnancy is approximately 1% to 2%. Although ...
Ogunyemi Dotun - - 2003
The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy with thrombophilic factors. Thirty pregnant women with VTE were compared with 30 pregnant women matched by age and race without VTE and evaluated for risk factors and thrombophilia. Statistical analysis used two-tailed Fisher's exact ...
Walker M C - - 2003
Thrombophilias, which are associated with a predisposition to thrombotic events, have been implicated in adverse obstetrical outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, severe early onset pre-eclampsia, and placental abruption. Heparin administration in pregnancy may reduce the risk of these events. The objective of this review was to assess the ...
Cleary-Goldman Jane - - 2003
Although recurrent pregnancy loss is rare, it is a major health problem. Fewer than 50% of cases have definitive causes. Thrombophilias such as factor V Leiden mutation may be responsible for a portion of the unexplained cases. In recent years, a number of studies have reached conflicting conclusions about the ...
Adachi Tomoko - - 2002
Brain embolisms in younger persons are rare but are often caused by a paradoxical embolism, the embolic entry of a venous thrombus into the systemic circulation through a right-to-left shunt. A 27-year-old pregnant woman presented with hemiplegia that had been treated with an antiplatelet agent since the occurrence of a ...
Rodger Marc A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine current Canadian practice patterns in the management of pregnant women with thrombophilia. METHODS: Physician members of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) who provide obstetrical care were invited to complete a closed-ended questionnaire in which they were presented 5 clinical scenarios involving thrombophilic pregnancies ...
- - 2002
Lovenox (enoxaparin sodium) therapy appears to be safe and efficacious for pregnant women who are candidates for either prophylactic or therapeutic heparin. However, the use of enoxaparin and other low-molecular-weight heparins for therapeutic anticoagulation is not recommended for pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves. Additionally, enoxaparin should be used with ...
Kupferminc Michael J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between severe mid-trimester IUGR, whose causes are unknown in most cases, and maternal thrombophilias. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University. POPULATION: Twenty-six women with severe mid-trimester (22-26 weeks of gestation) IUGR ...
Srivastava Ashok K - - 2002
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the risks and outcome of oral anticoagulant use during pregnancy in women with prosthetic heart valves. Between December 1989 and November 1998, 192 females of childbearing age underwent heart valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. There were 37 pregnancies in 30 patients during follow-up. ...
Brenner Benjamin - - 2002
A large body of evidence obtained during the past 6 years suggests a significant role for inherited thrombophilia in the development of gestational vascular complications. While the majority of women with thrombophilia will have an uneventful gestation, case-control studies have demonstrated that thrombophilia is more prevalent in cohorts of women ...
Yilmazer Mehmet - - 2003
Factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 G-A mutations are independent risk factors for venous thrombosis. We studied the frequency of these mutations in 35 patients who had thromboembolic events during pregnancy and puerperium, and in 32 women who had a history of uncomplicated pregnancy, delivered either vaginally or by cesarean ...
Behrendt P - - 2002
Mechanical valve thrombosis is a life-threatening event. Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state that further emphasizes the importance of adequate anticoagulation. This is associated with a therapeutic dilemma. Continued anticoagulation with warfarin throughout the first trimester can result in fetopathic effects, while replacement of warfarin by heparin between 6 ...
Ahmed Shahid - - 2002
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy losses along with laboratory evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anticoagulation rather than immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment. Despite the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation for the prevention of recurrent thromboembolic episodes, thrombotic complications in the setting ...
Franklin R D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) including anticardiolipin and lupus anticoagulant. Therapy using heparin and aspirin has been shown to significantly improve the live birth rate. We evaluated whether other APA should be considered as a basis for treatment in women with RPL. We ...
Alonso Ana - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of inherited and acquired thrombophilia in women with unexplained abortions and intrauterine fetal death. STUDY DESIGN: We included 75 women with >/=1 unexplained fetal loss, and 75 control subjects with at least 1 healthy term infant and without ...
Bates Shannon M - - 2002
The treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant patients is challenging for several reasons. Coumarins can cause embryopathy and other adverse effects in the fetus. Although unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins, the cornerstones of initial therapy, are safe for the fetus, they can ...
Villarreal Cynthia - - 2002
During pregnancy there are hemostatic changes that result in a hypercoagulable state and can have thrombotic consequences. This condition can be aggravated in women who are carriers of congenital thrombophilic factors. This thrombotic tendency can manifest as thrombotic lesions in the placenta with compromise of utero-placental circulation, which are common ...
Adelberg Amy M - - 2002
Inherited and acquired thrombophilias have been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Over recent years our ability to detect protein and genetic abnormalities responsible for thrombotic tendency has improved. We are now left with the task of deciphering which of these thrombophilias carries an increased risk for recurrent pregnancy loss. Acquired ...
Lindhoff-Last Edelgard - - 2002
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) appears rarely in pregnant patients who are being treated with heparin. When HIT is suspected, heparin treatment should be discontinued and alternative anticoagulation should be started. The heparinoid danaparoid appears to be the drug of choice for acute treatment and prophylaxis because of its low placental permeability. ...
Kaaja R J - - 2002
We report three patients who presented with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) at gestational weeks 13-19. The diagnosis was based on spiral computer tomography of the lungs. In one of the cases, PE was submassive with signs of right ventricle overload. All of the patients were treated with low molecular weight ...
Ebina Yasuhiko - - 2002
We treated three thrombophilia-complicated pregnant women (two antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, one protein C deficiency) with low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). All three pregnancies including one twin pregnancy ended in live births without a decrease in bone mineral density. This treatment modality was effective and safe preventing thrombosis during their pregnancies.
Couto Egle - - 2002
CONTEXT: High plasmatic homocysteine levels have been associated with arterial and venous thrombosis. The C677T methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation is one of the known causes for high homocysteine levels in plasma. Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) is also associated with thrombosis and, along with other clinical complications such as recurrent ...
Farquharson Roy G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of low-dose aspirin alone versus low-dose aspirin plus low molecular weight heparin in pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriage as prophylaxis against pregnancy loss. METHODS: From a regional miscarriage clinic, 119 consecutive women with persistently positive tests for lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin immunoglobulin ...
Saad Fawaz Amin - - 2002
The present authors have studied the possible relationship between recurrent miscarriage and consanguinity in the Qatari population, where the prevalence of first cousin marriage is 47%. The maternal of three or more early pregnancy losses were compared with those of 92 non-consanguineous women from the same population and with the ...
Mahesh Balakrishnan - - 2002
All mechanical heart valves are thrombogenic and may be associated with thromboembolic complications if anticoagulation is inadequate. This risk is increased in pregnancy due to a hypercoagulable state. The ideal anticoagulation regimen in pregnant patients with prosthetic heart valves is uncertain. Oral dicoumarol anticoagulants, subcutaneous low molecular-weight heparin, subcutaneous high-dose ...
Pabinger Ingrid - - 2002
Venous thromboembolism occurs infrequently but is a leading cause of illness and death during pregnancy and the puerperium and remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In the general population the incidence of pregnancy associated VTE has been estimated to vary from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 2000 deliveries. The ...
Peris P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The etiology and pathogenesis of pregnancy associated osteoporosis is unclear. Whether pregnancy has simply been an aggravating factor or is a direct etiologic cause responsible for severe bone loss needs to be elucidated. METHODS: In order to evaluate the contribution of familial factors to pregnancy osteoporosis, we analyzed the ...
Abbate R - - 2002
Inherited thrombophilias have been suggested as a possible condition of increased susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although there is no consensus on the association between the factor V Leiden mutation and early (less than 10 weeks) pregnancy loss, the evidence suggests an association between the mutation and second-, and third-trimester ...
Blickstein D - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To examine if fetal risks associated with Warfarin anticoagulation during pregnancy may have been over-estimated at the time the drug was contraindicated during pregnancy. METHODS: Seven case series with the same therapeutic objective for Warfarin anticoagulation published after 1980 were identified. The frequencies of fetal complications were calculated and ...
Chan Wee-Shian - - 2002
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Because unrecognized and untreated pulmonary embolism (PE) can result in maternal mortality, physician vigilance for this disease should remain high. The diagnosis of both PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the pregnant patient, as in the nonpregnant ...
Eldor Amiram - - 2002
Thromboembolic disease is a rare, but important, complication of pregnancy that remains a leading non-obstetric cause of maternal death. The prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnant women is a complex area of medicine: a balance must be found between protecting the health of the mother and minimizing ...
Pabinger Ingrid - - 2002
There is strong evidence that the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether and to which extent pregnancy influences the risk for recurrent VTE in women with previous thrombosis. To investigate whether pregnancy temporarily increases the risk for recurrent thrombosis, we retrospectively evaluated ...
- - 2002
Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common clinical problem in reproduction, occurring in approximately 1% of reproductive-aged women. A definite cause is established in no more than 50% of couples, and several alleged causes of recurrent pregnancy loss are controversial. Moreover, in the field of recurrent pregnancy loss, inappropriate emphasis often ...
Levy H L - - 2002
Early diagnosis and improved treatment are leading to the potential for increased reproductive capability in homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CbetaS) deficiency, but information about reproductive outcome and risk of thromboembolism in pregnancy is limited. To provide further information, clinical and biochemical information was obtained on women with maternal homocystinuria, ...
Grandone Elvira - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To improve fetomaternal outcomes in women with obstetric complications and inherited causes of thrombophilia. DESIGN: Clinical trial. SETTING: Thrombophilic women with previous unexplained adverse outcomes. PATIENT(S): Twenty-five women with previous severe obstetric complications were treated during and after pregnancy. INTERVENTION(S): Low fixed dose of heparin or aspirin. MAIN OUTCOME ...
Al-Lawati Adil A M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To establish a uniform anticoagulation regimen for pregnant patients with mechanical heart valves taking into account the socio-economic background and to evaluate the incidence of anticoagulant related complications. METHODS: A retrospective study on 63 pregnancies in 21 women with mechanical heart valves was evaluated. These pregnancies were divided into ...
Greer Ian A - - 2002
Thromboembolic complications are leading causes of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. To reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and improve outcomes, a wider understanding of the risk factors involved and better identification of women at risk of thrombosis are required. Optimal management of thromboembolic disease, ...
Bates Shannon M - - 2002
During pregnancy, physiologic and anatomic changes can complicate the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as the management of patients with a high risk of or established VTE. As in nonpregnant subjects, clinical diagnosis of VTE by itself is unreliable and accurate objective testing is essential. Few diagnostic studies ...
Bloomenthal Dena - - 2002
Factor V Leiden is a common genetic mutation that predisposes its carriers to venous thromboembolism. When combined with the hypercoagulable state that is characteristic of pregnancy, there is an increased risk of severe and recurrent pregnancy complications. Factor V Leiden is the most common cause of primary and recurrent venous ...
Malcolm Janine C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes arising from the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of the charts of all women treated for acute VTE in pregnancy at ...
Soomro R M - - 2002
Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The rate of occurrence of this complication has not been reported from this area previously. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy and puerperium by using objective diagnostic methods. From January 1986 ...
Barrington Suzelle - - 2002
The effect of C source on N losses by volatilization during composting was measured using four bulking agents, each at three humidity levels and composted in duplicate under passive and active aeration. The bulking agents were pine shavings alone and corrected with soybean, chopped grass hay alone and corrected with ...
Katz Vern L - - 2002
Factor V Leiden with activated protein C resistance is found in up to 5% of the population. It is associated with current adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal floor infarction is a lesion in which fibrin is deposited throughout the placenta, leading to necrosis of villi, and (50% of the time) fetal ...
O'Shea Susan I - - 2002
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are parenteral anticoagulants that are widely used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. These agents possess several advantages compared to standard heparin, including a more predictable anticoagulant response, better bioavailability allowing for subcutaneous therapy, and a longer half-life. Laboratory monitoring of the LMWHs ...
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